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EDITED,     R  E  V  I  S  E  D     A  N  D     S  V  l>  1'  L  E  M  E  N  T  E  D     B  Y 



Foreword  by  Cardinal  Basil  Hume,  O.S.B. 
Archbishop  of  Westminster 


General  Index  in   Volume  IV 


Westminster,  Maryland 






Christian  Classics,  Inc. 

P.O.  BOX  30 
WESTMINSTER,  MD.  21 157 

All  rights  reserved.  No  part  of  this 

publication  may  be  reproduced  in  any 

form  or  by  any  means  without 

previous  written  permission. 

Lives  of  the  Saints  originally  published  1756-9. 

Revised  edition  by  Herbert  J.  Thurston,  S.  J., 

published  1926-38.  Copyright  by  Burns  &  Oates. 

Second  Edition,  by  Herbert  J.  Thurston,  S.  J.  and 

Donald  Attwater,  published    1956. 

Copyright    ©    Burns    &    Oates  1956. 

Reprinted  1981 

Foreword  copyright  ©  Burns  &  Oates  1981 

ISBN:  Cloth  0  87061  0457,  Paperback  0  87061  1372 




We  live  in  a  sophisticated,  if  not  cynical,  age  in  which  the  former  "certainties" 
of  faith,  which  brought  comfort  to  so  many,  are  now  widely  questioned.  But 
surely  a  living  faith  can  have  no  absolute  certainties?  Which  of  us  has  matured 
in  religious  belief  without  having  experienced  any  intellectual  difficulty?  Faith, 
by  very  definition,  grows  through  a  constant,  indeed  daily,  process,  whereby 
doubts,  old  and  new,  must  ever  be  conquered  afresh. 

This  growth  in  faith  can  be  helped  by  stories  and  legends  of  the  saints.  Some 
of  these  members  of  the  Church  in  glory  who  were  commemorated  liturgically 
in  former  days  are  rather  forgotten  today.  Yet  they  may  have  much  to  teach  us. 
Furthermore,  the  lives  of  good  men  and  women  can  be,  and  often  are,  an 
inspiration  to  us.  Happily,  their  memory  is  recorded  in  this,  one  of  the  great 
classic  works  on  Christian  sainthood. 

The  heroic  men  and  women  described  and  speculated  upon  in  these  pages 
have  bequeathed  to  us  an  inspiration  that  transcends  ordinary  history.  It  is  not 
surprising  then,  that  there  should  be  a  demand  today  for  yet  another  edition  of 
Butler's  Lives.  For  this  present  generation  seems  to  be  seeking  not  the  letter 
which  kills,  but  the  spirit  which  awakens. 

A  fresh  edition  of  this  work  then,  is  welcome,  not  least  because  of  the 
curiously  attractive  echoes  of  its  original  eighteenth-century  style.  The  modern 
re-editing,  moreover,  tends  to  belie  Fr  Thurston's  modest  comment  that  "This 
book  is  not  intended  for  scholars".  I  hope  that  many  people  will  find 
inspiration  in  reading  it.  _  ' 

Archbishop  of  Westminster 


IT  is  now  over  a  quarter  of  a  century  since  Father  Herbert  Thurston,  S.J.,  was 
asked  to  undertake  a  drastic  revision  and  bringing  up-to-date  of  Alban  Butler's 
Lives  of  the  Saints.  The  first,  January,  volume  was  published  in  1926. 
Beginning  with  the  second,  February,  volume  (1930),  Father  Thurston  invoked 
the  help  of  Miss  Norah  Leeson  in  the  revision  or  rewriting  of  many  of  the  lives  that 
appear  in  Butler  and  the  compilation  of  others  ;  and  Miss  Leeson  continued  to 
contribute  in  this  way  down  to  the  end  of  the  June  volume,  as  is  testified  by  Father 
Thurston's  repeated  grateful  acknowledgements  to  her  in  the  pertinent  prefaces 
(notably  June,  page  viii).  Beginning  with  the  July  volume  (1932),  the  present 
editor  was  entrusted  with  the  preparation  of  practically  the  whole  of  the  text  and 
the  writing  of  additions  thereto,  down  to  the  end  of  the  series  in  1938.  Throughout 
the  whole  work  Father  Thurston  himself  always  wrote  the  bibliographical  and 
other  notes  at  the  end  of  each  "  life  ".  The  general  principles  upon  which  the 
work  was  done  are  set  out  in  Father  Thurston's  own  words  in  the  introduction 
which  follows. 

The  issuing  of  this  second  edition  of  the  "  revised  Butler  "  in  four  volumes  has  in- 
volved a  certain  abbreviation  of  the  1926-38  text  (one  tenth  was  the  proportion  aimed 
at).  For  example,  while  shortened  forms  of  Butler's  daily  exhortations  had  gener- 
ally been  retained,  it  has  now  been  found  necessary  to  discard  them  entirely.  While 
recognizing  and  welcoming  the  solid,  unfanciful,  scriptural  character  of  Butler's 
homilies — so  characteristic  of  eighteenth-century  English  Catholicism — it  must  also 
be  recognized  that  they  were  often  excessively  repetitious  and  monotonous.  Father 
Thurston  points  out  that  "  Butler's  main  purpose  in  writing  was  undoubtedly  the 
spiritual  profit  of  his  readers  ".  And  it  can  hardly  be  denied  that  in  our  day  and 
generation  that  purpose  can  be  better  served  by  letting  the  lives  of  the  saints  speak 
for  themselves  than  by  direct  exhortation  and  "  moralizing  "  about  them.  More- 
over, some  idea  of  the  true  life  of  a  saint,  such  as  we,  and  Butler,  tried  to  give, 
must  be  more  conducive  to  true  devotion  than  a  false  or  doubtful  idea  :  as  Abbot 
Fernand  Cabrol  once  wrote,  "  The  exact  knowledge  of  facts  is  of  the  greatest 
assistance  to  true  piety  ".  For  a  Lives  of  the  Saints  in  English  as  wholly  appropri- 
ate to  our  time  as  Butler's  was  to  his,  the  work  must  be  done  again  from  the  begin- 
ning :  and  for  that  we  have  to  await  the  coming  of  another  Alban  Butler,  another 
Herbert  Thurston.  It  has  also  been  necessary  to  omit,  especially  in  certain  months, 
some  of  the  brief  notices  of  the  very  obscure  or  uncertainly-venerated  saints  : 
Father  Thurston  himself  expressed  the  desirability  of  this  in  his  preface  to  the 
December  volume.  On  the  other  hand,  room  has  been  made  for  the  very  con- 
siderable amount  of  fresh  material  provided  by  the  beatifications  and  canonizations 
of  the  past  fifteen  years,  and  also  for  some  earlier  holy  ones  who  were  not  included 
in  the  first  edition.  Butler's  original  work  contained  some  1,486  separate  entries  ; 
the  present  version  contains  about  2,565. 


The  excisions  from  the  1926-38  text  vary  in  length  from  one  word  to  a 
page  or  more.  But  need  for  compression,  or  the  addition  of  fresh  or  different 
matter,  has  also  sometimes  involved  the  rewriting  of  passages,  or  even  of  a  whole 
"  life  ".*  I  have  especially  welcomed  the  opportunity  to  revise  a  great  deal  in 
July-December  which  I  knew  to  be  unsatisfactory,  and  to  bring  it  at  any  rate  more 
into  line  with  Father  Thurston's  commentaries  and  with  the  text  of  January- June, 
written  either  by  Father  Thurston  himself  or  more  directly  under  his  eye  than  were 
my  contributions.  Apart  from  verbal  modifications,  abbreviations  and  the  like, 
the  bibliographical  and  critical  notes  have  been  left  as  Father  Thurston  wrote  them  ; 
but  some  attempt  has  been  made  to  bring  the  bibliographies  up-to-date  (May  1954). 
It  was  not  possible  to  go  through  all  the  learned  periodicals  in  various  languages 
that  have  appeared  since  1925,  but  due  attention  has  been  paid  to  the  Analecta 
Bollandiana  ;  and  I  have  added  what  is,  I  hope,  a  representative  selection  of 
new  biographies  and  similar  works.  Among  these  last  is  included  a  number 
of  "  popular  lives  "  for  the  general  reader.  Some  of  Father  Thurston's  critical 
notes  have  been  incorporated  at  the  end  of  the  pertinent  text  for  the  convenience 
of  the  more  casual  reader. 

In  this  edition  a  uniform  order  of  presentation  has  been  adopted.  With  a  few 
special  exceptions  {e.g.  March  1,  June  9,  July  9,  September  26)  the  first  saint  (or 
feast)  dealt  with  each  day  is  that  which  is  commemorated  in  the  general  calendar 
of  the  Western  church,  when  there  is  one.  The  order  of  the  rest  is  chronological. 
The  choice  of  day  of  the  month  on  which  a  saint  should  be  entered  is  a  far  less 
simple  matter.  In  general  I  have  followed  Father  Thurston's  arrangement  (which 
has  involved  not  a  few  alterations  of  date)  :  viz.  to  adopt  in  the  case  of  canonized 
saints  the  indications  of  the  1930  {secunda  post  typicam)  edition  of  the  Martyr ologium 
Romanum,  and  in  the  case  of  saints  and  beati  not  included  in  the  martyrology,  to 
deal  with  them,  so  far  as  was  ascertainable,  on  the  days  appointed  locally  for  their 
liturgical  observance.  This  last  rule,  however,  does  not  always  provide  any 
satisfactory  guidance,  for  the  same  saint  may  be  commemorated  in  half  a  dozen 
different  dioceses  on  half  a  dozen  different  days.  But  for  those  who  belong  to 
religious  orders  a  feast-day  is  usually  assigned  in  the  order  itself,  and  this  I  have 
done  my  best  to  adhere  to.  When  for  one  reason  or  another  {e.g.  3.  very  recently 
beatified  subject)  I  have  been  unable  to  ascertain  the  feast-day,  that  person  is 
entered  under  the  day  of  his  death.  While  this  work  was  in  progress,  the  Friars 
Minor  adopted  a  new  calendar,  too  late  for  me  to  make  more  than  some  of  the 
consequent  changes  of  date.  In  the  title  of  each  entry  the  saint  is  generally 
described  according  to  the  categories  of  Western  liturgical  usage,  except  that  the 
description  "  confessor  "  is  omitted  throughout :  any  male  saint  not  a  martyr  is  a 
confessor.  Occasionally  the  description  does  not  agree  with  the  office  at  present 
in  use  :  e.g.  on  July  29,  Felix  "  II  "  is  referred  to  as  "  pope  and  martyr  "  by  the 
Roman  Martyrology  and  as  "  martyr  "  in  the  collects  of  the  Missal  and  Breviary  ; 
but  he  was  neither  a  true  pope  nor  a  martyr. 

As  it  has  now  been  my  privilege  to  have  a  considerable  part  in  the  revision  of 
Alban  Butler's  Lives  of  the  Saints  it  is  not  out  of  place  perhaps  for  me  here  to 
express  my  complete  submission  to  Father  Thurston's  judgement  as  to  how  and  in 
what  spirit  that  work  should  be  done,  and  our  full  agreement  in  admiration  of 

#  In  doing  which  I  have  ever  had  in  mind  Alban  Butler's  own  warning  in  his  Introductory 
Discourse  :  "  Authors  who  polish  the  style,  or  abridge  the  histories  of  others,  are  seldom 
to  be  trusted  ". 



Butler  and  his  work.  As  I  wrote  in  a  foreword  to  the  July  volume,  I  first  came  to 
the  work  with  a  good  deal  of  prejudice  against  Butler.  But  the  prejudice  was  due 
to  ignorance,  and  was  soon  dispelled.  In  common,  I  think,  with  most  people  who 
have  never  had  occasion  to  read  his  Lives  attentively,  I  had  supposed  him  to 
be  a  tiresome,  credulous  and  uncritical  writer,  an  epitome  of  those  hagiographers 
whose  object  is  apparently  at  all  costs  to  be  "  edifying ",  sometimes  in  a 
rather  cheap  and  shallow  way.  Certainly  his  manner  of  writing  is  tiresome,  but  it 
does  not  obscure  his  sound  sense  and  the  solid  traditional  teaching  of  his  exhorta- 
tions. Credulous  and  uncritical  he  is  not.  He  is  as  critical  a  hagiographer  as  the 
state  of  knowledge  and  available  materials  of  his  age  would  allow,  and  if  he  from 
time  to  time  records  as  facts  miracles  and  other  events  which  we  now,  for  one  reason 
or  another,  have  to  question  or  definitely  reject,  he  neither  attaches  undue  import- 
ance to  them  nor  seeks  to  multiply  them  :  holiness  meant  to  Butler  humility  and 
charity,  not  marvels.  In  only  one  respect  does  his  critical  faculty  seriously  fail 
him  :  he  wrill  hear  nothing  against  a  saint  and  nothing  in  favour  of  a  saint's  opponent, 
whether  heretic,  sinner  or  simply  opposed.  That  is  an  attitude  we  can  no  longer 
tolerate  :  without  wanting  to  remove  St  Jerome's  name  from  the  calendar  or  to 
canonize  Photius,  we  now  recognize  that  truth  is  better  served  by  admitting  that 
St  Jerome  gave  rein  to  a  censorious  and  hasty  tongue  and  that  Photius  was  a  man  of 
virtuous  life  and  great  learning  :  that  people  on  the  right  side  of  a  controversy  do 
not  always  behave  well  or  wisely  and  those  on  the  wrong  side  not  always  badly  or 
foolishly.      It  was  a  saint,  and  one  no  less  than  Francis  de  Sales,  who  wrote  : 

There  is  no  harm  done  to  the  saints  if  their  faults  are  shown  as  well  as  their 
virtues.  But  great  harm  is  done  to  everybody  by  those  hagiographers  who 
slur  over  the  faults,  be  it  for  the  purpose  of  honouring  the  saints  ...  or 
through  fear  of  diminishing  our  reverence  for  their  holiness.  It  is  not  as  they 
think.  These  writers  commit  a  wrong  against  the  saints  and  against  the  whole 
of  posterity  (GEuvres,  Annecy  ed.,  vol.  x,  p.  345). 

In  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  lvii  (1939),  there  appeared  a  general  review  of 
the  revised  edition  of  Butler's  Lives  from  the  pen  of  Father  Hippolyte  Delehaye, 
s.j.,  president  of  the  Bollandists.  Therein  he  enumerates  some  of  the  writers  who, 
since  the  days  of  the  Golden  Legend  of  Bd  James  of  Voragine,  applied  themselves 
to  the  task  of  adapting  the  lives  of  the  saints  to  the  ever-changing  needs  of  time  and 
place  :  "  Among  the  more  recent  and  the  better  known,  who  proceed  above  all  from 
Ribadeneyra,  may  be  named  Rosweyde,  Giry,  Morin,  Baillet,  Butler,  Godescard, 
down  to  the  deplorable  compilation  of  Mgr  Guerin,  to  whom  we  owe  the  Petits 
Bollandistes"  And  he  adds  :  "  The  palm  goes  to  Alban  Butler  .  .  .."  But  it  is 
only  fitting  that  there  should  also  be  quoted  here  Father  Delehaye's  more  lengthy 
appreciation  of  Father  Herbert  Thurston. 

Father  Thurston  is  today  unquestionably  the  savant  wTho  is  best  up  in 
hagiographical  literature,  in  all  related  matters  and  in  the  surest  critical 
methods.  His  numerous  writings  in  this  field  keep  him  always  in  touch  with 
the  understanding  public  that  takes  interest  in  this  branch  of  knowledge  ;  and 
there  was  no  one  better  qualified  than  he  to  find  the  answer  to  the  delicate 
problem  of  recasting  the  old  collection  [scil.,  Butler's  Lives]  in  such  a  way  as 
to  satisfy  piety  without  incurring  the  scorn  of  a  category  of  readers  generally 
difficult  to  please.  .  .  .  The  summary  commentary  as  he  uses  it  gives  the  new 



"  Butler  "  a  scientific  value  which  makes  this  work  of  edification  a  tool  for 
students  as  well. 

Referring  to  Father  Thurston's  writings  in  general  Father  Delehaye  says  : 

The  considerable  body  of  work  wherein  this  learned  man  exercised  his 
unusual  abilities  of  research  and  criticism  nearly  always  bears  a  relation,  direct 
or  indirect,  to  our  [scil.9  the  Bollandists']  studies  :  such  are  his  articles  on  the 
origin  of  Catholic  feasts  and  devotions  ;  and  on  those  wonderful  phenomena 
that,  rightly  or  wrongly,  are  looked  on  as  supernatural,  of  which  the  lives  of 
the  saints  are  full :  apparitions,  stigmata,  levitations — a  world  wherein  one  is 
continually  brushing  against  illusion  and  fraud,  into  which  one  may  venture 
only  with  a  reliable  and  experienced  guide.* 

Those  words  had  not  long  been  in  print  when  Herbert  Thurston  was  called  to 
his  reward,  on  November  3,  1939,  to  be  followed  eighteen  months  later  by  their 
writer,  Father  Delehaye.  There  may  suitably  be  applied  to  them  certain  words  of 
Alban  Butler  :  "  Great  men,  the  wisest,  the  most  prudent  and  judicious,  the  most 
learned  and  most  sincere,  the  most  free  from  bias  of  interest  or  passion,  the  most 
disengaged  from  the  world,  whose  very  goodness  was  a  visible  miracle  of  divine 
grace,  are  in  themselves  vouchers  of  the  truth  of  the  divine  revelation  of  the  Chris- 
tian religion.  Their  testimony  is  the  more  unexceptionable  as  they  maintained  it 
in  a  spirit  of  humility  and  charity,  and  in  opposition  to  pride  and  all  human 

I  cannot  leave  this  preface  without  expressing  my  warmest  thanks  to  Father 
Paul  Grosjean,  Bollandist,  for  his  great  kindness  in  reading  the  proofs  of  this 
second  edition.  That  he  should  have  undertaken  this  task  is  one  more  example 
of  the  wide-spiritedness  of  the  Society  of  Bollandists,  whose  learning  is  always 
at  the  service  of  the  humblest  student,  and  whose  interest  extends  to  the  most 
modest  work  in  the  field  of  hagiography  and  associated  subjects.  Whatever  errors, 
omissions  and  faults  of  judgement  this  edition  contains  are  all  mine  :  it  is  thanks 
to  Father  Grosjean  that  they  are  not  more  :  and  I  owe  to  him  a  number  of  valuable 
corrections  and  references.  It  was  thanks  to  the  work  of  the  Bollandists  that  in 
the  first  instance  Father  Thurston  was  able  to  accept  the  formidable  undertaking 
of  revising  Butler.  It  is  thanks  to  Father  Grosjean  that  I  can  let  this  further 
revision  go  before  the  public  with  considerably  less  trepidation  than  I  should  have 
felt  had  the  proofs  not  come  under  his  eye  :  the  eye,  moreover,  of  a  scholar  whose 
learning  is  particularly  exercised  upon  the  hagiological  history  of  Great  Britain 
and  Ireland. 

Donald  Attwater. 

Feast  of  St  Bede  the  Venerable, 
May  27,  1954. 

#  In  1952  Father  Joseph  Crehan,  S.J.,  published  a  memoir  of  Father  Thurston,  which 
includes  an  invaluable  bibliography  of  his  writings,  from  his  first  article  published  in  The 
Month  in  1878  down  to  his  death.  Father  Crehan  has  also  edited  in  a  single  volume  those 
of  his  articles  that  deal  with  stigmatization,  levitation,  second-sight  and  the  like,  as  manifested 
in  the  lives  of  certain  saints  and  others  :    The  Physical  Phenomena  of  Mysticism  (1952). 


[The  following  introduction  has  been  compiled  from  the  relevant  parts  of  Father  Herbert 
Thurston's  prefaces  to  the  volumes  of  the  12-volume  edition  of  the  revised  Butler's  Lives, 
especially  from  the  January  preface.  Words  in  square  brackets  are  explanatory  or  connecting 
additions  by  the  present  editor.  These  prefaces  were  written  between  1925  and  1938  ; 
and  this  must  be  borne  in  mind  when  reading,  e.g.  the  second  paragraph  below,  written  in 
October  1925.  The  number  of  canonizations,  etc.,  since  then  reinforces  Father  Thurston's 
words  :  it  includes  the  beatification  of  groups  of  191  French  martyrs  in  1926  and  136  Eng- 
lish martyrs  in  1929.] 

THIS  is  not  a  book  intended  for  scholars,  though  it  is  hoped  that  even  scholars 
may  sometimes  find  it  useful.  Its  main  object  is  to  provide  a  short,  but 
readable  and  trustworthy,  account  of  the  principal  saints  who  are  either 
venerated  liturgically  in  the  Western  church,  or  whose  names  for  one  reason  or 
another  are  generally  familiar  to  Catholics  of  English  speech.  The  work  has 
developed  out  of  a  projected  new  edition  of  the  well-known  Lives  of  the  Saints  by 
the  Rev.  Alban  Butler,  which  was  originally  published  in  London  between  1756 
and  1759.*  Upon  a  more  careful  examination  of  the  text — many  times  reprinted 
since  the  eighteenth  century,  but  always  without  adequate  revision — it  soon  became 
apparent  that  to  render  this  venerable  classic  acceptable  to  modern  readers  very 
considerable  changes  were  required,  affecting  both  its  form  and  its  substance.  Of 
these  modifications  it  is  necessary  to  give  some  brief  account. 

To  begin  with,  Alban  Butler  died  in  1773,  rather  more  than  150  years  ago. 
During  the  interval  the  Church's  roll  of  honour  has  been  enlarged  by  the  addition 
of  many  new  names.  Even  if  we  consider  only  the  period  which  has  elapsed  since 
the  death  of  Pope  Pius  IX  in  1878 — i.e.  not  quite  half  a  century — there  have  been 
in  that  time  twenty-five  canonizations  and  fifty-one  formal  and  independent)* 
beatifications,  some  of  them  involving  large  groups  of  martyrs.  But  over  and  above 
this,  we  have  a  constant  succession  of  equivalent  beatifications,  for  the  most  part 
attracting  little  public  notice,  which  take  the  form  of  what  is  called  a  confirmatio 
cultus.      This  is  a  decree  sanctioning  authoritatively  and  after  due  inquiry  the 

*  The  full  title  of  the  first  edition,  which  appeared  without  the  author's  name,  was  "  The 
Lives  of  the  Fathers,  Martyrs  and  Other  Principal  Saints  ;  compiled  from  original  monu- 
ments and  other  authentick  records  ;  illustrated  with  the  remarks  of  judicious  modern 
criticks  and  historians".  Bishop  Ward  states  that  it  was  issued  "  nominally  in  four,  really 
in  seven  octavo  volumes  "  ;  Mr  Joseph  Gillow,  on  the  other  hand,  declares  that  there  were 
five.  The  fact  seems  to  be  that  there  were  only  four  paginations,  but  that  the  more  bulky 
volumes,  some  of  more  than  1,000  pages,  were  divided  into  two  parts  by  the  binders  and  new 
title-pages  supplied.  On  Bishop  Challoner's  advice  some  part  of  the  notes,  notably  a  long 
dissertation  on  the  writings  of  St  John  Chrysostom,  was  omitted  when  the  work  was  first 
published.  These,  however,  with  other  supplementary  matter,  were  printed  from  the 
author's  manuscript  in  the  second  edition,  which  appeared  in  twelve  volumes  at  Dublin  in 
1 779-1 780,  after  Butler's  death. 

|  Each  saint  canonized  is  previously  beatified.  Only  those  beatifications  are  here 
numbered  which  have  not  so  far  been  followed  by  canonization. 


veneration  alleged  to  have  been  paid  from  time  immemorial  to  this  or  that  servant 
of  God  who  lived  before  1634,  when  the  enactments  of  Urban  VIII  regarding  the 
canonization  procedure  came  into  force.  Thus  what  is  often  called  "  the  Beati- 
fication of  the  English  Martyrs  "  [in  1886]  was  not,  strictly  speaking,  a  beatification 
at  all.  There  was  no  solemn  ceremony  in  St  Peter's,  no  papal  document  taking  the 
form  of  bull  or  brief,  but  simply  a  confirmatio  cultus,  published  in  1886  with  the 
pope's  approval,  but  emanating  from  the  Sacred  Congregation  of  Rites.  Never- 
theless, the  effect  of  the  decree  was  equivalent  to  that  of  a  formal  beatification.  It 
justifies,  subject  to  certain  restrictions,  the  public  veneration  of  any  of  the  fifty-four 
martyrs  therein  named  ;  it  allows  Mass  to  be  celebrated  in  their  honour  ;  and  it 
permits  the  faithful  to  invoke  them  individually  and  collectively  as  "  Blessed  ". 
When  it  is  remembered  that  in  this  group  are  included  such  champions  of  the  faith 
as  Cardinal  Fisher,  Sir  Thomas  More,  several  monks  of  the  London  Charterhouse, 
the  Countess  of  Salisbury  (mother  of  Cardinal  Pole),  and  Father  Edmund  Campion, 
s.j.,  not  to  speak  of  many  others,  secular  priests,  religious  and  laymen,  it  becomes 
clear  that  in  virtue  of  this  one  decree  Butler's  lists  need  to  be  supplemented  by  half 
a  dozen  new  entries,  or  possibly  more. 

[But  many  others  have  been  added  to  this  edition,  over  and  above  those 
canonized  or  beatified  since  Butler's  day.  In  the  month  of  June,  for  example,  over 
half  the  separate  entries]  are  concerned  with  saints  or  groups  of  saints  of  whom  there 
is  no  record  in  Alban  Butler's  original  work.  Of  course  such  a  computation  of 
numbers  warrants  no  inference  as  to  the  adequacy  or  inadequacy  of  the  selection 
made.  It  would  always  be  easy  to  add  a  multitude  of  other  names  borrowed  from 
the  martyrologies,  from  local  service-books  and  calendars,  or  from  the  oriental 
synaxaries.  But  no  good  purpose  would  be  served  by  attempting  completeness 
.  .  .  completeness  of  any  sort  is  a  simple  impossibility.  No  authority  save  that  of 
the  Holy  See  can  pronounce  upon  the  claims  of  the  thousands  and  thousands  of 
alleged  martyrs  or  ascetics  whose  names  are  heaped  together  in  local  martyrologies, 
synaxaries,  episcopal  or  relic  lists,  and  similar  documents,  and  the  Holy  See  very 
wisely  has  taken  the  course  of  remaining  silent,  unless  on  certain  occasions  when  it 
has  been  specially  appealed  to.  The  oriental  and  Celtic  "saints",  so  called,  would 
alone  create  a  most  formidable  problem.  In  the  "  Martyrology  of  Gorman  ",  a 
twelfth-century  compilation,  72  presumably  different  Colmans  are  mentioned,  and 
there  are  also  24  Aeds,  23  Aedans  and  21  Fintans.  Similarly  anyone  who  will 
consult  the  index  of  the  most  recent  edition  of  the  Martyr  ologium  Romanum  will  find 
that  67  saints  named  Felix  are  therein  commemorated.  Even  in  the  sixty-six  folio 
volumes  of  the  Bollandist  Acta  Sanctorum,  quotquot  toto  orbe  coluntar  vel  a  catholicis 
scriptoribus  celebrantur,  there  is  no  assumption  of  exhaustiveness.  Under  each  day 
a  long  list  is  printed  of  praetermissi  aut  in  alios  dies  rejecti,  and  the  reason  why  these 
names  are  passed  over  amounts  in  most  cases  either  to  a  doubt  whether  a  title  to 
inclusion  on  the  ground  of  cultus  has  been  made  out,  or  else  to  the  lack  of  information 
concerning  the  facts  of  their  individual  history.  At  a  period  when  the  public 
recognition  of  holiness  amounted  to  no  more  than  a  local  veneration,  sanctioned  at 
least  tacitly  by  the  bishop,  it  is  exceedingly  hard  to  decide  which  of  the  devout 
servants  of  God  who  have  had  the  epithet  "  sanctus  "  or  "  beatus  "  at  one  time  or 
other  attached  to  their  names,  are  to  be  regarded  as  invested  with  the  religious  halo 
of  an  aequipollent  canonization. 

The  principal  aim  of  such  a  revision  as  the  present  must  be  to  provide  a  brief 
account  of  the  lives  of  those  holy  people  whose  claims  to  sanctity  have  either  been 


attested  by  a  formal  pronouncement  of  the  Holy  See,  or  have  met  with  definite 
liturgical  recognition  at  an  earlier  period  in  response  to  popular  acclaim.  Unfor- 
tunately we  must  admit  that  in  not  a  few  cases  veneration  has  been  widely  paid  to 
personages  of  whose  real  history  nothing  certain  is  known,  though  the  pious 
imagination  of  hagiographers  has  often  run  riot  in  supplying  the  deficiency. 
Further,  there  are  names  included  in  the  Roman  Martryology  which  stand  only  for 
phantom  saints,  some  of  them  due  to  the  strange  blunders  of  medieval  copyists, 
others  representing  nothing  more  than  prehistoric  sagas  which  have  been  embel- 
lished and  transformed  by  a  Christian  colouring.  Where  such  stories  have  become 
familiar  and  dear  to  the  devout  believers  of  earlier  generations,  it  did  not  seem  right 
to  pass  them  by  entirely  unnoticed,  even  though  the  extravagance  of  the  fiction  is 
patent  to  all  who  read.* 

It  has  been  suggested  above  that  in  the  case  of  holy  people  held  in  honour  during 
the  first  thousand  years  of  the  Church's  history  either  for  their  virtues  or  for  their 
violent  death  in  the  cause  of  Christ,  it  is  by  no  means  easy  to  determine  which 
among  them  should  be  recognized  as  saints  and  as  entitled  to  the  prefix  often 
attached  to  their  names  in  historical  records.  In  none  of  these  cases  can  we  point 
to  a  papal  bull  of  canonization  or  to  any  formal  acceptance  by  the  Holy  See  other 
than  inclusion  in  the  Missal  or  a  notice  in  the  official  martyrology  read  at  Prime. 
So  far  as  such  servants  of  God  have  a  claim  to  the  honour  of  saintship,  they  owe  the 
privilege  to  what  is  called  an  "  aequipollent  "  (i.e.  virtual)  canonization.  It  is  a 
sort  of  courtesy  title  in  fact.  In  view  of  the  confused  ideas  entertained  by  many 
people  upon  this  subject,  I  have  ventured,  in  Appendix  II  of  the  [last]  volume,  to 
reproduce  with  some  additions  a  brief  statement  on  the  matter  which  I  had  occasion 
to  wrrite  in  another  connection  and  which  appeared  in  The  Tablet  of  January  15, 
1938.  Appendix  I  consists  of  some  few  biographical  notes  concerning  Alban 
Butler  himself.  The  memoir  published  in  1799  by  his  nephew,  Mr  Charles  Butler, 
seemed  to  me  too  verbose  and  characteristic  of  the  tone  of  the  eighteenth  century 
to  bear  reprinting  entire,  but  I  have  borrowed  from  it  a  few  passages  and  excerpts 
from  letters  which  preserved  matter  of  biographical  interest. 

More  serious,  however,  than  the  comparatively  simple  task  of  supplying  the 
lacunae  of  a  book  compiled  nearly  two  centuries  ago  is  the  difficulty  caused  by  the 
peculiarities  of  Butler's  style.  Charles  Butler,  in  a  memoir  prefixed  to  an  edition 
of  the  Lives  brought  out  in  1798,  seems  to  have  formed  an  estimate  of  his  uncle's 
literary  gifts  which  most  modern  readers  will  find  it  difficult  to  endorse.  He  says, 
for  example  : 

Our  Author's  style  is  peculiar  to  himself ;  it  partakes  more  of  the  style  of 
the  writers  of  the  last  century  than  of  the  style  of  the  present  age.  It  possesses 
great  merits,  but  sometimes  is  negligent  and  loose.  Mr  Gibbon  mentioned  it 
to  the  editor  [i.e.  Charles  Butler]  in  warm  terms  of  commendation  ;  and  was 
astonished  when  he  heard  how  much  of  Our  Author's  life  had  been  spent 
abroad.  Speaking  of  Our  Author's  Lives  of  the  Saints,  he  calls  it  a  "  work  of 
merit — the  sense  and  learning  belong  to  the  author,  his  prejudices  are  those 

*  [Even  exploded  legends  have  their  spiritual,  and  other,  significance  :  one  reader  has 
pointed  out  what  an  excellent  lesson  in  recollection  and  freedom  from  curiosity  is  provided 
by  St  Manna's  sojourn  undetected  in  the  monastery  (February  12).  But  didactic  fiction 
has  gone  rather  out  of  fashion,  and  it  is  not  everyone  who  can  say  of  his  amusement  at 
hagiographical  excesses  that  "  it  is  a  sympathetic  and  tolerant  smile  and  in  no  way  disturbs 
the  religious  emotion  excited  by  the  picture  of  the  virtues  and  heroic  actions  of  the  saints  " 
(H.  Delehaye).— D.  A.] 



of  his  profession  ".*      As  it  is  known  what  prejudice  means  in  Mr  Gibbon's 
vocabulary,  Our  Author's  relatives  accept  the  character. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  Gibbon's  judgement  upon  the  style  of  the  Lives  of  the 
Saints  is  not  recorded  in  his  Decline  and  Fall.  We  only  know  it  by  Charles  Butler's 
report,  and  it  is  possible  that  the  nephew  was  mistaken  in  attaching  serious  import- 
ance to  phrases  which  may  have  been  spoken  merely  out  of  politeness  and  not 
without  a  suspicion  of  irony.  Even  when  full  allowance  is  made  for  the  peculiarities 
of  eighteenth-century  diction,  Butler's  English  impresses  the  reader  nowadays  as 
being  almost  intolerably  verbose,  slipshod  in  construction,  and  wanting  in  any  sense 
of  rhythm.  He  is  hardly  ever  content  to  use  one  verb  or  one  adjective  where  he 
can  possibly  employ  two,  and  it  seems  difficult  to  believe  that  when  he  had  once 
written  a  passage,  it  ever  occurred  to  him  to  revise  it  with  a  view  to  making  his 
meaning  clear.  As  compared  with  the  language  of  such  contemporaries  as  David 
Hume,  Smollett,  Goldsmith,  and  even  Samuel  Johnson,  I  seem  to  detect  a  curiously 
foreign  and  latinized  note  in  all  that  Butler  published.  One  gets  the  impression 
that  while  he  wrote  in  English,  he  often  thought  in  French,  and  that  a  good  many 
of  the  oddities  of  phraseology  which  continually  jar  upon  the  modern  ear  are  due 
less  to  the  fact  that  his  diction  is  archaic  than  to  a  certain  lack  of  familiarity  with 
the  English  idioms  of  his  own  time. 

It  may  not  perhaps  be  out  of  place  to  quote  here  a  single  example — and  it  is 
typical — of  how  Butler  has  often  filled  out  his  space  with  mere  verbiage.  In  his 
account  of  St  Ethelbert,  King  of  Kent,  the  bretwalda  who  received  St  Augustine 
and  was  converted  by  him  to  Christianity,  Butler  writes  as  follows.  I  quote  from 
the  library  edition  of  1812  : 

Divine  providence  by  these  means  [i.e.  the  marriage  with  Bertha,  etc.] 
mercifully  prepared  the  heart  of  a  great  king  to  entertain  a  favourable  opinion 
of  our  holy  religion,  when  St  Augustine  landed  in  his  dominions  :  to  whose 
life  the  reader  is  referred  for  an  account  of  this  monarch's  happy  conversion 
to  the  faith.  From  that  time  he  appeared  quite  changed  into  another  man,  it 
being  for  the  remaining  twenty  years  of  his  life  his  only  ambition  and  endeavour 
to  establish  the  perfect  reign  of  Christ,  both  in  his  own  soul  and  in  the  hearts 
of  all  his  subjects.  His  ardour  in  the  exercises  of  penance  and  devotion  never 
suffered  any  abatement,  this  being  a  property  of  true  virtue,  which  is  not  to 
be  acquired  without  much  labour  and  pains,  self-denial  and  watchfulness, 
resolution  and  constancy.  Great  were,  doubtless,  the  difficulties  and  dangers 
which  he  had  to  encounter  in  subduing  his  passions,  and  in  vanquishing  many 
obstacles  which  the  world  and  devil  failed  not  to  raise  ;  but  these  trials  were 
infinitely  subservient  to  his  spiritual  advancement,  by  rousing  him  continually 
to  greater  vigilance  and  fervour,  and  by  the  many  victories  and  the  exercise  of 
all  heroic  virtues  of  which  they  furnished  the  occasions. 

Now  this  wordy  panegyric  is  justified  in  precisely  the  measure  in  which  such 
statements  would  probably  be  true  of  any  other  holy  person.  We  know  absolutely 
nothing  about  St  Ethelbert  beyond  what  Bede  tells  us,  and  there  is  no  hint  in  Bede 
of  any  of  the  things  here  dwelt  upon.  He  says  not  one  syllable  about  a  sudden 
change  of  conduct,  or  about  unremitting  "  exercises  of  penance  and  devotion  ",  or 

*  See  Gibbon's  Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman  Empire  (Bury's  edition),  vol.  v  (1911), 
p.  36,  note  76. 



about  his  struggles  with  temptation  and  the  obstacles  which  the  world  and  the 
Devil  failed  not  to  raise.  The  whole  description  has  been  evolved  by  Butler  out 
of  his  inner  sense  of  the  probabilities  of  the  case.  This  atmosphere  of  superlatives, 
without  foundation  in  known  facts,  is  surely  regrettable.  It  can  hardly  fail  to 
undermine  all  confidence  in  the  author's  statements,  and  when  heroic  deeds  are 
recounted  which  really  are  based  on  trustworthy  evidence,  the  reader  is  naturally 
led  to  ask  himself  whether  these  things  also  are  mere  padding  introduced  to  give 
substance  to  a  narrative  which  was  too  conspicuously  jejune. 

I  must  confess,  then,  that  in  the  almost  hopeless  effort  to  secure  some  sort  of 
harmony  between  Butler's  Lives  and  the  large  number  of  biographies  now  added 
to  bring  the  work  up  to  date,  I  have  constantly  treated  his  original  text  with  scant 
respect.  It  was  impossible  to  leave  unaltered  such  a  description  as  the  following 
— I  quote  one  example  out  of  hundreds — "  melting  away  with  the  tenderest 
emotions  of  love,  he  [St  Odilo]  fell  to  the  ground  ;  the  ecstatic  agitations  of  his 
body  bearing  evidence  to  that  heavenly  fire  which  glowed  in  his  soul  "  ;  or,  again, 
a  few  lines  lower  down,  "  he  excelled  in  an  eminent  spirit  of  compunction  and 
contemplation.  Whilst  he  was  at  prayer,  trickling  tears  often  watered  his  cheeks."* 
Moreover,  some  considerable  economy  of  space  was  necessary  in  order  to  make 
room  for  the  additional  material  and  so  I  have  more  or  less  systematically  eliminated 
the  footnotes  and  the  small-type  excursuses  which  are  found  in  the  second  and 
subsequent  editions.  Butler  made  excellent  use  of  his  authorities,  and  he  un- 
doubtedly went  to  the  best  sources  then  available,  but  in  almost  every  department 
of  knowledge  new  and  momentous  discoveries  have  been  made  since  the  beginning 
of  the  nineteenth  century,  so  that  almost  all  the  English  hagiographer's  erudition 
is  now  out  of  date.  The  only  practical  course  seemed  to  be  to  omit  the  notes, 
replacing  them  at  the  end  of  each  biography  by  a  few  references  to  standard  authori- 
ties, and  adding,  where  the  matter  seemed  to  call  for  it,  a  brief  discussion  of  the 
historical  problems  involved.  In  not  a  few  instances  it  has,  for  one  reason  or 
another,  seemed  best  to  set  aside  not  only  the  notes,  but  the  biography  itself,  and 
to  rewrite  the  whole. f 

Butler's  main  purpose  in  writing  was  undoubtedly  the  spiritual  profit  of  his 
readers,  and  from  the  beginning  of  January  to  the  end  of  December  it  is  his  practice 
to  conclude  the  first  biography  of  the  group  belonging  to  each  day  with  a  short 
exhortation.^  In  this  connection  an  extract  or  two  from  Butler's  preface  to  the 
Lives  will  serve  to  illustrate  the  ideal  which  he  had  before  him  in  compiling  his 
magnum  opus,  and  will  at  the  same  time  furnish  a  more  favourable  specimen  of  his 
thought  and  of  his  style  than  is  commonly  met  with  in  the  body  of  the  work.  He 
says,  for  example,  very  truly  : 

The  method  of  forming  men  to  virtue  by  example  is,  of  all  others,  the 
shortest,  the  most  easy,  and  the  best  adapted  to  all  circumstances  and  dis- 
positions. Pride  recoils  at  precepts,  but  example  instructs  without  usurping 
the  authoritative  air  of  a  master  ;  for,  by  example,  a  man  seems  to  advise 
and  teach  himself.  ...  In  the  lives  of  the  saints  we  see  the  most  perfect  maxims 

*  In  the  life  of  St  Odilo  on  January  i,  vol.  i,  p.  43,  of  the  edition  of  1812. 
t  [On  pages  vi-viii  of  the  March  volume  (1931),  readers  interested  in  the  matter  will 
find  a  note  by  Father  Thurston  about  the  relation  between  certain  passages  in  the  text  of 
Butler's  "  Lives  "  and  passages  in  The  Lives  of  the  Saints  (1872-77)  by  the  Reverend  Sabine 
Baring-Gould. — D.A.] 
J  Cf.  page  v  above. 



of  the  gospel  reduced  to  practice,  and  the  most  heroic  virtue  made  the  object 
of  our  senses,  clothed  as  it  were  with  a  body,  and  exhibited  to  view  in  its 
most  attractive  dress.  .  .  .  Whilst  we  see  many  sanctifying  themselves  in  all 
states,  and  making  the  very  circumstances  of  their  condition,  whether  on  tht 
throne,  in  the  army,  in  the  state  of  marriage,  or  in  the  deserts,  the  means  of  their 
virtue  and  penance,  we  are  persuaded  that  the  practice  of  perfection  is  possible 
also  to  us,  in  every  lawful  profession,  and  that  we  need  only  sanctify  our 
employments  by  a  perfect  spirit,  and  the  fervent  exercises  of  religion,  to 
become  saints  ourselves,  without  quitting  our  state  in  the  world.  .  .  .  Though 
we  cannot  imitate  all  the  actions  of  the  saints,  we  can  learn  from  them  to 
practise  humility,  patience,  and  other  virtues  in  a  manner  suiting  our  circum- 
stances and  state  of  life  ;  and  can  pray  that  we  may  receive  a  share  in  the 
benedictions  and  glory  of  the  saints.  As  they  who  have  seen  a  beautiful 
flower-garden,  gather  a  nosegay  to  smell  at  the  whole  day,  so  ought  we,  in 
reading,  to  cut  out  some  flowers  by  selecting  certain  pious  reflections  and 
sentiments  with  which  we  are  most  affected  ;  and  these  we  should  often 
renew  during  the  day  ;  lest  we  resemble  a  man  who,  having  looked  at 
himself  in  the  glass,  goeth  away,  and  forgetteth  what  he  had  seen  of  himself. 




1.  Octave  of  the  Birthday  of  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ    ....  I 

St  Concordius,  martyr    .........  3 

St  Almachius,  or  Telemachus,  martyr        ......  3 

St  Euphrosyne,  virgin     .........  4 

St  Eugendus,  or  Oyend,  abbot           .......  5 

St  Fulgentius,  bishop      .........  6 

St  Felix  of  Bourges,  bishop      ........  9 

St  Clams,  abbot     ..........  10 

St  Peter  of  Atroa,  abbot           .          .......  10 

St  William  of  Saint  Benignus,  abbot          .          .          .          .          .          .  12 

St  Odilo,  abbot 12 

Bd  Zdislava,  matron        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .14 

Bd  Hugolino  of  Gualdo  .........  14 

Bd  Joseph  Tommasi        .........  15 

2.  The  Holy  Name  of  Jesus 18 

St  Macarius  of  Alexandria        ........  19 

St  Munchin,  bishop         ....           .....  21 

St  Vincentian          ..........  22 

St  Adalhard,  or  Adelard,  abbot 22 

Bd  Ayrald,  bishop            .........  23 

Bd  Stephana  Quinzani,  virgin            .......  24 

St  Caspar  del  Bufalo       .........  25 

3.  St  Frances  Xavier  Cabrini,  virgin.  (See  Vol.  IV,  p.  593ff) 

St  Anthems,  pope  and  martyr           .......  26 

St  Peter  Balsam,  martyr 26 

St  Genevieve,  or  Genovefa,  virgin    . 28 

St  Bertilia  of  Mareuil,  widow  . 30 

4.  St  Gregory  of  Langres,  bishop 30 

St  Pharaildis,  virgin         .          .          . 31 

St  Rigobert,  archbishop            ........  32 

Bd  Roger  of  Ellant 32 

Bd  Oringa,  virgin 32 

Bd  Elizabeth  Ann  Seton  (See  Appendix  III) 

5.  St  Telesphorus,  pope  and  martyr      .          .          .          .          .          .  33 

St  Apollinaris,  virgin 33 

St  Syncletica,  virgin        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  -33 

St  Simeon  the  Stylite 34 

St  Convoyon,  abbot 37 

St  Dorotheus  the  Younger,  abbot      .  .  .  .  .  .  .38 

StGerlac 38 

Bd  John  Nepomucen  Neumann  (See  Appendix  III) 




6.  The  Epiphany  of  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ 39 

St  Wiltrudis,  widow        .........  42 

St  Erminold,  abbot          .........  42 

St  Guarinus,  or  Gu6rin,  bishop         .......  42 

Bd  Gertrude  of  Delft,  virgin    ........  43 

St  John  de  Ribera,  archbishop          .......  43 

Bd  Raphaela  Mary,  virgin        ........  44 

7.  St  Lucian  of  Antioch,  martyr  ........  46 

St  Valentine,  bishop        .........  47 

StTillo 47 

St  Aldric,  bishop    ..........  48 

StReinold 48 

St  Canute  Lavard,  martyr        ...          .....  49 

Bd  Edward  Waterson,  martyr .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .49 

8.  St  Apollinaris  of  Hierapolis,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .50 

St  Lucian  of  Beauvais,  martyr  .  .  .  .  .  .  .51 

St  Severinus  of  Noricum  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .52 

St  Severinus  of  Septempeda,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .         53 

St  Erhard,  bishop  . 53 

St  Gudula,  virgin  ..........         54 

St  Pega,  virgin 54 

St  Wulsin,  bishop  ..........         55 

St  Thorfinn,  bishop         .........         55 

9.  St  Marciana,  virgin  and  martyr         .  .  .  .  .  .  .56 

SS.  Julian  and  Basilissa,  and  Companions,  martyrs     .  .  .  .         56 

St  Peter  of  Sebastea,  bishop     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .57 

St  Waningus,  or  Vaneng  ........  58 

St  Adrian  of  Canterbury,  abbot         . 58 

St  Berhtwald  of  Canterbury,  archbishop    .  .  .  .  .  59 

Bd  Alix  Le  Clercq,  virgin         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  -59 

10.  St  Marcian    ...........  63 

St  John  the  Good,  bishop         ........  63 

St  Agatho,  pope     ..........  64 

St  Peter  Orseolo     ..........  64 

St  William  of  Bourges,  archbishop    .......  65 

Bd  Gregory  X,  pope        .........  66 

11.  St  Hyginus,  pope 67 

St  Theodosius  the  Cenobiarch  .......         68 

St  Salvius,  or  Sauve,  bishop     ........         70 

12.  St  Arcadius,  martyr 70 

SS.  Tigrius  and  Eutropius,  martyrs  .  .  .  .  .  .71 

St  Caesaria,  virgin  .........         72 

St  Victorian,  abbot  .........         72 

St  Benedict,  or  Benet,  Biscop,  abbot 72 





13.     St  Agrecius,  bishop 
St  Berno,  abbot 
Bd  Godfrey  of  Kappenberg 
Bd  Jutta  of  Huy,  widow 
Bd  Veronica  of  Binasco,  virgin 

14.  St  Hilary  of  Poitiers,  bishop  and  doctor 
St  Felix  of  Nola     .... 
St  Macrina  the  Elder,  widow  . 
SS.  Barbasymas  and  his  Companions,  martyrs 
The  Martyrs  of  Mount  Sinai    . 
St  Datius,  bishop  .... 
St  Kentigern,  or  Mungo,  bishop 
Bd  Odo  of  Novara 
St  Sava,  archbishop 
Bd  Roger  of  Todi  .... 
Bd  Odoric  of  Pordenone 
Bd  Giles  of  Lorenzana    . 
St  Antony  Pucci    .... 

15.  St  Paul  the  Hermit 
St  Macarius  the  Elder     . 
St  Isidore  of  Alexandria 
St  John  Calybites  .... 
St  Ita,  virgin  .... 
St  Maurus,  abbot  .... 
St  Bonitus,  or  Bonet,  bishop    . 

St  Ceolwulf 

Bd  Peter  of  Castelnau,  martyr 
Bd  Francis  de  Capillas,  martyr 

16.  St  Marcellus  I,  pope  and  martyr 
St  Priscilla,  matron 
St  Honoratus  of  Aries,  bishop 
St  Fursey,  abbot    .... 
Bd  Ferreolus,  bishop  and  martyr 
St  Henry  of  Cocket 

SS.  Berard  and  his  Companions,  martyrs 
Bd  Gonsalo  of  Amarante 

17.  St  Antony  the  Abbot 
SS.  Speusippus,  Eleusippus  and  Meleusippus,  martyrs 
St  Genulf,  or  Genou,  bishop    . 
St  Julian  Sabas       .... 
St  Sabinus  of  Piacenza,  bishop 
St  Sulpicius  II,  or  Sulpice,  bishop    . 
St  Richimir,  abbot 
Bd  Roseline,  virgin 

18.  St  Peter's  Chair  at  Rome 
St  Prisca,  virgin  and  martyr     . 
St  Volusian,  bishop 
St  Deicolus,  or  Desle,  abbot    . 




Bd  Beatrice  cTEste  of  Ferrara,  widow 1 16 

Bd  Christina  of  Aquila,  virgin 117 

19.  SS.  Marius,  Martha,  Audifax  and  Abachum,  martyrs  .  .  .117 
St  Germanicus,  martyr   .          .          .          .          .          .          .          .  .118 

St  Nathalan,  bishop 118 

St  Albert  of  Cashel,  bishop      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .119 

St  Fillan,  or  Foelan,  abbot       .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .120 

St  Canute  of  Denmark,  martyr  .  .  .  .  .  .  .121 

St  Wulfstan,  bishop         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .121 

St  Henry  of  Uppsala,  bishop  and  martyr  .  .  .  .  .  .123 

Bd  Andrew  of  Peschiera  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .123 

Bd  Bernard  of  Corleone  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .124 

St  Charles  of  Sezze         .........        125 

Bd  Margaret  Bourgeoys,  virgin  .  .  .  .  .  .  .125 

Bd  Thomas  of  Cori         .........       127 

20.  St  Fabian,  pope  and  martyr     ........        128 

St  Sebastian,  martyr        .........       128 

St  Euthymius  the  Great,  abbot  .  .  .  .  .  .  .130 

St  Fechin,  abbot    ..........        132 

Bd  Benedict  of  Coltiboni  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .132 

Bd  Desiderius,  or  Didier,  of  Therouanne,  bishop         ....        133 

21.  St  Agnes,  virgin  and  martyr     ........        133 

St  Fructuosus  of  Tarragona,  bishop  and  martyr  ....        137 

St  Patroclus,  martyr         .........        138 

St  Epiphanius  of  Pavia,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .139 

St  Meinrad,  martyr         .........       139 

Bd  Edward  Stransham,  martyr  .......        140 

BB.  Thomas  Reynolds  and  Alban  Roe,  martyrs  .  .  .  .140 

Bd  Josepha  of  Beniganim,  virgin       .......        142 

22.  St  Vincent  of  Saragossa,  martyr        .......       142 

St  Blesilla,  widow  ..........        144 

St  Anastasius  the  Persian,  martyr      .......       144 

St  Dominic  of  Sora,  abbot       .  .  .         .         .         .         .         .147 

St  Berhtwald  of  Ramsbury,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .147 

Bd  William  Patenson,  martyr  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .147 

Bd  Vincent  Pallotti 148 

23.  St  Raymund  of  Penafort  ........       149 

St  Asclas,  martyr   ..........       152 

St  Emerentiana,  virgin  and  martyr   .  .  .  .  .  .  .152 

SS.  Clement  and  Agathangelus,  martyrs    .  .  .  .  .  .153 

St  John  the  Almsgiver,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  153 

St  Ildephonsus,  archbishop      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .155 

St  Bernard  of  Vienne,  archbishop     .  .  .  .  .  .  .156 

St  Lufthildis,  virgin        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .157 

St  Maimbod,  martyr 157 

Bd  Margaret  of  Ravenna,  virgin        .  .  .  .  .  .  .157 


CONTENTS  [January 


24.  St  Timothy,  bishop  and  martyr         .  .  .  .  .  .  .158 

St  Babylas,  bishop  and  martyr  .  .  .  .  .  .  .160 

St  Felician,  bishop  and  martyr  .  .  .  .  .  .  .160 

St  Macedonius 161 

Bd  Marcolino  of  Forll 161 

25.  The  Conversion  of  St  Paul 162 

St  Artemas,  martyr  .  .......        164 

SS.  Juventinus  and  Maximinus,  martyrs    .  .  .  .  .  .164 

St  Publius,  abbot 165 

St  Apollo,  abbot 165 

St  Praejectus,  or  Prix,  bishop  and  martyr            .          .          .          .          .166 
St  Poppo,  abbot 166 

26.  St  Polycarp,  bishop  and  martyr         .  .  .  .  .  .  .167 

St  Paula,  widow     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .171 

St  Conan,  bishop   ..........        172 

St  Alberic,  abbot 173 

St  Eystein,  archbishop    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .174 

St  Margaret  of  Hungary,  virgin         .  .  .  .  .  .  .176 

27.  St  John  Chrysostom,  archbishop  and  doctor 178 

St  Julian  of  Le  Mans,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .183 

St  Marius,  or  May,  abbot 183 

St  Vitalian,  pope    ..........        184 

Bd  John  of  Warneton,  bishop 184 

28.  St  Peter  Nolasco 185 

St  John  of  Reomay,  abbot 187 

St  Paulinus  of  Aquileia,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .188 

Bd  Charlemagne     ..........        188 

St  Amadeus  of  Lausanne,  bishop 189 

Bd  James  the  Almsgiver  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .190 

Bd  Antony  of  Amandola 191 

St  Peter  Thomas,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .191 

Bd  Mary  of  Pisa,  widow  ........       192 

Bd  Julian  Maunoir  .........       193 

29.  St  Francis  de  Sales,  bishop  and  doctor       .  .  .  .  .  .195 

St  Sabinian,  martyr         .........       201 

St  Gildas  the  Wise,  abbot 201 

St  Sulpicius  "  Severus  ",  bishop       .......       202 

30.  St  Martina,  virgin  and  martyr  .......  203 

St  Barsimaeus,  bishop     .........  203 

St  Bathildis,  widow         .........  204 

St  Aldegundis,  virgin      .........  205 

St  Adelelmus,  or  Aleaume,  abbot      .......  205 

St  Hyacintha  Mariscotti,  virgin         .......  206 

Bd  Sebastian  Valfr6 207 




31.    St  John  Bosco         ..........       208 

SS.  Cyrus  and  John,  martyrs  ........        212 

St  Marcella,  widow  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .213 

St  Aidan,  or  Maedoc,  of  Ferns,  bishop       .  .  .  .  .  .214 

St  Adamnan  of  Coldingham     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .215 

St  Ulphia,  virgin    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .215 

St  Eusebius,  martyr         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .215 

St  Nicetas  of  Novgorod,  bishop         .  .  .  .  .  .  .216 

Bd  Paula  Gambara-Costa,  matron     .  .  .  .  .  .  .216 

St  Francis  Xavier  Bianchi         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .217 


1.  St  Ignatius  of  Antioch,  bishop  and  martyr  .  .  .  .  .219 

St  Pionius,  martyr  .........       224 

St  Brigid,  or  Bride,  of  Kildare,  virgin        ......       225 

St  Sigebert  III  of  Austrasia      ........       229 

St  John  "  of  the  Grating  ",  bishop    .......       229 

Bd  Antony  the  Pilgrim    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .230 

Bd  Henry  Morse,  martyr  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .231 

2.  The  Purification  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  .....       232 

St  Adalb aid  of  Ostrevant,  martyr      .  .  .  .  .  .  .236 

The  Martyrs  of  Ebsdorf  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .237 

St  Joan  de  Lestonnac,  widow  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .237 

3.  St  Blaise,  bishop  and  martyr    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .239 

St  Laurence  of  Spoleto,  bishop  .......       240 

St  la,  virgin  ...........        240 

St  Laurence  of  Canterbury,  archbishop      .  .  .  .  .  .241 

St  Werburga,  virgin         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .241 

St  Anskar,  archbishop     .........       242 

St  Margaret  "  of  England  ",  virgin  .......        243 

Bd  Simon  of  Cascia         .........       244 

Bd  John  Nelson,  martyr  ........       245 

Bd  Stephen  Bellesini 245 

4.  St  Andrew  Corsini,  bishop       ........       246 

St  Theophilus  the  Penitent 247 

St  Phileas,  bishop  and  martyr  .  .  .  .  .  .  .248 

St  Isidore  of  Pelusium,  abbot  ........       249 

St  Modan,  abbot 249 

Bd  Rabanus  Maurus,  archbishop       .......       249 

St  Nicholas  Studites,  abbot      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  25 1 

St  Rembert,  archbishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  25 1 

St  Joan  of  France,  matron        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .252 

Bd  Thomas  Plumtree,  martyr  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .253 

St  Joseph  of  Leonessa     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  253 

St  John  de  Britto,  martyr         ........       254 


CONTENTS  [February 


5*    St  Agatha,  virgin  and  martyr 255 

St  Avitus  of  Vienne,  bishop 256 

St  Bertulf,  or  Bertoul      .........  257 

SS.  Indractus  and  Dominica,  martyrs        .         .         .         .         .         .258 

St  Vodalus,  or  Voel 258 

St  Adelaide  of  Bellich,  virgin  ........  258 

The  Martyrs  of  Japan,  I 259 

6.  St  Titus,  bishop 260 

St  Dorothy,  virgin  and  martyr 261 

SS.  Mel  and  Melchu,  bishops           .......  262 

St  Vedast,  or  Vaast,  bishop 262 

St  Amand,  bishop           .........  263 

St  Guarinus,  bishop        .........  264 

Bd  Raymund  of  Fitero,  abbot 265 

St  Hildegund,  widow      .........  265 

Bd  Angelo  of  Furcio 266 

7.  St  Romuald,  abbot 266 

St  Adaucus,  martyr 268 

St  Theodore  of  Heraclea,  martyr      .......  269 

St  Moses,  bishop   ..........  270 

St  Richard,  "  King  " 270 

St  Luke  the  Younger 271 

Bd  Rizzerio 272 

Bd  Antony  of  Stroncone 272 

Bd  Thomas  Sherwood,  martyr 273 

BB.  James  Sales  and  William  Saultemouche,  martyrs           .         .         •  274 

Bd  Giles  Mary 275 

Bd  Eugenia  Smet   (See  Appendix  III) 

8.  St  John  of  Matha 276 

St  Nicetius,  or  Nizier,  of  Besancon,  bishop 278 

St  Elfleda,  virgin 278 

St  Meingold,  martyr       .........  279 

St  Cuthman 280 

Bd  Peter  Igneus,  bishop  .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .281 

St  Stephen  of  Muret,  abbot 282 

Bd  Isaiah  of  Cracow 282 

9.  St  Cyril  of  Alexandria,  archbishop  and  doctor.            ....  283 

St  Apollonia,  virgin  and  martyr 286 

St  Nicephorus,  martyr    .........  286 

St  Sabinus  of  Canosa,  bishop 288 

St  Teilo,  bishop 288 

St  Ansbert,  bishop 290 

St  Alto,  abbot 290 

Bd  Marianus  Scotus 290 

10.    St  Scholastics,  virgin 292 

St  Soteris,  virgin  and  martyr 293 

St  Trumwin,  bishop       .........  293 

St  Austreberta,  virgin 294 




St  William  of  Maleval     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .295 

Bd  Hugh  of  Fosses  .........       296 

Bd  Clare  of  Rimini,  widow      ........       297 

1 1 .  The  Appearing  of  Our  Lady  at  Lourdes    ......        298 

SS.  Saturninus,  Dativus  and  other  Martyrs         .....       303 

St  Lucius,  bishop  and  martyr  .......       304 

St  Lazarus,  bishop  .........       304 

St  Severinus,  abbot         .........       305 

St  Caedmon  ..........       305 

St  Gregory  II,  pope        .........       308 

St  Benedict  of  Aniane,  abbot  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .309 

St  Paschal  I,  pope  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .311 

12.  The  Seven  Founders  of  the  Servite  Order  .  .  .  .  .311 

St  Marina,  virgin  ..........       313 

St  Julian  the  Hospitaller  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .314 

St  Meletius  of  Antioch,  archbishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .316 

St  Ethelwald  of  Lindisfarne,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .317 

St  Antony  Kauleas,  bishop       .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .317 

StLudan 318 

BB.  Thomas  Hemerford  and  his  Companions,  martyrs         .  .  .       318 

13.  St  Polyeuctus,  martyr     .........       320 

St  Martinian  the  Hermit  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .320 

St  Stephen  of  Rieti,  abbot       .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .321 

St  Modomnoc        ..........       322 

St  Licinius,  or  L£sin,  bishop   .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .322 

St  Ermengild,  or  Ermenilda,  widow  .  .  .  .  .  .323 

Bd  Beatrice  of  Ornacieu,  virgin         .  .  .  .  .  .  .323 

Bd  Christina  of  Spoleto  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .324 

Bd  Eustochium  of  Padua,  virgin       .  .  .  .  .  .  .325 

Bd  Archangela  Girlani,  virgin  .  .  .  .  .  .  .327 

St  Catherine  dei  Ricci,  virgin  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .328 

14.  St  Valentine,  martyr       .........       332 

St  Abraham,  bishop         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  -334 

St  Maro,  abbot 334 

St  Auxentius  ..........       335 

St  Conran,  bishop 336 

St  Antoninus  of  Sorrento,  abbot       .......       337 

Bd  Conrad  of  Bavaria      .........       337 

St  Adolf  of  Osnabriick,  bishop 338 

Bd  Nicholas  Paglia  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .338 

Bd  Angelo  of  Gualdo      .........       339 

Bd  John  Baptist  of  Almodovar  .......       339 

15.  SS.  Faustinus  and  Jovita,  martyrs     .  .  .  .  .  .  .340 

St  Agape,  virgin  and  martyr    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .341 

St  Walfrid,  abbot 341 

St*Tanco,  bishop  and  martyr  ........       342 

St  Sigfrid,  bishop 342 





Bd  Jordan  of  Saxony 
Bd  Angelo  of  Borgo  San  Sepolcro 
Bd  Julia  of  Certaldo,  virgin 
Bd  Claud  la  Colombiere 

16.  St  Onesimus,  martyr 
St  Juliana,  virgin  and  martyr   . 
SS.  Elias,  Jeremy  and  their  Companions,  martyrs 
St  Gilbert  of  Sempringham 
Bd  Philippa  Mareri,  virgin 
Bd  Verdiana,  virgin 
Bd  Eustochium  of  Messina,  virgin 
Bd  Bernard  Scammacca  . 

17.  SS.  Theodulus  and  Julian,  martyrs 
St  Loman,  bishop  . 
St  Fintan  of  Cloneenagh,  abbot 
St  Finan,  bishop    . 
St  Silvin,  bishop     . 
St  Evermod,  bishop 
Bd  Reginald  of  Orleans 
Bd  Luke  Belludi     . 
Bd  Andrew  of  Anagni 
Bd  Peter  of  Treia  . 
Bd  William  Richardson,  martyr 
The  Martyrs  of  China,  I 

18.  St  Simeon,  bishop  and  martyr 
SS.  Leo  and  Paregorius,  martyrs 
St  Flavian,  bishop  and  martyr 
St  Helladius,  archbishop 
St  Colman  of  Lindisfarne,  bishop 
St  Angilbert,  abbot 
St  Theotonius 

Bd  William  Harrington,  martyr 
Bd  John  Pibush,  martyr 

19.  St  Mesrop,  bishop 
St  Barbatus,  bishop 
St  Beatus  of  Liebana 
St  Boniface  of  Lausanne,  bishop 
St  Conrad  of  Piacenza     . 
Bd  Alvarez  of  Cordova    . 

20.  SS.  Tyrannio,  Zenobius  and  other  Martyrs 
St  Sadoth,  bishop  and  martyr 
St  Eleutherius  of  Tournai,  bishop 
St  Eucherius  of  Orleans,  bishop 
StWulfric     .... 
Bd  Elizabeth  of  Mantua,  virgin 

21.  St  Severian,  bishop  and  martyr 
Bd  Pepin  of  Landen 




St  Germanus  of  Granfel,  martyr       .......  385 

St  George  of  Amastris,  bishop  .......  386 

Bd  Robert  Southwell,  martyr 386 

Bd  Noel  Pinot,  martyr 391 

22.  St  Peter's  Chair 392 

SS.  Thalassius  and  Limnaeus  ........  395 

St  Baradates 395 

St  Margaret  of  Cortona  .........  396 

23.  St  Peter  Damian,  bishop  and  doctor          .          .         .         .         .         •  399 

St  Serenus  the  Gardener,  martyr      .  .  .  .  .  .  .401 

St  Alexander  Akimetes    .........  402 

St  Dositheus           ..........  403 

St  Boisil,  or  Boswell,  abbot      ........  404 

St  Milburga,  virgin 405 

St  Willigis,  archbishop    .........  406 

24.  St  Matthias,  apostle 407 

SS.  Montanus,  Lucius,  and  their  Companions,  martyrs        .  .         .       408 

St  Praetextatus,  or  Prix,  bishop  and  martyr        .  .         .  .         .411 

25.  SS.  Victorinus  and  his  Companions,  martyrs      .         .         .         .         .412 
St  Caesarius  of  Nazianzus        ........       413 

St  Ethelbert  of  Kent 414 

St  Walburga,  virgin         .........       415 

St  Tarasius,  bishop         .........       416 

St  Gerland,  bishop  .........       418 

Bd  Robert  of  Arbrissel,  abbot  .  .  .  .  .  .  .418 

BB.  Avertanus  and  Romaeus    .  .  .  .         .  .         .  .419 

Bd  Constantius  of  Fabriano     ........       420 

Bd  Sebastian  Aparicio     .........       420 

26«    St  Nestor,  bishop  and  martyr  ........       422 

St  Alexander  of  Alexandria,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .423 

St  Porphyry,  bishop 423 

St  Victor  the  Hermit 426 

Bd  Leo  of  Saint-Bertin,  abbot 427 

Bd  Isabel  of  France,  virgin 427 

27.  St  Gabriel  Possenti 429 

SS.  Julian,  Cronion  and  Besas,  martyrs 431 

St  Thalelaeus  the  Hermit 43 1 

St  Leander  of  Seville,  bishop 432 

St  Baldomerus,  or  Galmier      .          .          .          .          .          .          .          •  433 

StAlnoth 434 

St  John  of  Gorze,  abbot           ........  434 

Bd  Mark  Barkworth,  martyr 435 

Bd  Anne  Line,  martyr 436 

28.  Martyrs  in  the  Plague  of  Alexandria 436 

St  Proterius,  bishop  and  martyr 437 

SS.  Romanus  and  Lupicinus,  abbots 438 




St  Hilarus,  pope     . 
St  Oswald  of  Worcester,  bishop 
Bd  Angela  of  Foligno,  widow  . 
Bd  Villana  of  Florence,  matron 
Bd  Hedwig  of  Poland,  matron 
Bd  Antonia  of  Florence,  widow 
Bd  Louisa  Albertoni,  widow    . 






1 .  St  David,  or  Dewi,  bishop 
St  Felix  II  (III)/  pope     . 

St  Albinus,  or  Aubin,  of  Angers,  bishop 

St  Swithbert,  bishop 

St  Rudesind,  or  Rosendo,  bishop 

Bd  Roger  le  Fort,  archbishop  . 

Bd  Bonavita 

Bd  Christopher  of  Milan 

Bd  Peter  Ren6  Roque,  martyr 

2.  The  Martyrs  under  the  Lombards    . 
St  Chad,  or  Ceadda,  bishop 
Bd  Charles  the  Good,  martyr 
Bd  Fulco  of  Neuilly 
Bd  Agnes  of  Bohemia,  virgin 
Bd  Henry  Suso 

3.  SS.  Marinus  and  Astyrius,  martyrs  . 
SS.  Emeterius  and  Chelidonius,  martyrs 
St  Arthelais,  virgin 

St  Non,  or  Nonnita 

St  Winwaloe,  or  Guenol6,  abbot 

St  Anselm  of  Nonantola,  abbot 

St  Cunegund,  widow 

St  Gervinus,  abbot 

Bd  Serlo,  abbot      . 

St  Aelred,  abbot     . 

Bd  Jacopino  of  Canepaci 

Bd  Teresa  Verzeri,  virgin 

Bd  Innocent  of  Berzo  (See  Appendix  III) 




4.  St  Casimir  of  Poland        .........  478 

St  Lucius  I,  pope  ..........  479 

SS.  Adrian  and  his  Companions,  martyrs            .....  480 

St  Peter  of  Cava,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .481 

Bd  Humbert  III  of  Savoy 482 

Bd  Christopher  Bales,  martyr  ........  482 

Bd  Placida  Viel,  virgin    .........  483 

5.  SS.  Adrian  and  Eubulus,  martyrs     .......  484 

St  Phocas  of  Antioch,  martyr  ........  485 




St  Eusebius  of  Oemona           ........  485 

St  Gerasimus,  abbot        .........  486 

St  Kieran,  or  Ciaran,  of  Saighir,  bishop     ......  487 

St  Piran,  abbot       ..........  489 

St  Virgil  of  Aries,  archbishop  ........  489 

St  John  Joseph  of  the  Cross     ........  490 

6.  SS.  Perpetua,  Felicity  and  their  Companions,  martyrs  .  .  .       493 
St  Fridolin,  abbot ..........       499 

SS.  Cyneburga,  Cyneswide  and  Tibba       ......       500 

St  Chrodegang,  bishop    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .501 

SS.  Balred  and  Bilfrid 502 

St  Cadroe,  or  Cadroel,  abbot  ........       502 

St  Ollegarius,  or  Oldegar,  archbishop         ......       503 

St  Cyril  of  Constantinople  .  .  .  .  .  .504 

Bd  Jordan  of  Pisa  ..........       505 

St  Colette,  virgin   ..........       506 

7.  St  Thomas  Aquinas,  doctor     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .509 

St  Paul  the  Simple 513 

St  Drausius,  or  Drausin,  bishop        .  .  .  .  .  .  515 

St  Esterwine,  abbot         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .515 

StArdo 516 

St  Theophylact,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .516 

8.  St  John  of  God 517 

St  Pontius 520 

SS.  Philemon  and  Apollonius,  martyrs       .  .  .  .  .  .521 

St  Senan,  bishop 522 

St  Felix  of  Dunwich,  bishop    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .524 

St  Julian  of  Toledo,  archbishop        .  .  .  .  .  .  .524 

St  Humphrey,  or  Hunfrid,  bishop    .  .  .  .  .  .  .525 

St  Duthac,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .526 

St  Veremund,  abbot        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .526 

St  Stephen  of  Obazine,  abbot 527 

Bd  Vincent  of  Cracow,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .528 

9.  St  Frances  of  Rome,  widow     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .529 

St  Pacian,  bishop   ..........       533 

St  Gregory  of  Nyssa,  bishop    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  -533 

St  Bosa,  bishop 536 

St  Catherine  of  Bologna,  virgin         .  .  .  .  .  .  536 

St  Dominic  Savio  .........       539 

10.    The  Forty  Martyrs  of  Sebastea 541 

SS.  Codratus  and  his  Companions,  martyrs         .....  544 

St  Macarius  of  Jerusalem,  bishop 544 

St  Simplicius,  pope 545 

St  Kessog,  bishop  and  martyr 546 

St  Anastasia  Patricia,  virgin     ........  546 

St  Droctoveus,  or  Drott6,  abbot 547 

St  Attalas,  abbot 547 




StHimelin 548 

Bd  Andrew  of  Strumi,  abbot   ........       549 

Bd  John  of  Vallombrosa  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .550 

Bd  Peter  Geremia  ........       550 

Bd  John  Ogilvie,  martyr  ........       552 

11.  St  Constantine,  martyr   .........       556 

St  Sophronius,  bishop     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .557 

St  Vindician,  bishop        .........       558 

St  Benedict  of  Milan,  archbishop      .  .  .  .  .  .  -559 

St  Oengus,  abbot-bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  -559 

St  Eulogius  of  Cordova,  martyr         .  .  .  .  .  .  .561 

St  Aurea,  virgin     ..........       563 

Bd  Christopher  Macassoli         ........       563 

Bd  John  Baptist  of  Fabriano 564 

BB.  John  Larke,  Jermyn  Gardiner  and  John  Ireland,  martyrs        .  .       564 

St  Teresa  Margaret  Redi,  virgin        .  .  .  .  .  .  .565 

12.  St  Gregory  the  Great,  pope  and  doctor      ......       566 

St  Maximilian,  martyr     .........       571 

SS.  Peter,  Gorgonius  and  Dorotheus,  martyrs    .....       573 

St  Paul  Aurelian,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .574 

St  Theophanes  the  Chronicler,  abbot         .  .  .  .  .  .576 

St  Alphege  of  Winchester,  bishop     .......       577 

St  Bernard  of  Capua,  bishop    ........       577 

St  Fina,  or  Seraphina,  virgin   ........       577 

Bd  Justina  of  Arezzo,  virgin     ........       578 

Bd  Nicholas  Owen,  martyr       ........       579 

13.  St  Euphrasia,  or  Eupraxia,  virgin      .  .  .  .  .  .  .581 

St  Mochoemoc,  abbot     .  .         .         .  .         .         .         .         .583 

St  Gerald  of  Mayo,  abbot 584 

St  Nicephorus  of  Constantinople,  bishop  .         .         .  .  .         .584 

St  Ansovinus,  bishop      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .586 

St  Heldrad,  abbot 587 

SS.  Roderic  and  Solomon,  martyrs  .         .  .         .         .         .         .588 

Bd  Agnello  of  Pisa 589 

14.  St  Leobinus,  or  Lubin,  bishop  .         .  .         .         .         .  591 

St  Eutychius,  or  Eustathius,  martyr 591 

St  Matilda,  widow  ..*......  592 

Bd  James  of  Naples,  archbishop 594 

15.  St  Longinus,  martyr        .........       594 

St  Matrona,  virgin  and  martyr  .         .  .  .         .         .         •       595 

St  Zachary,  pope    ..........       596 

St  Leocritia,  or  Lucretia,  virgin  and  martyr 597 

Bd  William  Hart,  martyr 597 

St  Louisa  de  Marillac,  widow .  .         .         .         .  .         .         .598 

St  Clement  Hofbauer      .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .601 

Bd  Placid  Riccardi  (See  Appendix  III) 

16.  St  Julian  of  Antioch,  martyr    ........       604 

St  Abraham  Kidunaia 605 




St  Finnian  Lobhar,  abbot         ........       606 

St  Eusebia,  abbess  .........       607 

St  Gregory  Makar,  bishop        ........       608 

St  Heribert,  archbishop  .........       608 

Bd  John  of  Vicenza,  bishop  and  martyr     .  .  .  .  .  .610 

BdTorello 611 

BB.  John  Amias  and  Robert  Dalby,  martyrs       .  .  .  .  .612 

17.  St  Patrick,  archbishop     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .612 

St  Joseph  of  Arimathea  .........       617 

The  Martyrs  of  the  Serapeum  .......       619 

St  Agricola,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .619 

St  Gertrude  of  Nivelles,  virgin  .......       620 

St  Paul  of  Cyprus  ..........       621 

Bd  John  Sarkander,  martyr      ........       622 

18.  St  Cyril  of  Jerusalem,  archbishop  and  doctor      .....  623 

St  Alexander  of  Jerusalem,  bishop  and  martyr    .....  626 

St  Frigidian,  or  Frediano,  bishop      .......  626 

St  Edward  the  Martyr    .........  627 

St  Anselm  of  Lucca,  bishop     ........  628 

Bd  Christian,  abbot 630 

St  Salvator  of  Horta        .........  630 

19.  St  Joseph 631 

St  John  of  Panaca  ..........  633 

SS.  Landoald  and  his  Companions  .......  634 

St  Alcmund,  martyr        .........  635 

Bd  Andrew  of  Siena        .........  635 

20.  SS.  Photina  and  her  Companions,  martyrs          .          .          .          .          .636 
St  Martin  of  Braga,  archbishop         .......  636 

St  Cuthbert,  bishop 637 

St  Herbert 642 

St  Wulfram,  archbishop            ........  642 

The  Martyrs  of  Mar  Saba 643 

BB.  Evangelist  and  Peregrine  ........  644 

Bd  Ambrose  of  Siena      .........  644 

Bd  John  of  Parma            .........  646 

Bd  Maurice  of  Hungary            ........  647 

Bd  Mark  of  Montegallo 648 

Bd  Baptist  of  Mantua 649 

Bd  Hippolytus  Galantini           ........  650 

21.  St  Benedict,  abbot 650 

St  Serapion  of  Thmuis,  bishop  .  .  .  .  .  .  -655 

St  Enda,  abbot,  and  St  Fanchea,  virgin     .  .  .  .  .  .656 

Bd  Santuccia,  matron      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .657 

22.  St  Paul  of  Narbonne 657 

St  Basil  of  Ancyra,  martyr        ........       658 

St  Deogratias,  bishop      .  .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .658 




Bd  Isnardo  of  Chiampo  .........       659 

St  Benvenuto  of  Osimo,  bishop         .  .  .  .  .  .  .659 

Bd  Hugolino  of  Cortona  ........       660 

St  Nicholas  von  Flue       .........       660 

23.  SS.  Victorian  and  his  Companions,  martyrs        .....  663 

St  Benedict  the  Hermit 664 

St  Ethelwald  the  Hermit 664 

Bd  Peter  of  Gubbio 665 

Bd  Sibyllina  of  Pavia,  virgin    ........  665 

St  Joseph  Oriol 666 

24.  St  Gabriel  the  Archangel 667 

St  Irenaeus  of  Sirmium,  bishop  and  martyr        .....       668 

St  Aldemar,  abbot 669 

St  Catherine  of  Vadstena,  virgin        .  .  .  .  .  .  .669 

SS.  Simon  of  Trent  and  William  of  Norwich 671 

Bd  Didacus,  or  Diego,  of  Cadiz         .  .  .  .  .  .  .672 

25.  The  Annunciation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary   .  .  .  .  .673 

The  Good  Thief 676 

St  Barontius 677 

St  Hermenland,  abbot     .........       677 

St  Alfwold,  bishop 678 

Bd  Thomasius         ..........       679 

Bd  Margaret  Clitherow,  martyr         .  .  .  .  .  .  .679 

Bd  James  Bird,  martyr    .........       682 

St  Lucy  Filippini,  virgin  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .683 

26.  St  Castulus,  martyr         .........  684 

St  Felix  of  Trier,  bishop 684 

St  Macartan,  bishop        .........  684 

St  Braulio,  bishop  .........  685 

St  Ludger,  bishop  .........  686 

St  Basil  the  Younger 688 

27.  St  John  Damascene,  doctor      ........       689 

St  John  of  Egypt    ..........       691 

Bd  William  Tempier,  bishop    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .692 

28.  St  John  of  Capistrano      .........       693 

St  Guntramnus       ..........       695 

StTutilo 696 

29.  SS.  Jonas  and  Barachisius,  martyrs  .......  696 

SS.  Mark  of  Arethusa,  bishop,  and  Cyril,  martyr         ....  697 

SS.  Armogastes,  Archinimus  and  Saturus,  martyrs      ....  698 

SS.  Gundleus  and  Gwladys     ........  699 

St  Rupert,  bishop  ..........  700 

Bd  Diemoda,  or  Diemut,  virgin        .  .  .  .  .  .  .701 

St  Berthold 701 

St  Ludolf,  bishop  ..........  702 




30.  St  Regulus,  or  Rieul,  bishop    ........  702 

St  John  Climacus,  abbot  ........  703 

St  Zosimus,  bishop  .........  704 

St  Osburga,  virgin  .........  705 

Bd  Dodo 706 

Bd  Amadeus  IX  of  Savoy         ........  706 

31.  St  Balbina,  virgin  ..........       707 

St  Acacius,  or  Achatius,  bishop         .......       708 

St  Benjamin,  martyr        .........       709 

St  Guy  of  Pomposa,  abbot 709 

Bd  Joan  of  Toulouse,  virgin     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .710 

Bd  Bonaventure  of  Fori! 711 

Index  ............       713 



Acta  Sanctorum— -This  without  qualification  refers  to  the  Acta  Sanctorum  of  the 

BHG. — The  Bibliotheca  hagiographica  graeca  of  the  Bollandists. 
BHL. — The  Bibliotheca  hagiographica  latina  of  the  Bollandists. 
BHO.— -The  Bibliotheca  hagiographica  orientalis  of  the  Bollandists. 
Burton  and  Pollen,    LEM. — Lives  of  the  English  Martyrs,  second  series,  ed.  E.  H. 

Burton  and  J.  H.  Pollen. 
Camni,  LEM. — Lives  of  the  English  Martyrs,  first  series,  ed.  Bede  Camm. 
CMH. — H.  Delehaye's  Commentary  on  the  Hieronymian  Martyrology,  in  the  Acta 

Sanctorum,  November,  volume  ii,  part  2. 
DAC. — Dictionnaire  d* Archdologie  chretienne  et  de  Liturgie,  ed.  F.  Cabrol  and  H. 

DCB.— A  Dictionary  of  Christian  Biography,  ed.  William  Smith  and  Henry  Wace. 
DHG. — Dictionnaire  d'Histoire  et  de  Geographie  eccUsiastiques,  ed.  A.  Baudrillart  et  aL 
DNB. — The  Dictionary  of  National  Biography,  ed.  Leslie  Stephen  et  aL 
DTC. — Dictionnaire  de  Thdologie  catholique,  ed.  A.  Vacant  et  al. 
KSS. — Kalendars  of  Scottish  Saints,  ed.  A.  P.  Forbes. 
LBS. — Lives  of  the  British  Saints,  by  S.  Baring-Gould  and  John  Fisher. 
LIS. — Lives  of  the  Irish  Saints,  by  John  O'Hanlon. 
Mabillon — Acta  Sanctorum  Ordinis  Sancti  Benedicti,  ed.  J.  Mabillon. 
MGH. — Monumenta  Germaniae  Historica,  ed.  G.  H.  Pertz  et  aL 
MMP. — Memoirs  of  Missionary  Priests,  by  Richard  Challoner,  referred  to  in  the 

edition  of  1924,  ed.  J.  H.  Pollen. 
PG. —Patrologia  graeca,  ed.  J.  P.  Migne. 
PL. — Patrologia  latina,  ed.  J.  P.  Migne. 

REPS  J. — Records  of  the  English  Province  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  ed.  Henry  Foley. 
Ruinart — Acta  primorum  martyrum  sincera  et  selecta,  ed.  T.  Ruinart. 
Stanton's  Menology — A  Menology  of  England  and  Wales,  by  Richard  Stanton. 
VSH. — Vitae  Sanctorum  Hiberniae,  ed.  Charles  Plummer. 

Father  H.  Delehaye's  Les  origines  du  culte  des  martyrs  is  referred  to  in  the  "  deux- 
ieme  Edition  revue  "  of  1933. 

There  is  an  English  translation  by  Mrs  V.  M.  Crawford  of  Father  Delehaye's 
Les  legendes  hagiographiques  ("  The  Legends  of  the  Saints  "),  made  from  the  first 
edition.  The  third  French  edition  (1927)  is  revised  and  is  therefore  sometimes 
referred  to. 

The  English  title  of  the  work  herein  referred  to  as  "  L^on,  V Aureole  siraphique 
(Eng.  trans.)  "  is  Lives  of  the  Saints  and  Blessed  of  the  Three  Orders  of  St  Francis 
(1885-87),  by  Father  Leon  (Vieu)  de  Clary.  A  corrected  and  enlarged  edition  of  this 
work  in  Italian,  by  Father  G.  C.  Guzzo,  began  publication  in  1951  :  Aureola  serafica. 
By  1954  four  volumes  had  appeared,  covering  January- August. 

It  has  not  been  deemed  necessary  to  give  every  reference  to  such  standard  works 
as  the  Dictionary  of  Christian  Biography,   the  Dictionnaires  published  by  Letouzey, 



and  A.  Fliche  and  V.  Martin's  Histoire  de  VEglise,  though  these  are  often  referred 
to  in  the  bibliographical  notes.  The  first  two  volumes  of  Fliche  and  Martin,  by 
J.  Lebreton  and  J.  Zeiller,  have  been  translated  into  English  by  Dr  E.  C.  Messenger 
(The  History  of  the  Primitive  Church,  4  vols.),  and  the  first  two  English  volumes  of 
the  continuation,  The  Church  in  the  Christian  Roman  Empire,  are  also  published. 

The  reader  may  here  be  reminded  once  for  all  that  for  all  modern  saints  and 
beati  the  surest  source  of  information  on  the  more  strictly  spiritual  side  is  the 
summarium  de  virtutibus  with  the  criticisms  of  the  Promotor  fidei  which  are  printed 
in  the  process  of  beatification.  Copies  of  these  are  occasionally  to  be  met  with  in 
national  or  private  libraries,  though  they  are  not  published  or  offered  for  sale  to  the 
general  public.  And  for  all  saints  named  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  the  standard 
short  reference  is  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  Decembris  Propylaeum  :  Martyrologium 
Romanum  ad  J  or  mam  editionis  typicae  scholiis  historicis  instructum  (1940).  This  great 
work  provides  a  running  commentary  on  the  entries  in  the  Roman  Martyrology, 
correcting  where  necessary  conclusions  expressed  in  the  sixty-odd  volumes  of  the 
Acta  Sanctorum,  and  anticipating  much  that  will  be  said  at  greater  length  in  those 
volumes  that  have  yet  to  appear  ;  and  there  are  summary  bibliographies  throughout. 
It  is  indispensable  for  all  serious  study  and  reference. 

Attention  may  be  drawn  to  the  following  recently  published  general  works  : 

R.-F.  Agrain,    U Hagiographie  :    ses  sources,  ses  methodes,  son  histoire  (Paris,  1953). 

Les  RR.  PP.  Benedictins  de  Paris,  Vies  des  saints  et  des  bienheureux.  January- 
December,  12  volumes.     Especially  the  last  six  volumes. 

E,  G.  Bowen,  The  Settlements  of  the  Celtic  Saints  in  Wales  (University  of  Wales 
Press,  Cardiff,  1954). 

E.  Dekkers,  Clavis  Patrum  Latinorum  (Bruges,  195 1).  The  best  guide  to  the  editions 
of  the  Fathers  from  Tertullian  to  Bede. 

J.  Delorme,  Chronologie  des  civilisations  (Presses  universitaires  de  France,  1949). 

A.  Ehrhard  (continued  by  Fr  Heseler),  Ueberlieferung  und  Bestand  der  hagio- 
graphischen  und  homiletischen  Literatur  der  griechischen  Kirche.  Three  volumes 
in  Texte  und  Untersuchungen  (Leipzig,  1 937-1 943). 

E.  Griffe,  La  Gaule  chretienne  a  Vepoque  romaine,  volume  i  (Paris,   1947).     From 

the  beginning  to  the  end  of  the  fourth  century. 
A.  Hamann,  La  Geste  du  sang  (Paris,  1953).     Translations  of  authentic  texts  of 

passions  of  the  martyrs. 
R.  Janin,  Les  eglises  et  les  monasteres  (de  Constantinople),  volume  iii  in  La  Geographie 

ecclesiastique  de  V empire  byzantin,  Part   I   (Paris,    1954).     Important  for  cultus 

and  relics  of  saints. 
Menologium  cisterciense  a  monachis  ordinis  cisterciensis  strictioris  observantiae  com- 

positum  .   .   .  (Westmalle,   1952). 
And  also,  in  relation  to  particular  places  in  France,  the  work  of  J.  Hubert  and 

F.  Benoit  (Aries),  M.  de  Laugardiere  (Bourges),  J.  de  La  Martiniere  (Orleans), 
J.  Perrin  (Sens)  and,  especially,  Rene  Louis  (Auxerre).  In  the  Revue  d'histoire 
ecclesiastique  (Louvain)  the  pertinent  reviews  of  books  and  also  the  bibliographies  (in 
a  separate  supplement)  are  particularly  valuable. 






CIRCUMCISION  was  a  sacrament  of  the  Old  Law,  and  the  first  legal 
observance  required  by  Almighty  God  of  that  people  which  He  had  chosen 
preferably  to  all  the  nations  of  the  earth  to  be  the  depositary  of  His  revealed 
truths.  These  were  the  descendants  of  Abraham,  upon  whom  He  had  enjoined  it 
several  hundred  years  before  the  giving  of  the  law  to  Moses  on  Mount  Sinai.  And 
this  on  two  accounts  :  First,  as  a  distinguishing  mark  between  them  and  the  rest  of 
mankind.  Secondly,  as  a  seal  to  a  covenant  between  God  and  that  patriarch  : 
whereby  it  was  stipulated  on  God's  part  to  bless  Abraham  and  his  posterity  ; 
whilst  on  their  part  it  implied  a  holy  engagement  to  be  His  people,  by  a  strict  con- 
formity to  His  laws.  It  was  therefore  a  sacrament  of  initiation  in  the  service  of 
God,  and  a  promise  and  engagement  to  believe  and  act  as  He  had  revealed  and 

This  law  of  circumcision  continued  in  force  till  the  death  of  Christ :  hence,  our 
Saviour  being  born  under  the  law,  it  became  Him,  who  came  to  teach  mankind 
obedience  to  the  laws  of  God,  to  fulfil  all  justice  and  to  submit  to  it.  Therefore, 
He  was  "  made  under  the  law  " — that  is,  was  circumcised — that  He  might  redeem 
them  that  were  under  the  law,  by  freeing  them  from  the  servitude  of  it  :  and  that 
those  who  were  in  the  condition  of  servants  before  might  be  set  at  liberty,  and 
receive  the  adoption  of  sons  in  baptism,  which  by  Christ's  institution  succeeded  to 
circumcision.  On  the  day  He  was  circumcised  He  received  the  name  of  Jesus,  the 
same  which  had  been  appointed  Him  by  the  angel  before  He  was  conceived.  The 
reason  of  His  being  called  Jesus  is  mentioned  in  the  gospel :  "  For  He  shall  save 
His  people  from  their  sins."  This  He  effected  by  the  greatest  sufferings  and 
humiliations,  humbling  Himself,  as  St  Paul  says,  not  only  unto  death,  but  even  to 
the  death  of  the  cross  ;  for  which  cause  God  hath  exalted  Him,  and  hath  given  Him 
a  name  which  is  above  all  names,  that  at  the  name  of  Jesus  every  knee  shall  bow  ; 
agreeably  to  what  Christ  says  of  Himself,  ' '  All  power  is  given  unto  Me  in  heaven 
and  in  earth  ". 

Considered  liturgically,  three,  if  not  four,  distinct  elements  may  be  recognized 
in  the  festival  which  the  Church  keeps  on  the  first  day  of  each  year.  It  is,  to  begin 
with,  the  octave  of  Christmas,  and — possibly  as  a  consequence  of  this — a  special 
commemoration  is  made  of  the  Virgin  Mother  whose  pre-eminent  share  in  the 
mystery  could  not  adequately  be  recognized  on  the  feast  itself.  Secondly,  our 
ancient  mass-books  and  other  documents  preserve  many  traces  of  the  observance 
of  the  day  in  a  spirit  of  penance,  seemingly  to  protest  against  and  atone  for  the 
debaucheries  and  other  excesses  customary  among  pagans  at  the  outset  of  the  new 
year.      Thirdly,  the  eighth  day  after  birth  was  the  day  when  our  Infant  Saviour 

January  i]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

was  circumcised,  an  incident  pregnant  with  significance  which  called  for  suitable 
celebration  on  its  own  account. 

So  far  as  our  liturgical  evidence  goes  the  earliest  recognition  of  the  feast  is  to 
be  found  in  the  Lectionary  of  Victor  of  Capua.  This,  which  bears  witness  to  the 
usage  of  southern  Italy  in  the  year  546,  has  an  entry  De  circumcisione  Domini,  and 
indicates  as  a  reading  for  that  day  the  passage  from  St  Paul  to  the  Romans  (xv.  4-14) 
in  which  our  Lord  is  spoken  of  as  "  Minister  of  the  circumcision  for  the  truth  of 
God  to  confirm  the  promises  made  to  the  fathers  ".  Only  a  very  little  later  we  find 
in  the  17th  canon  of  the  second  Council  of  Tours  (a.d.  567)  a  statement  that  from 
Christmas  to  the  Epiphany  each  day  was  treated  as  a  feast  except  that  triduum 
(apparently from  January  1  to  January  3)  "during which  our  fathers,  to  stamp  out  the 
custom  of  the  pagans,  imposed  a  private  celebration  of  litanies  on  the  first  of  January, 
in  order  that  psalmody  might  be  carried  on  in  the  churches,  and  that  on  the  day  itself 
Mass  of  the  Circumcision  might  be  offered  to  God  at  the  eighth  hour  ".  Here, 
besides  the  reference  to  the  Mass  of  the  Circumcision,  all  the  associations  of  the 
word  litaniae  were  distinctly  connected  by  the  usage  of  the  times  with  penitential 
practices.  Further,  in  the  archetype  of  the  martyrology  known  as  the  Hieronym- 
ianum,  which  dates  from  about  the  year  600,  the  Circumcision  is  again  mentioned, 
and  this  is  also  the  case  with  the  majority  of  the  calendars,  martyrologies,  lectionaries 
and  other  service-books  of  the  seventh  and  following  centuries.  Although  in  the 
present  Roman  liturgy  no  trace  remains  of  the  early  efforts  made  to  wean  Christian 
converts  from  taking  part  in  the  pagan  idolatries  and  debaucheries  which  ushered 
in  the  new  year,  still  the  so-called  "  Gelasian  "  sacramentaries,  more  or  less  modified 
by  the  uses  which  prevailed  in  Gaul,  Germany  and  Spain,  constantly  provide  a 
second  Mass  for  this  day  which  is  headed  "  ad  prohibendum  ab  idolis  " — i.e.  against 
idolatrous  practices.  In  this  Mass  all  the  prayers  echoed  the  petition  that  those 
who  had  been  brought  to  the  pure  worship  of  the  Christian  farth  might  have  the 
courage  utterly  to  turn  their  backs  upon  the  old,  profane  and  evil  ways  of  paganism. 
It  is  to  be  noted  that  even  before  any  special  church  celebration  can  be  connected 
with  new  year's  day,  we  find  St  Augustine,  in  a  sermon  preached  on  that  morning, 
exhorting  his  hearers  to  behave  as  Christians  amid  the  excesses  of  their  gentile 
neighbours  at  that  season. 

It  is  certain,  then,  that  a  wish  to  rescue  the  weaker  members  of  the  Christian 
community  from  the  contamination  of  the  new-year  celebrations  played  a  great  part 
in  the  institution  of  a  church  festival  on  that  day.  St  Augustine's  words  suggest 
that  he  realized  how  hopeless  it  was  to  impose  a  general  fast  upon  an  occasion  which 
was  a  holiday  for  the  rest  of  the  world.  Ordinary  human  nature  would  have  rebelled 
if  too  much  had  been  exacted  of  it.  All  that  could  be  done  in  practice  was  to  carry 
out  the  principles  enunciated  by  such  wise  pastors  as  St  Gregory  Thaumaturgus 
and  St  Gregory  the  Great,  that  when  pagan  observances  were  ineradicably  fixed  in 
the  customs  of  a  people,  the  evil  must  be  neutralized  by  establishing  a  Christian 
celebration  in  place  of  the  heathen  one.  On  the  whole  it  would  seem  that  outside 
Rome — in  Gaul,  Germany,  Spain,  and  even  at  Milan  and  in  the  south  of  Italy — an 
effort  was  made  to  exalt  the  mystery  of  the  Circumcision  in  the  hope  that  it  might 
fill  the  popular  mind  and  win  the  revellers  from  their  pagan  superstitions.  In 
Rome  itself,  however,  there  is  no  trace  of  any  reference  to  the  Circumcision  until  a 
relatively  late  period.  What  our  actual  missal  preserves  for  us,  even  down  to  the 
present  day,  is  a  liturgy  which,  while  echoing,  as  the  octave  naturally  would,  the 
sentiments  proper  to  Christmas,  refers  in  a  very  marked  way  to  the  Mother  of  God, 


e.g.  in  the  collect  for  the  feast.  How  comes  it  that  our  Lady  is  thus  appealed  to  on 
the  first  day  of  the  year  ?  This  may,  as  mentioned  above,  be  simply  the  result  of 
her  intimate  connection  with  the  mystery  of  the  Incarnation,  but  there  is  some 
evidence  that  the  liturgy  for  to-day  represents  the  service  for  the  octave  of  Christmas 
as  solemnized  in  the  ancient  Roman  basilica  of  our  Lady,  Old  St  Mary's  (cf.  D. 
Biinner  in  the  bibliography).  But  whether  or  not  a  feast  of  special  solemnity  was 
observed  on  January  i  in  this  ancient  church  to  serve  as  an  antidote  to  pagan  licence, 
it  is  unfortunately  certain  that  the  expedient  was  only  partially  successful,  and  that 
the  riotous  excesses  of  the  season  still  survived  in  the  "  Feast  of  Fools  "  and  other 
abuses,  against  which  the  better  sort  of  ecclesiastics  protested  throughout  the 
middle  ages,  but  often  protested  in  vain. 

See  Abbot  Cabrol,  Les  origines  liturgiques  (1906),  pp.  203-210  ;  also  in  the  Revue  du 
clerge  franfais,  January,  1906,  pp.  262  seq.,  and  in  DAC,  s.v.  "  Circoncision  "  ;  F.  Biinger, 
Geschithte  der  Neujahrsfeier  in  der  Kirche  (1909)  ;  D.  Biinner,  "  La  fete  ancienne  de  la 
Circoncision  ",  in  La  Vie  et  les  Arts  Liturgiques,  January,  1924  ;  G.  Morin  in  Anecdota 
Maredsolana,  vol.  i,  pp.  426-428.  See  also  Mansi,  Concilia,  vol.  ix,  p.  796  ;  Maasen, 
Concilia  Merov.,  p.  126  ;  St  Augustine,  sermon  198  in  Migne,  PL.,  vol.  xxxviii,  c.  1025  \ 
and  W.  de  Griineisen,  Ste  Marie  Antique,  pp.  94,  493.  There  occurs  above  a  reference  to 
the  Hieronymianum,  which  will  be  frequently  mentioned  in  these  notes.  The  "  Martyrology 
of  Jerome  ",  so  called  because  it  was  erroneously  attributed  to  St  Jerome,  was  the  foundation 
of  all  similar  Western  calendars  of  martyrs  and  other  saints.  It  was  compiled  in  Italy  during 
the  second  half  of  the  fifth  century  :  the  archetype  on  which  all  existing  manuscripts  of  it 
are  based  is  a  recension  made  in  Gaul  about  the  year  600.  Father  Delehaye's  Commentary 
on  the  Hieronymianum  (CMH)  is  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  November,  vol.  ii,  part  2. 

ST    CONCORDIUS,  Martyr        (c.  a.d.  178) 

A  subdeacon  who,  in  the  reign  of  Marcus  Aurelius,  was  apprehended  in  the  desert, 
and  brought  before  Torquatus,  governor  of  Umbria,  then  residing  at  Spoleto. 
The  martyr,  paying  no  regard  to  promises  or  threats,  in  the  first  interrogatory  was 
beaten  with  clubs,  and  in  the  second  was  stretched  on  the  rack,  but  in  the  height  of 
his  torments  he  cheerfully  sang,  "  Glory  be  to  thee,  Lord  Jesus  !  "  Three  days 
after,  two  soldiers  were  sent  by  Torquatus  to  behead  him  in  the  dungeon,  unless  he 
would  offer  sacrifice  to  an  idol,  which  a  priest  who  accompanied  them  carried  with 
him  for  this  purpose.  The  saint  showed  his  indignation  by  spitting  upon  the  idol, 
upon  which  one  of  the  soldiers  struck  off  his  head. 

See  his  acts  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  I  ;  and  Tillemont,  Memoires  .  .  .,  vol.  ii, 
P-  439- 

ST   ALMACHIUS,  or  TELEMACHUS,  Martyr        (c.  a.d.  400) 

All  that  we  know  of  this  interesting  martyr  is  derived  from  two  brief  notices,  the 
one  contained  in  the  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Theodoret  (bk  v,  c.  26),  the  other  in 
the  ancient  "  Martyrology  of  Jerome  "  referred  to  in  the  note  above.  In  the 
first  we  read  that  the  Emperor  Honorius  abolished  the  gladiatorial  combats  of  the 
arena  in  consequence  of  the  following  incident :  "An  ascetic  named  Telemachus 
had  come  from  the  East  to  Rome  animated  with  a  holy  purpose.  Whilst  the 
abominable  games  were  in  progress  he  entered  the  stadium  and,  going  down  into 
the  arena,  attempted  to  separate  the  combatants.  The  spectators  of  this  cruel 
pastime  were  infuriated,  and  at  the  instigation  of  Satan,  who  delights  in  blood,  they 
stoned  to  death  the  messenger  of  peace.      On  hearing  what  had  happened  the 

January   i]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

excellent  emperor  had  him  enrolled  in  the  glorious  company  of  martyrs,  and  put 
an  end  to  these  criminal  sports." 

In  the  Hieronymianum  the  notice,  preserved  to  the  present  day  in  the  Roman 
Martyrology,  reads  :  "  January  ist  .  .  .  the  feast  of  Almachius,  who,  when  he  said 
'  To-day  is  the  octave  day  of  the  Lord,  cease  from  the  superstitions  of  idols  and 
from  polluted  sacrifices  \  was  slain  by  gladiators  at  the  command  of  Alipius,  prefect 
of  the  city."  As  against  Dom  Germain  Morin,  who  is  inclined  to  regard  this 
alleged  martyrdom  as  only  an  echo  of  the  fantastic  legend  of  the  dragon  of  the 
Roman  Forum,  Father  H.  Delehaye,  the  Bollandist,  believes  the  incident  to  be 
historical,  and,  in  spite  of  certain  difficulties,  considers  that  the  martyr's  name  was 
really  Almachius,  and  that  he  perished  about  a.d.  400. 

See  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xxxiii  (1914),  pp.  421-428.  Cf.  Morin,  in  Revue  Bene- 
dictine, vol.  xxxi  (1914),  pp.  321-326,  and  CMH.,  p.  21. 

ST   EUPHROSYNE,  Virgin        (Fifth  Century  ?) 

The  Greeks  call  St  Euphrosyne  "  Our  Mother  ",  and  pay  her  great  honour,  but 
we  have  no  authentic  accounts  of  her  life.  Her  so-called  history  is  nothing  but  a 
replica  of  the  story  of  St  Pelagia,  as  narrated  for  Western  readers  in  the  Vitae  Patrum 
or  in  the  Golden  Legend,  a  tale  which  struck  the  popular  fancy  and  which,  with 
slight  variations,  was  adapted  as  an  embellishment  to  the  lives  of  St  Marina,  St 
Apollinaris,  St  Theodora,  etc. 

According  to  this  fiction,  St  Euphrosyne  was  the  daughter  of  Paphnutius,  a 
pious  and  wealthy  citizen  of  Alexandria.  He  and  his  wife  had  long  been  childless, 
but  Euphrosyne  was  born  to  them  in  answer  to  the  prayers  of  a  holy  monk  whose 
intercession  they  had  sought.  The  little  girl  was  fascinating  and  marvellously 
beautiful,  and  because  of  the  joy  she  caused  to  her  parents  they  named  her  Euph- 
rosyne. When  she  was  eleven,  her  mother  died.  Her  father  set  about  finding  her 
a  husband  and  affianced  her  to  a  young  man  of  great  wealth.  At  first  she  does  not 
seem  to  have  objected,  but  after  an  interview  with  the  old  monk  who  had  prayed  for 
her  before  her  birth,  she  began  to  feel  the  call  to  a  higher  life  and  ceased  to  care  for 
the  things  of  this  world.  She  tore  of!  her  jewellery  and  gave  it  away  to  the  poor, 
she  avoided  young  people  of  her  own  age,  consorting  only  with  pious,  elderly 
women,  and,  in  order  to  make  herself  less  attractive,  we  are  told  that  she  ceased 
washing  her  face  "  even  with  cold  water  ".  All  this  seems  to  have  made  no 
impression  on  her  father,  who  went  off  to  a  three  days'  retreat  in  honour  of  the  holy 
founder  of  a  monastery  of  which  he  was  a  benefactor.  As  soon  as  he  was  gone, 
Euphrosyne  sent  a  servant  she  could  trust  to  ask  for  an  interview  writh  the  old  monk. 
She  told  him  how  she  felt,  and  he  replied  that  our  Lord  had  said  that  if  anyone 
would  not  leave  father,  mother,  brothers  and  everything  for  the  kingdom  of 
Heaven's  sake,  he  could  not  be  His  disciple.  She  then  confessed  that  she  feared 
to  anger  her  father,  as  she  was  the  only  heir  to  his  property.  The  monk  answered 
that  her  father  could  find  as  many  heirs  as  he  wanted  among  the  poor  and  the  sick. 
Finally  she  asked  him  to  give  her  the  veil — which  he  did  then  and  there. 

When  the  interview  was  over,  and  Euphrosyne  began  to  think  matters  out,  she 
came  to  the  conclusion  that  she  could  not  count  upon  being  safe  from  her  father  in 
any  nunnery  in  that  country,  for  he  would  be  sure  to  find  her  and  carry  her  off  by 
force.  She  therefore  secretly  changed  into  man's  attire  and  slipped  out  of  the  house 
by  night — her  father  being  still  away.      She  found  her  way  to  the  very  monastery 

ST  EUGENDUS,   OR  OYEND  [January   i 

her  father  frequented,  and  asked  for  the  superior,  who  was  surprised  to  see  this 
exceptionally  beautiful  youth.  Euphrosyne  told  him  that  her  name  was  Smaragdus, 
that  she  had  been  attached  to  the  court  but  had  fled  from  the  distractions  of  the  city 
and  the  intrigues  of  the  courtiers,  and  that  she  now  desired  to  spend  her  life  in  peace 
and  prayer.  The  abbot  was  greatly  edified  and  offered  to  receive  her  if  she  would 
submit  to  the  direction  of  an  elder  to  teach  her  the  discipline  of  the  religious  life — - 
she  being  evidently  quite  inexperienced.  She  replied  that,  far  from  objecting  to 
one,  she  would  welcome  many  masters  to  teach  her  the  way  of  perfection.  No  one 
ever  suspected  her  sex,  and  she  soon  gave  proof  of  extraordinary  progress  in  virtue. 
She  had  many  trials  and  temptations,  but  she  overcame  them  all.  Because  her 
beauty  and  charm  were  a  cause  of  distraction  to  the  other  monks,  she  retired  to  a 
solitary  cell  where  she  saw  only  those  who  desired  her  advice.  Her  fame  for  holi- 
ness and  wisdom  spread  far  and  wide,  and  after  a  time  her  father,  in  his  despair  at 
losing  her,  asked  leave  to  consult  this  venerated  ascetic,  Smaragdus.  She  recog- 
nized him,  but  he  did  not  know  her,  since  her  face  was  almost  hidden  and  she  was 
much  changed  by  her  austerities.  She  gave  him  spiritual  consolation,  but  did  not 
make  herself  known  to  him  till  she  was  on  her  death-bed  many  years  later.  After 
her  death,  her  father  Paphnutius  retired  from  the  world  and  inhabited  her  cell  for 
ten  years. 

See  Delehaye,  Les  legendes  hagiographiques  (1927),  pp.  18Q-192,  and  Quentin,  Les  mar- 
tyrologes  historiques,  pp.  165-166.  Although  a  commemoration  of  St  Euphrosyne  appears 
in  the  Roman  Martyrology  under  January  1,  and  the  Carmelites  claim  her  as  belonging  to 
their  order  and  keep  her  feast  on  January  2,  there  is  the  gravest  reason  to  doubt  whether  such 
a  person  ever  existed.  No  local  cultus  exists  in  this  case  to  which  we  can  trace  the  origin 
of  the  legend.  In  the  Greek  synaxaries  she  is  commemorated  on  September  25,  and  in  the 
majority  of  the  Latin  martyrologies  her  elogium  occurs  on  January  1  ;  but  in  the  Acta 
Sanctorum  her  story  is  given  on  February  11.  A  Greek  life  is  printed  in  the  Analecta 
Bollandiana,  vol.  ii,  pp.  196-205,  and  the  Latin  versions  are  catalogued  in  BHL.,  nn.  2722- 
2726.  The  atmosphere  of  all  these  is  decidedly  one  of  pure  romance.  At  the  same  time 
there  do  seem  to  be  authentic  cases  of  women  hiding  themselves  in  male  attire  in  monasteries 
and  remaining  for  a  while  undetected.  There  is  more  or  less  contemporary  evidence  that 
this  was  done  by  the  girl  "  llildegund  ",  who  died  in  the  Cistercian  abbey  of  Schonau  on 
April  20,  1 188  ;    but  the  question  of  her  sanctity  is  another  matter. 

ST   EUGENDUS,  or  OYEND,  Abbot        (r.  a.d.  510) 

After  the  death  of  the  brothers  St  Romanus  and  St  Lupicinus,  founders  of  the 
abbey  of  Condat,  under  whose  discipline  he  had  been  educated  from  the  age  of 
seven,  Eugendus  became  coadjutor  to  Minausius,  their  immediate  successor,  and 
soon  after,  upon  his  demise,  abbot  of  that  famous  monastery.  His  life  was  most 
austere,  and  he  was  so  dead  to  himself  as  to  seem  incapable  of  betraying  the  least 
emotion  of  anger.  His  countenance  was  always  cheerful  ;  yet  he  never  laughed. 
He  was  well  skilled  in  Greek  and  Latin  and  in  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  a  great 
promoter  of  studies  in  his  monastery,  but  no  importunities  could  prevail  upon  him 
to  consent  to  be  ordained  priest.  In  the  lives  of  the  first  abbots  of  Condat  it  is 
mentioned  that  the  monastery,  which  was  built  by  St  Romanus  of  timber,  being 
consumed  by  fire,  St  Eugendus  rebuilt  it  of  stone  ;  and  also  that  he  built  a  hand- 
some church  in  honour  of  SS.  Peter,  Paul  and  Andrew.  His  prayer  was  almost 
continual,  and  his  devotion  most  ardent  during  his  last  illness.  Having  called  the 
priest  among  his  brethren  to  whom  he  had  committed  the  office  of  anointing  the 
sick,  Eugendus  caused  him  to  anoint  his  breast  according  to  the  custom  then 

January  i]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

prevalent,  and  he  breathed  forth  his  soul  five  days  after,  about  the  year  510,  and  of 
his  age  sixty-one.*  The  great  abbey  of  Condat,  seven  leagues  from  Geneva, 
received  from  this  saint  the  name  of  Saint-Oyend,  till  in  the  thirteenth  century  it 
exchanged  it  for  that  of  Saint-Claude,  after  the  bishop  of  Besancon  who  is  honoured 
on  June  6. 

See  the  life  of  St  Eugendus  by  a  contemporary  and  disciple  of  his,  which  has  been  critically 
edited  in  modern  times  by  Bruno  Krusch  in  the  MGH.,  Scriptores  Merov.,  vol.  iii,  pp. 
154-166.  Krusch,  in  his  introduction  and  in  a  paper  on  "  La  falsification  des  vies  des  saints 
burgondes  "  in  Melanges  Julien  Havet,  pp.  39-56,  pronounces  this  life  to  be  a  forgery 
of  much  later  date  ;  but  Mgr  L.  Duchesne,  in  Melanges  d'archeologie  et  d'histoire  (1898), 
vol.  xviii,  pp.  3-16,  has  successfully  vindicated  its  authenticity  and  trustworthiness. 

ST    FULGENTIUS,  Bishop  of  Ruspe        (a.d.  533) 

Fabius  Claudius  Gordianus  Fulgentius  was  the  descendant  of  a  noble  senatorial 
family  of  Carthage,  born  in  468,  about  thirty  years  after  the  Vandals  had  dismem- 
bered Africa  from  the  Roman  empire.  He  was  educated  with  his  younger  brother 
under  the  care  of  his  mother  Mariana,  who  was  left  a  young  widow.  Being  by  her 
particular  direction  taught  Greek  very  young,  he  spoke  it  with  as  proper  and  exact 
an  accent  as  if  it  had  been  his  native  language.  He  also  applied  himself  to  Latin  ; 
yet  he  knew  how  to  mingle  business  with  study,  for  he  took  upon  himself  the  ad- 
ministration of  the  family  concerns  in  order  to  ease  his  mother  of  the  burden.  His 
prudence,  his  virtuous  conduct,  his  mild  carriage  to  all,  and  more  especially  his 
deference  for  his  mother  caused  him  to  be  respected  wherever  his  name  was  known. 
He  was  chosen  procurator — that  is,  lieutenant-governor  and  general  receiver  of  the 
taxes  of  Byzacena.  But  it  was  not  long  before  he  grew  disgusted  with  the  world  ; 
and  being  justly  alarmed  at  its  dangers,  he  armed  himself  against  them  by  reading, 
prayer  and  severe  fasts.  His  visits  to  monasteries  were  frequent  ;  and  happening 
to  read  a  sermon  of  St  Augustine  on  the  thirty-sixth  psalm,  in  which  that  saint  treats 
of  the  world  and  the  short  duration  of  human  life,  he  felt  within  him  strong  desires 
of  embracing  the  monastic  state. 

Huneric,  the  Arian  king,  had  driven  most  of  the  orthodox  bishops  from  their 
sees.  One  of  these,  named  Faustus,  had  founded  a  monastery  in  Byzacena.  It 
was  to  him  that  the  young  nobleman  addressed  himself;  but  Faustus,  taking 
exception  to  the  weakness  of  his  constitution,  discouraged  his  desires  with  words 
of  some  harshness  :  "  Go  ",  said  he,  "  and  first  learn  to  live  in  the  world  abstracted 
from  its  pleasures.  Who  can  suppose  that  you,  on  a  sudden  relinquishing  a  life  of 
ease,  can  put  up  with  our  coarse  diet  and  clothing,  and  can  inure  yourself  to  our 
watchings  and  fastings  ?  "  Fulgentius  modestly  replied  that,  "  He  who  hath 
inspired  me  with  the  will  to  serve  Him  can  also  furnish  me  with  courage  and 
strength."  This  humble  yet  resolute  answer  induced  Faustus  to  admit  him  on 
trial.  The  saint  was  then  in  the  twenty-second  year  of  his  age.  The  news  of  so 
unthought  of  an  event  both  surprised  and  edified  the  whole  country  ;  but  Mariana, 
his  mother,  ran  to  the  monastery,  crying  out  at  the  gates,  "  Faustus  !  restore  to  me 
my  son,  and  to  the  people  their  governor.  The  Church  protects  widows  ;  why, 
then,  rob  you  me,  a  desolate  widow,  of  my  son  ?  "      Nothing  that  Faustus  could 

*  The  rich  abbey  of  Saint-Claude  gave  rise  to  a  considerable  town  built  about  it,  which 
was  made  an  episcopal  see  by  Pope  Benedict  XIV  in  1748,  who,  secularizing  the  monastery, 
converted  it  into  a  cathedral.  The  canons  to  gain  admittance  were  required  to  give  proof 
of  their  nobility  for  sixteen  degrees,  eight  paternal  and  as  many  maternal. 


ST  FULGENTIUS  [January  1 

urge  was  sufficient  to  calm  her.  This  was  certainly  as  great  a  trial  of  Fulgentius's 
resolution  as  it  could  well  be  put  to  ;  but  Faustus  approved  his  vocation,  and 
accordingly  recommended  him  to  the  brethren.  But  soon,  persecution  breaking 
out  anew,  Faustus  was  obliged  to  withdraw  ;  and  our  saint  repaired  to  a  neigh- 
bouring monastery,  of  which  Felix,  the  abbot,  would  fain  resign  to  him  the  govern- 
ment. Fulgentius  was  much  startled  at  the  proposal,  but  at  length  was  prevailed 
upon  to  consent  that  they  should  jointly  execute  the  functions  of  superior.  It 
was  admirable  to  observe  with  what  harmony  these  two  holy  abbots  for  six 
years  governed  the  house.  No  contradiction  ever  took  place  between  them  :  each 
always  contended  to  comply  with  the  will  of  his  colleague.  Felix  undertook  the 
management  of  the  temporal  concerns  ;  Fulgentius's  province  was  to  preach  and 

In  the  year  499,  the  country  being  ravaged  by  an  irruption  of  the  Numidians, 
the  two  abbots  were  compelled  to  fly  to  Sicca  Veneria,  a  city  of  the  proconsular 
province  of  Africa.  Here  it  was  that  an  Arian  priest  ordered  them  to  be  arrested 
and  scourged  on  account  of  their  preaching  the  consubstantiality  of  the  Son  of  God. 
Felix,  seeing  the  executioners  seize  first  on  Fulgentius,  cried  out,  "  Spare  that  poor 
brother  of  mine,  who  is  too  delicate  for  your  brutalities  :  let  them  rather  be  my 
portion,  who  am  strong  of  body."  They  accordingly  fell  on  Felix  first,  and  the  old 
man  endured  their  stripes  with  unflinching  resolution.  When  it  was  Fulgentius's 
turn  he  bore  the  lashes  patiently  enough  ;  but  feeling  the  pain  excessive,  that  he 
might  gain  a  little  respite  he  requested  his  judge  to  give  ear  to  something  he  had  to 
impart  to  him.  The  executioners  being  commanded  to  desist,  he  began  to  dis- 
course pleasantly  of  his  travels.  The  cruel  fanatic  had  expected  an  offer  to  surrender 
on  terms,  but  finding  himself  disappointed  he  ordered  the  torments  to  be  redoubled. 
At  length  the  confessors  were  dismissed,  their  clothes  rent,  their  bodies  inhumanly 
torn,  their  beards  and  hair  plucked  out.  The  very  Arians  were  ashamed  of  such 
cruelty,  and  their  bishop  offered  to  punish  the  priest  if  Fulgentius  would  undertake 
his  prosecution.  His  answer  was  that  a  Christian  is  never  allowed  to  seek  revenge, 
and  that  a  blessing  is  promised  for  the  forgiveness  of  injuries.  Fulgentius  went 
aboard  a  ship  bound  for  Alexandria,  wishing  to  visit  the  deserts  of  Egypt,  renowned 
for  the  sanctity  of  the  solitaries  who  dwelt  there.  But  the  vessel  touching  at  Sicily, 
Eulalius,  abbot  at  Syracuse,  diverted  him  from  his  intended  voyage  by  assuring  him 
that  "  a  perfidious  dissension  had  severed  that  country  from  the  communion  of 
Peter  ",  meaning  that  Egypt  was  full  of  heretics,  with  whom  those  who  dwelt  there 
were  obliged  either  to  join  in  communion,  or  be  deprived  of  the  sacraments. 

Fulgentius,  having  laid  aside  the  thought  of  visiting  Alexandria,  embarked  for 
Rome,  to  offer  up  his  prayers  at  the  tombs  of  the  apostles.  One  day  he  saw 
Theodoric,  the  king  of  Italy,  enthroned  in  state,  surrounded  by  the  senate  and  his 
court.  "  Ah  !  "  said  Fulgentius,  "  how  beautiful  must  the  heavenly  Jerusalem  be, 
if  earthly  Rome  is  so  glorious  !  What  glory  will  God  bestow  on  the  saints  in 
Heaven,  since  here  He  clothes  with  such  splendour  the  lovers  of  vanity  !  "  This 
happened  towards  the  latter  part  of  the  year  500,  when  that  king  made  his  first 
entry  into  Rome.  Fulgentius  returned  home  shortly  after,  and  built  a  spacious 
monastery  in  Byzacena,  but  retired  himself  to  a  cell  beside  the  seashore.  Faustus, 
his  bishop,  obliged  him  to  resume  the  government  of  his  monastery  ;  and  many 
places  at  the  same  time  sought  him  for  their  bishop,  for  King  Thrasimund  having 
prohibited  by  edict  the  ordination  of  orthodox  bishops,  several  sees  had  long  been 
vacant.     Among  these  was  Ruspe,  now  a  little  place  called  Kudiat  Rosfa  in  Tunisia. 

January  j]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

For  this  see  St  Fulgentius  was  drawn  out  of  his  retreat  and  consecrated  bishop  in 
508.  m  m     m 

His  new  dignity  made  no  alteration  in  his  manners.  He  never  wore  the  orarium, 
a  kind  of  stole  then  used  by  bishops,  nor  other  clothes  than  his  usual  coarse  garb, 
which  was  the  same  in  winter  and  summer.  He  went  sometimes  barefoot ;  he 
never  undressed  to  take  rest,  and  always  rose  for  prayer  before  the  midnight  office. 
It  was  only  when  ill  that  he  suffered  a  little  wine  to  be  mingled  with  the  water  which 
he  drank  ;  and  he  never  could  be  prevailed  upon  to  eat  flesh-meat.  His  modesty, 
meekness  and  humility  gained  him  the  affections  of  all,  even  of  an  ambitious  deacon 
Felix,  who  had  opposed  his  election  and  whom  the  saint  treated  with  cordial  charity. 
His  love  of  retirement  induced  him  to  build  a  monastery  near  his  house  at  Ruspe  ; 
but  before  the  building  could  be  completed,  orders  were  issued  from  King  Thrasi- 
mund  for  his  banishment  to  Sardinia,  with  others,  to  the  number  of  sixty  orthodox 
bishops.  Fulgentius,  though  the  youngest  of  the  band,  was  their  oracle  when  in 
doubt  and  their  tongue  and  pen  upon  all  occasions.  Pope  St  Symmachus,  out  of 
his  fatherly  charity,  sent  every  year  provisions  in  money  and  clothes  to  these 
champions  of  Christ.  A  letter  of  this  pope  to  them  is  still  extant,  in  which  he  en- 
courages and  comforts  them  ;  and  it  was  at  the  same  time  that  he  sent  them  certain 
relics  of  SS.  Nazarius  and  Romanus,  "  that  the  example  and  patronage  (patrocinia)" 
as  he  expresses  it,  "  of  those  generous  soldiers  of  Christ  might  animate  the  confessors 
to  fight  valiantly  the  battles  of  the  Lord  ". 

St  Fulgentius  with  some  companions  converted  a  house  at  Cagliari  into  a 
monastery,  which  immediately  became  the  resort  of  all  in  affliction  and  of  all  who 
sought  counsel.  In  this  retirement  the  saint  composed  many  learned  treatises  for 
the  instruction  of  the  faithful  in  Africa.  King  Thrasimund,  hearing  that  he  was 
their  principal  support  and  advocate,  sent  for  him.  The  Arian  king  then  drew  up 
a  set  of  objections,  to  which  he  required  his  answer  ;  the  saint  complied  with  the 
demand  :  and  this  is  supposed  to  be  his  book  entitled  An  Answer  to  Ten  Objections. 
The  king  admired  his  humility  and  learning,  and  the  orthodox  triumphed  in  the 
advantage  their  cause  gained  by  this  rejoinder.  To  prevent  the  same  effect  a  second 
time,  the  king,  when  he  sent  him  new  objections,  ordered  them  to  be  only  read  to 
him.  Fulgentius  refused  to  give  answers  in  writing  unless  he  was  allowed  to  take 
a  copy  of  them.  He  addressed,  however,  to  the  king  an  ample  and  modest  con- 
futation of  Arianism,  which  we  have  under  the  title  of  his  Three  Books  to  King 
Thrasimund.  The  prince  was  pleased  with  the  work,  and  granted  him  permission 
to  reside  at  Carthage  till,  upon  repeated  complaints  from  the  Arian  bishops  of  the 
success  of  his  preaching,  he  was  sent  back  to  Sardinia  in  520.  Being  ready  to  go 
aboard  the  ship,  he  said  to  a  Catholic  whom  he  saw  weeping,  "  Grieve  not ;  I  shall 
shortly  return,  and  we  shall  see  the  true  faith  of  Christ  flourish  again  in  this  kingdom 
with  full  liberty  ;  but  divulge  not  this  secret  to  any."  The  event  confirmed  the 
truth  of  the  prediction.  His  humility  concealed  the  multiplicity  of  miracles  which 
he  wrought ;  and  he  was  wont  to  say,  "  A  person  may  be  endowed  with  the  gift  of 
miracles,  and  yet  may  lose  his  soul.  Miracles  insure  not  salvation  ;  they  may 
indeed  procure  esteem  and  applause  ;  but  what  will  it  avail  a  man  to  be  esteemed 
on  earth  and  afterwards  be  delivered  up  to  torments  ?  "  Having  returned  to 
Cagliari,  he  erected  a  new  monastery  near  that  city,  and  was  careful  to  supply  his 
monks  with  all  necessaries,  especially  in  sickness  ;  but  would  not  suffer  them  to  ask 
for  anything,  alleging  that  "  We  ought  to  receive  all  things  as  from  the  hand  of  God, 
with  resignation  and  gratitude  ". 


ST  FELIX  OF  BOURGES  [January  i 

King  Thrasimund  died  in  523,  having  nominated  Hilderic  his  successor,  and  in 
Africa  the  professors  of  the  true  faith  called  home  their  pastors.  The  ship  which 
brought  them  back  was  received  at  Carthage  with  great  demonstrations  of  joy,  more 
particularly  when  Fulgentius  appeared  on  the  upper-deck  of  the  vessel.  The 
confessors  went  straight  to  the  church  of  St  Agileus  to  return  thanks  to  God  ;  on 
their  way,  being  surprised  by  a  sudden  storm,  the  people,  to  show  their  singular 
regard  for  Fulgentius,  made  a  kind  of  umbrella  over  his  head  with  their  cloaks  to 
defend  him  from  the  downpour.  The  saint  hastened  to  Ruspe  and  immediately 
set  about  reforming  the  abuses  that  had  crept  in  during  the  seventy  years  of  perse- 
cution ;  but  this  reformation  was  carried  on  with  a  sweetness  that  won  sooner  or 
later  the  hearts  of  the  most  obdurate.  St  Fulgentius  had  a  wonderful  gift  of  oratory  ; 
and  Boniface,  Archbishop  of  Carthage,  never  heard  him  without  tears,  thanking 
God  for  having  given  so  great  a  pastor  to  His  Church. 

About  a  year  before  his  death,  Fulgentius  retired  into  a  monastery  on  the  little 
island  called  Circinia  to  prepare  himself  for  his  passage  to  eternity.  The  impor- 
tunities of  his  flock,  however,  recalled  him  to  Ruspe  a  little  before  the  end.  He 
bore  the  pain  of  his  last  illness  with  admirable  patience,  having  this  prayer  almost 
always  upon  his  lips  :  "  Lord,  grant  me  patience  now,  and  hereafter  mercy  and 
pardon."  The  physicians  advised  him  to  take  baths,  to  whom  he  answered,  "  Can 
baths  make  a  mortal  man  escape  death,  when  his  life  has  reached  its  term  ?  " 
Summoning  his  clergy  and  monks,  who  were  all  in  tears,  he  begged  their  forgiveness 
if  he  had  ever  offended  any  one  of  them  ;  he  comforted  them,  gave  them  some 
moving  instructions,  and  calmly  breathed  forth  his  soul  in  the  year  533,  of  his 
age  the  sixty-fifth,  on  January  1,  on  which  day  his  name  occurs  in  many 
calendars.  In  some  few7  churches  his  feast  is  kept  on  May  16,  perhaps  the  day 
on  which  his  relics  were  translated,  about  714,  to  Bourges,  in  France,  where  they 
were  destroyed  in  the  Revolution.  The  veneration  for  his  virtues  was  such  that  he 
was  interred  within  the  church,  contrary  to  the  law  and  custom  of  that  age,  as  is 
remarked  by  the  author  of  his  life.  St  Fulgentius  had  chosen  the  great  St 
Augustine  for  his  model ;  and  as  a  true  disciple,  imitated  him  in  his  conduct, 
faithfully  imbibing  his  spirit  and  expounding  his  doctrine. 

There  is  a  trustworthy  biography  of  this  saint,  written  by  a  contemporary,  whom  many 
believe  to  have  been  his  disciple,  Fulgentius  Ferrandus.  It  has  been  printed  in  the  Acta 
Sanctorum,  January  1,  and  elsewhere.  See  the  important  work  of  G.  G.  Lapeyre,  *S/  Fulgence 
de  Ruspe  (1929),  which  includes  the  vita  in  a  separate  volume.  For  an  account  of  the  theo- 
logical and  controversial  writings  of  St  Fulgentius  reference  may  be  made  to  Bardenhewer's 
Patrolony,  pp.  616-618  in  the  English  translation  (1908)  or  to  DTC,  vol.  vi,  cc.  968  seq. 
See  also  Abbot  Chapman  in  the  Catholic  Encyclopedia,  vol.  vi,  pp.  316-317  ;  and  Dr  H.  R. 
Reynolds  in  DCB.,  vol.  ii,  pp.  576-583. 

ST    FELIX,  Bishop  of  Bourges        (c.  a.d.  580) 

Not  very  much  is  known  of  this  saint,  but  there  can  be  no  doubt  regarding  his 
historical  existence  or  the  veneration  in  which  he  was  held  by  his  contemporaries. 
St  Germanus  of  Paris  officiated  at  his  consecration  ;  we  cannot  be  sure  of  the  exact 
date.  St  Felix  took  part  in  the  Council  of  Paris  (a.d.  573),  and  Venantius  Fortun- 
atus  addressed  a  little  poem  to  him  commending  a  golden  pyx  (turris)  which  he  had 
had  made  for  the  reservation  of  the  Eucharist.  St  Felix  is  commemorated  in  the 
diocese  of  Bourges  on  January  1,  but  the  year  of  his  death  cannot  be  accurately 
determined.    His  tomb  was  in  the  church  of  St  Austregisilus  de  Castro,  outside  the 

January  i]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

city  walls.  Twelve  years  after  his  death,  as  we  learn  from  Gregory  of  Tours,  the 
slab  covering  his  remains  was  replaced  by  another  of  more  precious  material.  The 
body  was  then  found  to  be  perfectly  free  from  corruption,  and  numerous  cures  are 
said  to  have  been  obtained  by  those  who  drank  water  in  which  some  of  the  dust  of 
the  old  crumbling  slab  had  been  mingled. 

See  Duchesne,  Fastes  episcopaux  de  Vancienne  Gaule,  vol.  ii  (1900),  p.  28.  Venantius 
Fortunatus,  Carmina,  bk  iii,  no.  25  (Migne,  PL.,  vol.  Ixxxviii,  c.  473  ;  in  the  text  edited  for 
MGH.  by  F.  Leo  this  poem  is  printed  as  bk  iii,  no.  20)  ;  and  Gregory  of  Tours,  In  gloria 
confessorutn,  c.  102,  in  MGH.,  Scriptores  Merov.,  vol.  i. 

ST   CLARUS,  Abbot        (c.  a.d.  660) 

St  Clarus,  whose  name  was  given  him  in  his  youth  from  his  "  brightness  ",  not 
so  much  in  human  learning  as  in  his  perception  of  the  things  of  God,  is  believed  to 
have  been  made  abbot  of  the  monastery  of  St  Marcellus  at  Vienne  in  Dauphine, 
early  in  the  seventh  century.  A  Latin  life,  which  must  be  more  than  a  hundred 
years  later  in  date,  relates  many  marvellous  stories  of  the  miracles  he  worked,*  but 
it  is  probably  trustworthy  when  it  tells  us  that  Clarus  was  first  a  monk  in  the  abbey 
of  St  Ferreol,  that  he  was  highly  esteemed  by  Cadeoldus,  Archbishop  of  Vienne, 
that  he  was  made  spiritual  director  of  the  convent  of  St  Blandina,  where  his  own 
mother  and  other  widows  took  the  veil,  and  that  he  ended  his  days  (January  1, 
c.  660)  as  abbot  of  St  Marcellus.     His  cultus  was  confirmed  in  1903. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  i,  and  M.  Blanc,    Vie  et  culte  de  S.  Clair  (2  vols.,  1898). 

ST    PETER    OF    ATROA,  Abbot        (a.d.  837) 

A  life  of  St  Peter  of  Atroa,  who  was  born  in  773  near  Ephesus,  was  written  by  one 
of  his  own  disciples  and  is  still  extant.  It  goes  into  some  detail,  but  is  principally 
made  up  of  edifying  anecdotes  of  no  great  interest,  particulars  of  the  saint's  numer- 
ous journeys  and,  above  all,  accounts  of  his  even  more  numerous  miracles. 

He  was  the  eldest  of  three  children,  and  was  christened  Theophylact,  and  nobody 
was  surprised  when,  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  he  decided  to  be  a  monk.  Directed,  it 
is  said,  by  the  All-holy  Mother  of  God,  he  joined  St  Paul  the  Hesychast  (Recluse) 
at  his  hermitage  at  Crypta  in  Phrygia,  who  clothed  Theophylact  with  the  holy  habit 
and  gave  him  the  name  of  Peter.  Immediately  after  his  ordination  to  the  priest- 
hood at  Zygos  some  years  later,  at  the  very  door  of  the  church,  there  happened  the 
first  wonder  recorded  of  him,  when  he  cured  a  man  possessed  by  an  unclean  spirit. 

Shortly  afterwards  St  Peter  accompanied  his  spiritual  father  on  his  first  pil- 
grimage, when  they  directed  their  steps  towards  Jerusalem  ;  but  God  in  a  vision 
turned  them  aside,  telling  them  to  go  to  the  Bithynian  Olympus,  where  St  Paul  was 
to  establish  a  monastery  at  the  chapel  of  St  Zachary  on  the  edge  of  the  Atroa.  This 
accordingly  was  done,  the  monastery  flourished,  and  before  his  death  in  805  Paul 
named  Peter  as  his  successor.  He  was  then  thirty-two  years  old,  and  the  access 
of  responsibility  made  him  redouble  his  fervour  and  his  extreme  austerities. 

The  monastery  continued  to  flourish  for  another  ten  years,  when  St  Peter 
decided  to  disperse  his  community  in  the  face  of  the  persecution  by  the  Emperor 

*  It  is  perhaps  desirable  to  remind  the  reader  once  for  all  that  only  Almighty  God  can 
do  miracles.  The  use  of  the  above  and  similar  expressions  is  permissible  by  custom,  but 
in  fact  the  miracle  is  done  by  God  through  the  agency  or  at  the  intercession  of  the  saint 


ST  PETER  OF  ATROA  [January  i 

Leo  the  Armenian  of  those  who  upheld  the  orthodox  doctrine  concerning  the 
veneration  of  images.  Peter  himself  went  first  to  Ephesus  and  then  to  Cyprus  ;  on 
his  return,  at  a  conference  of  some  of  his  refugee  brethren,  he  escaped  arrest  by 
imperial  troops  only  by  making  himself  invisible.  Then,  with  one  companion, 
Brother  John,  he  continued  his  wanderings  and  visited  his  home,  where  his  brother 
Christopher  and  his  widowed  mother  received  the  monastic  habit  at  his  hands.  He 
tried  to  settle  down  as  a  recluse  in  several  places,  one  of  which  was  Kalonoros,  The 
Beautiful  Mountain,  at  the  end  of  the  Hellespont ;  but  so  great  was  his  reputation 
as  a  wonder-worker  and  reader  of  consciences  that  he  was  never  left  in  peace  for 
long.  But  at  Kalonoros  he  remained  for  some  years,  making  journeys  about 
western  Asia  Minor  from  time  to  time,  each  of  which  was  starred  with  miracles. 

The  death  of  Leo  the  Armenian  in  820  made  for  a  little  more  tranquillity  in  the 
Church,  and  with  the  stimulus  of  persecution  taken  away  for  a  time  the  pettiness  of 
small  minds  reasserted  itself.  Certain  bishops  and  abbots,  jealous  of  his  popularity 
and  his  miracles,  accused  St  Peter  of  practising  magic  and  of  casting  out  devils  by 
the  power  of  Beelzebub.  When  they  refused  to  listen  to  his  modest  expostulations, 
Peter  decided  to  seek  the  advice  of  St  Theodore  Studites,  who  was  living  in  exile 
with  some  of  his  monks  at  Kreskentios,  on  the  gulf  of  Nicomedia.  When  he  had 
made  careful  enquiry  and  questioned  Peter  closely,  St  Theodore  wrote  a  letter  (it 
can  be  found  in  his  works)  to  all  the  monks  around  Mount  Olympus,  declaring  that 
the  conduct  and  doctrine  of  Peter  of  Atroa  were  irreproachable  and  that  he  was  as 
good  a  monk  as  could  be  found.  The  detractors  were  thus  rebuked,  and  the 
vindicated  Peter  returned  to  Kalonoros. 

He  then  undertook  the  restoration  of  St  Zachary's  and  the  reorganization  of  two 
other  monastei  ies  that  he  had  established,  taking  up  his  own  residence  in  a  hermit- 
age at  Atroa.  But  a  few  years  later  the  Iconoclast  troubles  began  again  and,  the 
local  bishop  being  an  opponent  of  images,  Peter  judged  it  wise  once  more  to  disperse 
his  monks  to  more  remote  houses.  He  was  only  just  in  time,  for  soon  after  the 
bishop  came  to  St  Zachary's  with  the  intention  of  driving  them  out  and  arresting 
those  who  resisted.  St  Peter,  meanwhile,  having  seen  his  community  safely  housed 
elsewhere,  stayed  for  a  period  with  a  famous  recluse  called  James,  near  the  Monas- 
tery of  the  Eunuchs  on  Mount  Olympus.  It  was  while  staying  here  that  he 
miraculously  cured  of  a  fever  St  Paul,  Bishop  of  Prusias,  who  had  been  driven  from 
his  see  by  the  image-breakers  :  the  instrument  of  the  bishop's  cure  was  a  good 
square  meal. 

Persecution  becoming  more  envenomed  in  Lydia,  Peter  and  James  retired  to 
the  monastery  of  St  Porphyrios  on  the  Hellespont,  but  soon  after  St  Peter  decided 
to  go  back  to  Olympus  to  visit  his  friend  St  Joannicius  at  Balea,  from  whence  he 
returned  to  his  hermitage  at  St  Zachary's.  A  few  weeks  later  St  Joannicius  had  a 
vision  :  he  seemed  to  be  talking  with  Peter  of  Atroa,  at  the  foot  of  a  mountain  whose 
crest  reached  to  the  heavenly  courts  ;  and  as  they  talked,  two  shining  figures 
appeared  who,  taking  Peter  one  by  each  arm,  bore  him  away  upwards  in  a  halo  of 
glory.  At  the  same  moment,  in  the  church  of  St  Zachary's,  while  the  monks  were 
singing  the  night  office  with  their  abbot  on  a  bed  of  sickness  in  the  choir,  death  came 
to  St  Peter  of  Atroa,  after  he  had  lovingly  addressed  his  brethren  for  the  last  time. 
It  was  January  1,  837. 

There  seems  to  have  been  no  liturgical  cultus  of  St  Peter  of  Atroa,  but  it  is  nevertheless 
curious  that  his  contemporary  biography  should  have  been  ignored  or  overlooked  by  hagio- 
logists  for  so  long.      As  is  said  above,  it  is  largely  taken  up  with  the  saint's  miracles,  but  it  is 

January  i]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

interesting  as  a  good  specimen  of  ninth-century  Byzantine  hagiography  and  for  what  it  tells 
of  monastic  life  during  the  Iconoclast  troubles.  Rescuing  the  manuscript  "  from  wherever 
the  caprice  of  the  learned  had^hidden  it  ",  as  Fr  V.  Laurent  puts  it,  Fr  B.  Menthon  published 
a  translation  in  L'Unite  de  UEglise,  nos.  60  and  71  (1934-35),  as  one  chapter  from  his  work 
on  Les  moines  de  VOlympe.  Father  Menthon  was  pastor  of  the  Latin  Catholics  at  Brusa,  and 
had  an  intimate  knowledge  of  the  topography  and  archaeology  of  the  neighbouring  mountain, 
where  scanty  ruins  of  St  Peter's  monastery  of  St  Zachary,  and  of  numerous  others,  can  still 
be  seen. 

ST   WILLIAM    OF    SAINT    BENIGNUS,    Abbot        (a.d.  103 i) 

St  William,  who  must  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  remarkable  men  of  his  age,  was 
born  in  the  castle  of  the  island  of  San  Giuglio,  near  Novara,  in  962,  at  the  very 
time  when  this  stronghold  was  being  defended  by  his  father,  Count  Robert  of 
Volpiano,  against  the  besieging  forces  of  the  Emperor  Otto.  The  garrison  was 
eventually  forced  to  capitulate  upon  honourable  terms,  and  the  emperor  and  his 
consort,  laying  aside  all  resentment,  acted  as  sponsors  to  the  newly-born  infant. 
He  was  educated  in  a  monastery,  and  later  became  a  monk  at  Locadio,  near  Vercelli. 
In  987  he  met  St  Majolus,  and  followed  him  to  join  the  already  famous  abbey  over 
which  the  latter  ruled  at  Cluny.  The  Cluniac  reform  was  then  rapidly  extending 
its  sphere  of  influence,  and  William,  after  being  sent  for  a  while  to  reorganize  the 
monastery  of  Saint-Sernin  on  the  Rhone,  was  finally  chosen  to  go  with  twelve  other 
monks  to  revive  the  ancient  foundation  of  Saint  Benignus  at  Dijon.  William  now 
received  the  priesthood  and  was  blessed  as  abbot.  In  a  short  time  the  whole  abbey 
underwent  a  transformation  both  materially  and  spiritually.  The  edifice  was 
enlarged,  a  great  minster  was  built,  schools  were  opened,  the  arts  encouraged, 
hospitality  developed,  and  works  of  charity  in  every  form  set  on  foot.  Ultimately 
the  community  of  Saint  Benignus  became  the  centre  of  a  great  network  of  associated 
monasteries,  either  reformed  or  newly  founded,  in  Burgundy,  Lorraine  and  Italy. 
St  William's  own  character  was  one  in  which  great  zeal  and  firmness  were  joined 
with  tender  affection  for  his  subjects.  He  did  not  hesitate  on  occasion  to  oppose, 
both  by  action  and  by  his  writings,  the  most  powerful  rulers  of  his  time,  men  like 
the  Emperor  St  Henry,  Robert,  King  of  France,  and  Pope  John  XIX,  when  he  felt 
the  cause  of  justice  was  at  stake.  In  the  interests  of  the  Cluniac  reform  he  was 
constantly  active,  making  many  journeys  and  travelling  as  far  as  Rome.  His 
biographer  claims  that  he  inspired  St  Odilo,  who  is  also  commemorated  on  this  day, 
with  the  love  of  high  perfection,  and  amongst  his  other  works  he  refounded  Fecamp 
in  Normandy,  a  monastic  institution  which  afterwards  had  an  important  influence 
on  the  religious  life  in  England.  It  was  at  Fecamp  that  St  William  breathed  his 
last,  as  day  was  dawning,  on  Sunday,  January  1,  1031. 

The  life  of  William,  written  by  his  disciple  Ralph  Glaber  shortly  after  his  death,  has  been 
printed  by  the  Bollandists,  by  Mabillon,  and  others.  See  also  E.  Sackur,  Die  Cluniac  enser  ; 
Hauck,  Kirchengeschichte  Deutschlands,  vol.  iii  ;  G.  Chevallier,  he  Venerable  Gaillaume  (1875) ; 
and  B.H.L.,  n.  1284. 

ST    ODILO,  Abbot        (a.d.  1049) 

Odilo  was  very  young  when  he  received  the  monastic  habit  at  Cluny  from  the  hands 
of  St  Mayeul  or  Majolus,  by  whose  appointment  he  was  made  his  coadjutor  in  991, 
though  only  twenty-nine  years  of  age  ;  and  from  the  death  of  St  Mayeul  in  994  he 
was  charged  with  the  entire  government  of  that  great  abbey.     Notwithstanding  the 


ST  ODILO  [January  i 

austerities  practised  on  himself,  his  dealings  with  others  were  always  gentle  and 
kindly.  It  was  usual  with  him  to  say  that  of  the  two  extremes,  he  chose  rather  to 
offend  by  tenderness  than  by  a  too  rigid  severity.  In  a  great  famine  in  1006  his 
liberality  to  the  poor  was  by  many  censured  as  extravagant  ;  for  to  relieve  their 
necessities  he  melted  down  the  sacred  vessels  and  ornaments,  and  sold  the  gold 
crown  which  St  Henry  had  presented  to  the  abbey.  Odilo  journeyed  to  Rome  four 
times,  and  when  out  of  devotion  to  St  Benedict  he  paid  a  visit  to  Monte  Cassino, 
he  earnestly  begged  leave  to  kiss  the  feet  of  all  the  monks,  obtaining  his  request 
with  difficulty. 

Under  the  rule  of  St  Odilo  the  number  of  abbeys  which  accepted  Cluniac 
customs  and  supervision  increased,  and  a  greater  degree  of  organization  and  de- 
pendence of  the  subordinate  monasteries  on  Cluny  developed.  The  particulars 
varied  somewhat  according  to  the  status  of  the  monastery  concerned  and  its  distance 
from  the  mother-house  :  but  many  priories  were  dependent  on  Cluny  in  the 
strictest  sense,  and  were  controlled  by  her  even  to  the  extent  of  their  superiors 
being  nominated  by  Cluny.  In  this  and  in  other  developments  there  was  a 
modification  of  principles  laid  down  in  the  Rule  of  St  Benedict,  and  historically  a 
distinction  is  made  between  Cluniac  monks  and  Benedictines  pure  and  simple. 

Massacres  and  pillage  were  so  common  in  that  age,  owing  to  the  right  claimed 
by  every  petty  lord  to  avenge  his  own  injuries  by  private  wars,  that  the  agreement 
called  "  the  truce  of  God  "  was  set  on  foot.  By  this,  among  other  articles,  it  was 
agreed  that  churches  should  be  sanctuaries  to  all  sorts  of  persons,  except  those  that 
violated  this  truce,  and  that  from  the  Wednesday  till  the  Monday  morning  no  one 
should  offer  violence  to  another.  This  pact  met  with  much  opposition  among  the 
Neustrians,  but  was  at  length  received  and  observed  in  most  provinces  of  France, 
through  the  exhortations  and  endeavours  of  St  Odilo,  and  Richard,  Abbot  of  Saint- 
Vanne,  who  were  charged  with  this  commission.  Prince  Casimir,  son  of  Miceelaw, 
King  of  Poland,  retired  to  Cluny,  where  he  became  a  monk,  and  was  ordained 
deacon.  He  was  afterwards,  by  a  deputation  of  the  nobility,  called  to  the  crown. 
St  Odilo  referred  the  matter  to  Pope  Benedict  IX,  by  whose  dispensation  Casimir 
mounted  the  throne  in  1041,  married,  had  several  children,  and  reigned  till  his 
death  in  1058. 

It  was  St  Odilo  who  instituted  the  annual  commemoration  of  all  the  faithful 
departed  on  November  2,  to  be  observed  by  the  members  of  his  community  with 
alms,  prayers  and  sacrifices  for  the  relief  of  the  suffering  souls  in  Purgatory  ;  and 
this  charitable  devotion  he  often  much  recommended.  He  was  very  devout  to  the 
Blessed  Virgin  ;  and  above  all  sacred  mysteries  to  that  of  the  divine  Incarnation. 
As  the  monks  were  singing  that  verse  in  the  church,  "  Thou,  about  to  take  upon 
thee  to  deliver  man,  didst  not  abhor  the  womb  of  a  virgin  ",  he  was  rapt  in  ecstasy 
and  swooned  away.  Most  of  his  sermons  and  poems  treat  of  the  mysteries  of  our 
redemption  or  of  the  Blessed  Virgin.  Having  patiently  suffered  during  five  years 
many  painful  diseases,  St  Odilo  died  at  Souvigny,  a  priory  in  the  Bourbonnais, 
whilst  employed  in  the  visitation  of  his  monasteries,  on  January  1,  1049,  being  then 
eighty-seven  years  old,  and  having  been  fifty-six  years  abbot.  He  insisted  on  being 
carried  to  the  church  to  assist  at  the  Divine  Office,  and  he  died,  having  received 
the  viaticum  and  extreme  unction  the  day  before,  lying  upon  the  ground  on  sack- 
cloth strewn  with  ashes. 

See  his  life  by  his  disciple  Jotsald,  edited  by  the  Bollandists  and  Mabillon.  A  portion 
of  the  text  lacking  in  these  copies  has  been  printed  in  the  Neues  Archiv  (1890),  vol.  xv,  pp. 


January   i]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE   SAINTS 

117  seq.  Cf.  also  E.  Sackur,  Die  Cluniacenser  ;  P.  Jardet,  Saint  Odilon  (1898)  ;  BHL.,  n. 
908  ;  and  Mabillon,  Annates,  vol.  i,  p.  57.  Ceillier  demonstrates  against  Basnage  that  the 
Life  of  St  Alice  the  Empress  is  the  work  of  St  Odilo,  no  less  than  the  Life  of  St  Mayeul. 
We  have  four  letters,  some  poems,  and  several  sermons  of  this  saint,  which  may  be  found 
in  Migne,  PL.,  cxlii.      See  also  Neues  Archiv  (1899),  vol.  xxiv,  pp.  628-735. 

BD    ZDISLAVA,  Matron        (a.d.  1252) 

This  holy  associate  of  the  Dominican  Order  was  born  early  in  the  thirteenth 
century  in  that  part  of  Bohemia  which  now  forms  the  diocese  of  Litomerice.  Her 
piety  as  a  child  was  remarkable,  and  it  is  said  that  at  the  age  of  seven  she  ran  off 
into  the  forest  with  the  intention  of  leading  a  solitary  life  given  up  entirely  to  prayer 
and  penance.  She  was,  of  course,  brought  back,  and  some  years  later,  in  spite  of 
her  reluctance,  she  was  constrained  by  her  family  to  marry.  Her  husband,  a 
wealthy  nobleman,  to  whom  she  bore  four  children,  seems  to  have  treated  her 
somewhat  brutally,  though  by  her  patience  and  gentleness  she  secured  in  the  end 
considerable  freedom  of  action  in  her  practices  of  devotion,  her  austerities  and  her 
many  works  of  charity.  She  made  herself  at  all  times  the  mother  of  the  poor,  and 
especially  of  the  fugitives  who,  in  those  troublous  days  of  the  Tartar  invasion, 
poured  down  upon  the  castle  of  Gabel,  where  she  and  her  husband  resided.  On 
one  occasion  her  husband,  coming  indignantly  to  eject  a  repulsive  fever-stricken 
mendicant  to  whom  she  had  given  a  bed  in  their  house,  found  in  his  place,  not  a 
living  man,  but  a  figure  of  Christ  crucified.  Deeply  impressed  by  this  (cf.  what  is 
said  about  a  similar  incident  in  the  life  of  St  Elizabeth  of  Hungary,  November  19), 
he  seems  to  have  left  his  wife  free  to  found  a  Dominican  priory  and  to  join  their 
third  order. 

Zdislava  had  visions  and  ecstasies,  and  even  in  those  days  of  infrequent  com- 
munion she  is  said  to  have  received  the  Blessed  Sacrament  almost  daily.  When 
she  fell  grievously  ill  she  consoled  her  husband  and  children  by  saying  that  she 
hoped  to  help  them  more  from  the  next  world  than  she  had  ever  been  able  to  do 
in  this.  She  died  on  January  1,  1252,  was  buried  in  the  priory  of  St  Laurence 
which  she  had  founded,  and  is  stated  to  have  appeared  to  her  husband  in  glory 
shortly  after  her  death.  This  greatly  strengthened  him  in  his  conversion  from 
a  life  of  worldliness.  The  cult  paid  to  her  in  her  native  country  was  approved 
by  Pope  Pius  X  in  1907.  The  alleged  connection  of  Bd  Zdislava  Berka  with 
the  third  order  of  St  Dominic  remains  somewhat  of  a  problem,  for  the  first 
formal  rule  for  Dominican  tertiaries  of  which  we  have  knowledge  belongs  to  a 
later  date. 

See  Analecta  Ecclesiastica  (1907),  p.  393  ;  and  M.  C.  Ganay,  Les  Bienheureuses  Dominicaines 
(Paris,  1913),  pp.  49-67. 

BD    HUGOLINO    OF    GUALDO        (a.d.  1260) 

Hardly  anything  appears  to  be  recorded  concerning  the  life  of  this  religious 
beyond  the  fact  that  he  entered  the  Order  of  the  Hermits  of  St  Augustine,  and  that 
somewhere  about  the  year  1258  he  took  over  a  monastery  in  his  native  place,  Gualdo 
in  Umbria,  which  monastery  had  formerly  belonged  to  the  Benedictines.  There 
he  died  in  the  odour  of  sanctity  only  a  short  time  afterwards  on  January  1,  1260. 
It  would  seem  that  a  local  cult  gradually  grew  up  in  the  diocese  of  Spoleto,  and  that 
his  body,  which  for  many  months  had  remained  incorrupt,  was  translated  by 


BD  JOSEPH  TOMMASI  [January  i 

Bartholomew  Accorambone,  Bishop  of  Spoleto,  to  the  parish  church  of  SS.  Antony 
and  Antoninus.     This  cult  was  confirmed  in  19 19. 

For  the  decree  confirmationis  cultus  from  which  the  above  is  taken,  see  the  Acta  Apostolicae 
Sedis  for  1919,  p.  181. 

BD    JOSEPH    TOMMASI,  Cardinal  of  the  Holy  Roman  Church 
(a.d.  1713) 

By  the  beatification  of  Cardinal  Joseph  Mary  Tommasi,  the  Church  may  be  said 
to  have  set  her  seal  upon  the  principle  that  neither  profound  learning  nor  the  critical 
spirit  of  accurate  scholarship  nor  independence  of  judgement,  so  long  as  it  is  kept 
in  check  by  regard  for  dogmatic  truth,  are  inconsistent  with  the  highest  sanctity. 
Bd  Joseph  Tommasi  has  been  described  by  a  high  modern  authority,  Edmund 
Bishop,  as  "  the  prince  of  liturgists  ",  and  he  has  been  honoured  by  Anglicans  on 
that  ground  almost  as  much  as  by  Catholics  ;  yet  amid  all  his  literary  labours  he 
practised  heroic  virtue,  and  was  faithful  to  the  minutest  observances  of  a  strict 
religious  rule. 

He  was  born  on  September  12,  1649,  at  Alicata  in  Sicily.  His  father  was  duke 
of  Palermo  and  prince  of  Lampedusa,  with  other  honourable  titles  ;  his  mother's 
name  was  Rosalia  Traino.  They  had  already  four  daughters,  who  became  nuns 
in  the  Benedictine  monastery  at  Palma  founded  by  their  father.  One  of  them, 
Isabella,  the  cardinal's  great  confidant  (in  religion  Maria  Crocifissa),  is  also  a 
candidate  for  beatification  and  may  be  styled  "  Venerable  ".  No  pains  were  spared 
in  Joseph's  education,  and  even  as  a  boy  he  was  a  good  Greek  scholar.  The  music 
of  the  Church  also  had  ever  a  great  attraction  for  him,  and  before  he  was  fifteen  the 
superior  general  of  the  Theatines  was  struck  with  his  unusual  ability.  His  distinct 
call  to  the  religious  life  came  about  this  time — manifested  in  his  increasing  love  of 
prayer  and  solitude,  and  his  growing  distaste  for  the  things  of  earth.  Many 
obstacles  were  in  the  way,  besides  his  father's  wish  that  he  should  take  up  a  position 
at  court.  One  was  most  unexpected.  His  mother  had  already  entered  a  convent 
as  an  oblate  or  tertiary,  and  now  his  father  determined  to  do  the  same  and  to  leave 
the  world,  making  over  everything  to  Joseph.  However,  after  a  time  he  gave  his 
consent  to  his  son's  fulfilling  his  vocation.  He  was  drawn  to  the  Theatine  clerks 
regular,  as  his  uncle,  Don  Carlo,  was  a  distinguished  and  most  saintly  member  of 
that  order,  and  his  vocation  was  finally  determined  by  a  sermon  which  he  heard. 
He  entered  the  noviciate  at  Palermo  in  1664,  and  after  his  profession,  being  very 
delicate,  he  was  sent  to  Palma  for  change  and  rest,  giving  great  edification  to  all  he 
met.  He  next  went  to  Messina  to  study  Greek,  thence  to  Rome  and  to  the  Uni- 
versities of  Ferrara  and  Modena.  In  the  process  of  beatification  is  a  letter  from 
Mgr  Cavalcante,  Bishop  of  Pozzuoli,  speaking  of  the  great  virtue,  humility  and  love 
of  silence  of  the  young  religious. 

A  few  years  later  we  hear  of  a  prophecy  of  Maria  Crocifissa  that  her  brother 
would  one  day  be  a  cardinal,  accompanied  by  a  sisterly  reminder  that,  however  fine 
a  horse's  trappings  may  be,  he  still  remains  a  horse.  In  1673  Joseph  was  called  to 
Rome,  being  twenty-four  years  old.  His  superior  offered  to  ordain  him  before  the 
full  time,  but  he  refused  the  offer.  Maria  Crocifissa  wrote  him  a  letter  of  encour- 
agement, telling  him  not  to  shrink  from  the  priesthood,  but  to  see  that  his  soul  was 
like  wax,  ready  to  receive  its  indelible  seal.  "  I  give  you  ",  she  wrote,  "  the  great 
book  of  Christ  crucified.     Pass  your  time  reading  it,  for  I  find  your  name  inscribed 


January  i]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

there."  He  prepared  most  earnestly  for  his  ordination,  and  sang  his  three  Christ- 
mas Masses  at  San  Silvestro,  where  for  forty  years,  with  the  exception  of  a  journey 
to  Loreto,  he  lived  the  ordinary  life  of  his  order.  He  was  already  looked  upon  as  a 
saint  in  Rome.  At  the  very  sight  of  him  quarrels  and  disputes,  unkind  or  loose 
talk  ceased.  But  Don  Joseph,  like  all  the  chosen  of  God,  passed  through  a  time 
of  bitter  spiritual  trial  and  desolation.  In  1675  he  writes  to  Maria  Crocifissa 
imploring  her  prayers.  She  answered  exhorting  him  to  patience  and  humility  in 
accepting  his  cross  from  the  hand  of  God,  telling  him  that  she,  too,  was  not  without 
her  spiritual  trials.  He  answered  that  the  days  of  actual  physical  martyrdom  are 
over,  and  that  we  are  now  in  the  days  of  hidden  martyrdom,  seen  only  by  God  ;  the 
lesson  of  it  all  being  trust  in  God.  He  was  at  this  time  so  scrupulous  that  he  could 
not  be  allowed  to  hear  confessions  or  preach. 

Don  Joseph's  life  was  almost  that  of  a  hermit,  devoted  to  prayer  and  study.  He 
made  a  special  study  of  Greek  philosophy,  Holy  Scripture  and  the  Breviary.  A 
knowledge  of  eastern  languages  was  a  necessity,  and  his  Hebrew  teacher,  Rabbi 
Moses  da  Cave,  owed  his  conversion  from  Judaism  in  1698,  at  the  age  of  seventy 
and  after  long  years  of  resistance,  to  the  prayers  of  Don  Giuseppe  and  his  sisters. 
His  first  book  was  an  edition  of  the  Speculum  of  St  Augustine.  In  1680  appeared 
the  Codices  Sacramentorum,  being  four  texts  of  the  most  ancient  liturgies  he  could 
meet  with.  These  precious  documents  had  been  stolen  from  the  library  of  Fleury 
Abbey,  and  dispersed  by  the  Calvinists  in  the  sixteenth  century.  They  had  been 
gradually  collected  together  again  in  Rome,  partly  by  Queen  Christina  of  Sweden. 
Tommasi's  work  became  celebrated  and  Mabillon  transcribed  a  great  part  of  it  in 
his  Liturgia  Gallicana.  Out  of  modesty  his  next  book,  the  Psalterium,  was  pub- 
lished under  the  name  of  Giuseppe  Caro.  It  was  a  work  of  very  great  learning, 
giving  an  account  of  the  two  most  important  translations  of  the  psalms,  the  Roman 
and  the  Gallican,  and  it  opened  up  for  liturgists  a  whole  new  field  of  research. 
There  were  many  other  treatises  of  the  same  class,  particularly  on  the  Antiphonarium, 
all  displaying  great  erudition  and  fervent  piety.  His  work  on  the  psalms  attracted 
the  notice  of  Pope  Innocent  XII,  and  in  1697  Tommasi  entered  the  Vatican,  under 
obedience,  for  the  first  time.  The  year  1704  saw  him  appointed  theologian  to  the 
Congregation,  of  Discipline  of  Regulars.  In  this  latter  capacity  he  laboured  for 
the  reform  of  the  orders,  and  all  who  came  in  contact  with  him  were  impressed  with 
his  zeal  and  holiness. 

Don  Tommasi,  having  been  chosen  as  confessor  by  Cardinal  Albani,  had  re- 
quired his  penitent  in  1700  to  accept  the  papacy  under  pain  of  mortal  sin.  Soon 
after,  Clement  XI  insisted  on  raising  the  Theatine  scholar  to  the  cardinalate,  saying, 
Tommasi  Vha  fatto  a  Noi,  e  Noi  lo  faremo  a  lui.  ("  What  Tommasi  did  to  us,  we 
will  do  to  him.")  It  was  promptly  refused,  and  the  whole  day  was  spent  in  dis- 
cussion between  Don  Tommasi  and  the  high  ecclesiastics.  Eventually  he  wrote 
the  pope  a  grateful  letter  of  thanks,  "  representing  to  your  Holiness  the  obstacles 
and  impediments,  my  grave  sins,  my  passions  ill-controlled,  my  ignorance  and  want 
of  ability,  and  my  conscience  bound  by  vows  never  to  accept  any  dignity,  which 
make  it  imperative  to  implore  from  your  Holiness  the  permission  to  refuse  the 
honour  ".  This  letter  was  read  to  the  Congregation  of  the  Holy  Office,  and  Car- 
dinal Ferrari  was  deputed  by  Clement  to  tell  Tommasi  that  the  same  reasons 
applied  to  him  as  to  the  pope,  whom  he  had  urged  to  accept  the  still  more  onerous 
burden  of  the  papacy.  Being  finally  persuaded  that  it  was  the  will  of  God,  he 
submitted,  saying,  Oh  via  !  sard  per  pochi  mese  ("  Well  !   it  will  only  be  for  a  few 


BD  JOSEPH  TOMMASI  [January  i 

months  "),  and  went  to  receive  the  hat  from  his  Holiness.  He  wrote  to  Maria 
Crocifissa  to  implore  her  prayers,  saying  that  Saul  among  the  prophets  fell  terribly, 
and  that  Judas  was  an  apostle  and  perished. 

Joseph  Tommasi  continued  his  simple  life,  going  to  choir  with  his  brethren, 
and  as  much  as  possible  avoiding  all  ceremony.  The  members  of  his  household 
were  dressed  as  poor  people  ;  amongst  them  was  an  old  beggar,  a  converted  Jew. 
His  food  was  of  the  plainest,  and  even  of  that  he  ate  so  little  that  his  doctor  remon- 
strated. The  new  cardinal  took  the  title  of  San  Martino  ai  Monti,  remembering 
that  he  had  left  home  to  begin  his  religious  life  on  St  Martini  day,  and  also  because 
it  had  been  the  title  of  St  Charles  Borromeo,  who  was  his  great  pattern  in  his  life 
as  cardinal.  He  found  it  necessary  to  leave  his  monastery  in  order  to  live  near  his 
church,  which  belonged  to  the  Carmelites,  with  whom  he  frequently  joined  in  their 
offices  as  one  of  themselves.  People  flocked  from  all  over  Rome  to  be  present  at 
his  Mass,  whereat  he  allowed  nothing  but  plainsong,  accompanied  by  the  organ 
only.  At  the  classes'  of  Christian  doctrine  on  Sunday  he  himself  instructed  the 
smallest  children,  explaining  the  catechism  and  singing  hymns  with  them.  Owing 
to  the  extreme  moral  laxity  of  the  day,  he,  with  the  pope's  approval  and  following 
the  example  of  Borromeo,  insisted  on  the  separation  of  the  sexes  in  the  church  and 
in  approaching  the  altar.  This  raised  a  storm  of  opposition  and  abuse,  but  he 
persevered  quietly  in  what  he  thought  to  be  right.* 

Bd  Joseph  was  absorbed  in  the  love  of  God,  and  often  walked  about  hardly 
knowing  what  he  was  doing.  Those  who  served  his  Mass  bore  witness  to  the 
extraordinary  graces  vouchsafed  to  him,  and  he  was  several  times  found  in  ecstasy 
before  the  Blessed  Sacrament  or  his  crucifix.  He  showed  his  love  for  God's 
creatures  by  his  almsgiving  and  care  for  all  who  came  to  him  in  need — not  even 
allowing  the  birds  to  go  hungry.  The  poor  and  suffering  besieged  his  house  and 
pressed  round  him  when  he  went  out,  just  as  long  ago  they  pressed  round  his 
Master.  His  humility  had  even,  at  times,  been  exaggerated,  and  his  uncle  Don 
Carlo  once  reproved  him  for  calling  himself  a  ne'er-do-well,  telling  him  not  to  be 
abject  but  humble.  To  Maria  Crocifissa  he  once  called  himself  a  tristo,  which  may 
mean  scoundrel,  to  which  she  replied  that  she  must  decline  to  correspond  with  such 
a  character.  We  read  also  of  his  patience  in  bearing  constant  bad  health  ;  of  his 
very  severe  bodily  mortifications,  and  of  the  wise  moderation  of  the  advice  he  gave 
to  all  who  sought  his  help.  He  more  than  once  foretold  his  own  death,  and  when 
in  December  1712  Pope  Clement  fell  ill,  the  cardinal  observed,  "  The  pope  will 
recover  ;  I  shall  die."  He  chose  the  spot  where  he  should  be  buried  in  the  crypt 
of  his  church,  to  which  he  went  for  the  last  time  on  St  Thomas's  day  and  joined  the 
friars  at  Compline.  After  the  office,  he  made  arrangements  with  the  prior  about 
the  alms  to  be  given  to  the  poor,  advising  him  to  keep  back  the  coal  as  the  cold 
would  increase  after  Christmas. 

On  Christmas  eve  he  was  very  ill,  but  insisted  on  attending  the  services  at  St 
Peter's,  and  offered  his  three  Masses  in  his  own  chapel.  He  suffered  greatly  from 
cold,  and,  refusing  all  food,  could  only  sit  crouching  over  the  fire.  After  two  days 
he  took  to  his  bed.  Hearing  the  lamentations  of  his  famiglia  and  of  the  poor  people 
who  were  crowding  into  the  lower  part  of  the  house,  he  sent  them  word  that  he 
had  asked  the  pope  to  provide  for  them.     At  times  he  was  delirious,  but  his  confessor 

#  Separation  of  men  from  women  at  public  worship  is  normal  in  most  parts  of  the  East, 
and  is  considered  theoretically  desirable  in  the  West  too  :  cf.  the  Code  of  Canon  Law, 
canon  1262,  §  1. 


January  2]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

repeating  the  name  of  Jesus  he  recovered  consciousness  at  once.  He  would  not 
have  the  prayers  for  the  dying  said  until  he  asked  for  them.  Very  shortly  before 
his  death  he  received  viaticum,  and  thus  strengthened  by  the  Lord  he  had  so  dearly 
loved,  he  passed  quietly  through  the  janua  caelioi  death  on  January  1,  1713.  Even 
before  his  death  the  sick  were  healed  through  touching  his  clothing,  and  when  the 
end  had  come  cures  multiplied  round  his  bier.  Bd  Joseph  Tommasi  was  beatified 
in  1803. 

See  D.  Bernino,  Vita  del  V.  Card.  G.  M.  Tomasi  (1722)  ;  and  the  anonymous  Theatine 
biography  compiled  from  the  process  of  beatification,  Vita  del  B.  Giuseppe  M.  Tommasi 
C1803).  Vezzosi  published  a  collected  edition  of  his  works  in  eleven  volumes  in  Rome, 
1 747-1 769  ;  but  some  few  tractates  have  only  been  printed  in  recent  times  by  Cardinal  G. 
Mercati  (Studi  e  Testi,  vol.  xv,  1905),  who  points  out  that  the  beatus  in  signing  his  own  name 
spelt  it  with  one  "  m  "  ;   but  the  commonly  received  form  is  Tommasi. 

Zr  •  THE   HOLY   NAME    OF   JESUS 

"  f  I  lHOU  shalt  call  his  name  Jesus,  for  he  shall  save  his  people  from  their 
I      sins  "  (Matt,  i  21).     A  feast  of  the  Holy  Name  of  Jesus  is  observed  in  the 

JL.  Western  church  on  the  Sunday  that  falls  between  the  Circumcision  and 
the  Epiphany  ;  and  when  there  is  no  such  Sunday,  on  this  date,  January  2.  As 
we  honour  Christ's  passion  summed  up  in  the  material  cross,  so  the  name  Jesus 
brings  to  the  mind  all  that  name  stands  for  (cf.  Phil,  ii  9-10).  "  To  speak  of  it 
gives  light ;  to  think  of  it  is  the  food  of  the  soul  ;  to  call  on  it  calms  and  soothes 
the  heart  "  :  so  said  St  Bernard  of  Clairvaux,  than  whom  no  one  has  spoken  of  the 
Holy  Name  more  movingly  or  more  profoundly. 

The  Council  of  Lyons  in  1274  prescribed  a  special  devotion  towards  the  name 
of  Jesus,  and  it  was  to  the  Order  of  Preachers  that  Bd  Gregory  X  specially  turned 
to  spread  it.  But  its  great  diffusion — in  the  face  of  a  good  deal  of  opposition — was 
due  to  the  two  Friars  Minor,  St  Bernardino  of  Siena  and  St  John  of  Capistrano. 
It  was  they  who  popularized  the  use  of  the  monogram  IHS,  which  is  simply  an 
abbreviation  of  the  name  Jesus  (Ihesus).  The  subsequent  adoption  of  this  mono- 
gram as  part  of  the  emblem  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  gave  it  a  yet  wider  diffusion.  A 
feast  of  the  Holy  Name  was  granted  by  the  Holy  See  to  the  Franciscans  in  1530 
and  was  subsequently  allowed  elsewhere.  Not  till  1721  was  it  extended  to  the 
whole  Western  church,  and  it  was  not  many  years  later  that  Pope  Benedict  XIV's 
commission  for  the  reform  of  the  Breviary  recommended  that  it  should  be  with- 
drawn from  the  general  calendar.  The  feast  is  in  a  sense  only  a  double  of  the 
Circumcision,  and  the  lessons  of  the  third  nocturn  at  Matins  are  taken  from  St 
Bernard's  sermons  on  that  mystery. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  Name  of  Jesus  figures  in  the  calendar  of  the 
Book  of  Common  Prayer,  on  August  7,  the  date  selected  by  some  late  medieval 
bishops  in  England  and  Scotland  when  they  adopted  the  feast  on  their  own 
initiative.  And  Father  Edward  Caswall's  translation  of  the  lovely  Vespers  hymn, 
Jesu  dulcis  memoria  (anonymous,  but  often  wrongly  attributed  to  St  Bernard),  has 
made  it  known  perhaps  better  among  Protestants  than  Catholics.  St  Bernardino 
and  St  John  of  Capistrano  may  have  been  the  originators  of  the  Litany  of  the  Holy 
Name,  which  in  fact  is  concerned  rather  with  the  attributes  of  our  Lord  than  with 
His  name  :   Bishop  Challoner  in  the  original  Garden  of  the  Soul  calls  it  simply  the 



Litany  of  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  The  great  English  contribution  to  the  devotion 
was  Jesu's  Psalter,  by  the  Bridgettine  Richard  Whytford,  with  its  triple  invocations 
of  Jesu.     Nowadays  it  too  often  is  printed  in  a  debased  form. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  October,  vol.  x,  pp.  319-320  ;  C.  Stengel,  Sacrosancti  nominis 
Jesu  cultus  et  miracula  (161 3)  ;  lives  of  St  Bernardino  of  Siena  ;  F.  G.  Hoi  week,  Calen- 
darium  liturgicum  festorum  Dei  et  Dei  Matris  (1925)  ;  and  the  issue  of  La  Vie  Spirituelle  for 
January  1952.  For  the  Eastern  tradition  of  the  Holy  Name,  see  La  priere  de  Jesus  (Cheve- 
togne,  1 951).  An  account  of  the  work  and  projects  of  Pope  Benedict  XIV's  commission, 
referred  to  above  and  elsewhere  herein,  may  be  most  easily  found  in  S.  Baumer,  Histoire  du 
breviaire,  vol.  ii  (1905),  cap.  12  (trans,  from  the  German  and  supplemented  by  R.  Biron). 

ST    MACARIUS    OF   ALEXANDRIA        (c.  a  d.  394) 

St  Macarius  the  Younger,  a  citizen  of  Alexandria,  followed  the  business  of  a 
confectioner.  Desirous  to  serve  God  with  his  whole  heart,  he  forsook  the  world 
in  the  flower  of  his  age  and  spent  upwards  of  sixty  years  in  the  desert  in  penance 
and  contemplation.  He  first  retired  into  the  Thebaid  about  the  year  335.  Having 
acquired  some  proficiency  in  virtue  under  masters  renowned  for  their  sanctity, 
he  quitted  Upper  Egypt  and  came  to  the  Lower  before  the  year  373.  In  this  part 
were  three  deserts  almost  adjoining  each  other  :  that  of  Skete,  on  the  borders  of 
Libya,  that  of  the  Cells,  contiguous  to  the  former,  this  name  being  given  to  it  on 
account  of  the  hermit-cells  with  which  it  abounded  ;  and  a  third,  which  reached 
to  the  western  branch  of  the  Nile,  called  Nitria.  St  Macarius  had  a  cell  in  each  of 
these  deserts,  but  his  chief  residence  was  in  that  of  the  Cells.  Each  anchoret  had 
here  a  separate  cell  in  which  he  spent  his  time,  except  on  Saturday  and  Sunday 
when  all  assembled  in  one  church  to  celebrate  and  receive  the  divine  mysteries. 
When  a  stranger  came  to  live  among  them,  everyone  offered  him  his  cell,  and  was 
ready  to  build  another  for  himself.  Their  cells  were  not  within  sight  of  each  other. 
Their  manual  labour,  which  was  that  of  making  baskets  or  mats,  did  not  interrupt 
the  prayer  of  the  heart,  and  a  profound  silence  reigned  throughout  the  district. 
Our  saint  here  received  the  priesthood,  and  shone  as  a  bright  sun  influencing  this 
holy  company,  whilst  St  Macarius  the  Elder  lived  no  less  eminent  in  the  wilderness 
of  Skete.  Palladius  has  recorded  a  memorable  instance  of  the  self-denial  observed 
by  these  hermits.  A  present  was  made  to  St  Macarius  of  a  newly-gathered  bunch 
of  grapes  ;  the  holy  man  carried  it  to  a  neighbouring  monk  who  was  ill,  and  he  sent 
it  to  another.  In  this  manner  it  passed  to  all  the  cells  and  was  brought  back  to 
Macarius,  who  was  exceedingly  rejoiced  to  perceive  the  abstinence  of  his  brethren, 
but  would  not  eat  the  grapes  himself. 

The  austerities  of  all  the  inhabitants  of  that  desert  were  extraordinary,  but  St 
Macarius  went  far  beyond  the  rest.  For  seven  years  together  he  lived  only  on  raw 
vegetables  and  beans,  and  for  the  three  following  years  contented  himself  with  four 
or  five  ounces  of  bread  a  day,  and  consumed  only  one  little  vessel  of  oil  in  a  year, 
as  Palladius  assures  us.  His  watchings  were  not  less  surprising.  God  had  given 
him  a  body  capable  of  bearing  the  greatest  rigours  ;  and  his  fervour  was  so  intense 
that  whatever  spiritual  exercise  he  heard  of  or  saw  practised  by  others  he  resolved 
to  adopt  for  himself.  The  reputation  of  the  monastery  of  Tabennisi,  under  St 
Pachomius,  drew  him  to  this  place  in  disguise,  some  time  before  the  year  349.  St 
Pachomius  told  him  that  he  seemed  too  far  advanced  in  years  to  accustom  himself 
to  their  fastings  and  watchings  ;  but  at  length  admitted  him  on  condition  he  would 
observe  all  the  rules.     Lent  approaching  soon  after,  the  monks  prepared  to  pass 


January  2]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

that  holy  time  each  according  to  his  strength  and  fervour  :  some  by  fasting  one, 
others  two,  three  or  four  days,  without  any  nourishment ;  some  standing  all  day, 
others  only  sitting  at  their  work.  Macarius  took  palm-tree  leaves  steeped  in  water 
as  materials  with  which  to  occupy  himself,  and  standing  in  a  retired  place  passed 
the  whole  time  without  eating,  except  for  a  few  green  cabbage  leaves  on  Sundays. 
His  hands  were  employed  in  almost  continual  labour,  and  his  heart  conversed  with 
God.  Such  a  prodigy  astonished  the  monks,  who  even  remonstrated  with  the 
abbot  at  Easter  deprecating  a  singularity  which,  if  tolerated,  might  on  several 
accounts  be  prejudicial  to  their  community.  St  Pachomius  prayed  to  know  who 
this  stranger  was  ;  and  learning  by  revelation  that  he  was  the  great  Macarius, 
embraced  him,  thanked  him  for  the  edification  he  had  given,  and  desired  him,  when 
he  returned  to  his  desert,  to  offer  up  his  prayers  for  them. 

The  virtue  of  this  great  saint  was  often  exercised  by  temptations.  One  was  a 
suggestion  to  quit  his  desert  and  go  to  Rome  to  serve  the  sick  in  the  hospitals  ; 
which,  on  due  reflection,  he  discovered  to  be  a  secret  artifice  of  vainglory  inciting 
him  to  attract  the  eyes  and  esteem  of  the  world.  True  humility  alone  could  dis- 
cover the  snare  which  lurked  under  the  specious  disguise  of  charity.  Finding  this 
enemy  extremely  importunate,  he  threw  himself  on  the  ground  in  his  cell,  and  cried 
out  to  the  fiends,  "  Drag  me  hence,  if  you  can,  by  force,  for  I  will  not  stir  ".  Thus 
he  lay  till  night,  but  as  soon  as  he  arose  they  renewed  the  assault ;  and  he,  to  stand 
firm  against  them,  filled  two  baskets  with  sand,  and  laying  them  on  his  shoulders, 
set  out  to  tramp  the  wilderness.  A  friend,  meeting  him,  asked  him  what  he  was 
doing,  and  made  an  offer  to  relieve  him  of  his  burden  ;  but  the  saint  only  replied, 
"  I  am  tormenting  my  tormentor  ".  He  returned  home  in  the  evening,  freed  from 
the  temptation.  Palladius  informs  us  that  St  Macarius,  desiring  to  enjoy  heavenly 
contemplation  at  least  for  five  days  without  interruption,  immured  himself  within 
his  cell,  and  said  to  his  soul,  "  Having  taken  up  thy  abode  in  Heaven  where  thou 
hast  God  and  His  angels  to  converse  with,  see  that  thou  descend  not  thence  :  regard 
not  earthly  things."  The  first  two  days  his  heart  overflowed  with  rapture  ;  but 
on  the  third  he  met  with  so  violent  a  disturbance  from  the  Devil,  that  he  was 
obliged  to  return  to  his  usual  manner  of  life.  God  oftentimes  withdraws  Himself, 
as  the  saint  observed  on  this  occasion,  to  make  religious  people  sensible  of  their 
own  weakness  and  to  convince  them  that  this  life  is  a  state  of  trial.  St  Jerome  and 
others  relate  that  a  certain  anchoret  in  Nitria  having  left  one  hundred  crowns  at  his 
death,  which  he  had  acquired  by  weaving  cloth,  the  monks  met  to  deliberate  what 
should  be  done  with  the  money.  Some  were  for  having  it  given  to  the  poor,  others 
to  the  Church  :  but  Macarius,  Pambo,  Isidore  and  others,  who  were  called  The 
Fathers,  ordained  that  the  one  hundred  crowns  should  be  thrown  into  the  grave, 
and  that  at  the  same  time  should  be  pronounced  the  words,  "  May  thy  money  be 
with  thee  to  perdition  ".  This  example  struck  terror  into  the  monks  and  put  an 
end  to  the  hoarding  of  money. 

Palladius,  who  from  391  lived  for  a  time  under  our  saint,  was  eye-witness  of 
several  miracles  wrought  by  him.  He  relates  that  a  certain  priest  whose  head  was 
consumed  by  a  cancerous  sore  came  to  his  cell,  but  was  refused  admittance  ; 
Macarius  at  first  would  not  even  speak  to  him.  Palladius  strove  to  prevail  upon 
him  to  give  at  least  some  answer  to  the  unfortunate  man.  Macarius  on  the  contrary 
urged  that  God,  to  punish  him  for  a  sin  of  the  flesh,  had  afflicted  him  with  this 
disorder  :  however,  that  upon  his  sincere  repentance  and  promise  never  more  to 
celebrate  the  divine  mysteries  he  would  intercede  for  his  cure.     The  priest  con- 


ST  MUNCHIN  [January  2 

fessed  his  sin,  with  the  promise  required.  The  saint  thereupon  absolved  him  by 
the  imposition  of  hands  ;  and  a  few  days  after  the  priest  came  back  perfectly  healed, 
glorifying  God  and  giving  thanks  to  his  servant. 

The  two  saints  of  the  name  of  Macarius  happened  one  day  to  cross  the  Nile 
together  in  a  boat,  when  certain  officers  could  not  help  observing  to  each  other  that 
these  men,  from  the  cheerfulness  of  their  aspect,  must  be  happy  in  their  poverty. 
Macarius  of  Alexandria,  alluding  to  their  name,  which  in  Greek  signifies  happy, 
made  this  answer,  "  You  have  reason  to  call  us  happy,  for  this  is  our  name.  But 
if  we  are  happy  in  despising  the  world,  are  not  you  miserable  who  live  slaves  to  it  ?  " 
These  words,  uttered  with  a  tone  of  voice  expressive  of  an  interior  conviction  of 
their  truth,  had  such  an  effect  on  the  tribune  who  first  spoke  that,  hastening  home, 
he  distributed  his  fortune  among  the  poor,  and  embraced  an  eremitical  life. 

In  the  desert  of  Nitria  a  monastery  bearing  the  name  of  St  Macarius  survived 
for  many  centuries.  St  Jerome,  in  his  letter  to  Rusticus,  seems  to  have  copied 
many  things  from  a  set  of  constitutions  attributed  to  this  saint.  The  Concordia 
Regularum,  or  "  collection  of  rules  ",  gives  another  code  under  the  names  of  the 
two  SS.  Macarius,  Serapion  (of  Arsinoe,  or  the  other  of  Nitria),  Paphnutius  (of 
Bekbale,  priest  of  Skete),  and  thirty-four  other  abbots.  According  to  this  latter, 
the  monks  fasted  the  whole  year,  except  on  Sundays  and  the  time  from  Easter  to 
Whitsuntide  ;  they  observed  the  strictest  poverty,  and  divided  the  day  between 
manual  labour  and  prayer.  Hospitality  was  much  recommended,  but  for  the  sake 
of  recollection  it  was  strictly  forbidden  for  any  monk,  except  one  who  was  deputed 
to  entertain  guests,  ever  to  speak  to  any  stranger  without  leave.  The  definition  of 
a  monk  or  anchoret  given  by  Abbot  de  Ranee,  of  La  Trappe,  seems  to  trace  the 
portrait  of  the  great  Macarius  in  the  desert.  When,  says  he,  a  soul  relishes  God 
in  solitude,  she  thinks  no  more  of  anything  but  Heaven.  This  Macarius  is  named 
in  the  canon  of  the  Coptic  Mass. 

See  Palladius,  Lausiac  History,  ch.  18,  and  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  2.  Cf.  Schiwietz, 
Morgenlandische  Monchtum  (1904),  vol.  i,  pp.  104  seq.  ;  Amelineau  in  Annates  du  Musee 
Guimet,  xxv,  235  seq.  ;  BHL.,  n.  757  ;  Codex  Regularum  in  Migne,  PL.,  vol.  ciii  ;  and 
Concordia  Regularum,  ed.  H.  Menard  (1638).  Although  there  may  be  some  confusion  in 
the  stories  told  regarding  the  different  ascetics  who  bore  the  name  Macarius,  it  is  impossible 
to  identify  this  Macarius  "  the  Younger  "  (of  Alexandria)  with  Macarius  the  Elder  (the 
Egyptian),  for  Palladius  distinctly  tells  us  that  he  knew  them  both. 

ST   MUNCHIN,  Bishop        (Seventh  Century) 

The  martyrologies  of  Oengus,  Tallaght  and  Gorman  all  mention  on  this  day  a 
Munchin,  who  is  also  described  as  "  the  Wise  ",  but  that  he  was  ever  bishop  of 
Limerick,  or  bishop  at  all,  seems  most  doubtful.  There  is  no  extant  life  of  the 
saint  and  the  only  data  about  his  ancestry  and  career  are  to  be  found  in  the  pedigree 
of  the  Dal  Cais,  the  ruling  sept  in  north  Munster  during  early  Christian  times. 
Among  the  sept  is  numbered  "  Sedna  from  whom  Maincin  of  Luimneach  "  in  the 
Book  of  Ui  Maine.  The  rare  references  to  Sedna's  folk  show  that  the  territory  of 
his  people  lay  by  the  coast  of  the  present  County  Clare.  The  connection  of 
Maincin  (the  name  means  "  Little  Monk  ")  with  the  island  at  Limerick  is  explained 
in  another  entry  in  the  genealogy  :  "  Dioma  had  three  sons,  Dubduin,  Aindlid  and 
Feardomnach  who  gave  Sibtand  to  Maincin  of  Luimneach  ".  The  donor's 
brethren  figure  in  well-vouched  history  and  we  are  enabled  to  date  the  lifetime  of 
Munchin  to  the  late  seventh  century.     Inis  Sibtand  was  the  island  at  the  head  of 


January  2]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

the  Shannon  tideway  where  in  the  early  tenth  century  the  Norsemen  founded 

St  Munchin  is  the  principal  patron  of  the  diocese  of  Limerick,  and  his  feast  is 
kept  throughout  Ireland. 

The  substance  of  the  above  notice  is  due  to  Mgr  Canon  Michael  Moloney,  of  Limerick. 
Canon  J.  Begley's  surmise  in  his  history  of  the  diocese  of  Limerick  (1906),  pp.  71-72,  is  no 
more  than  an  arbitrary  guess.      See  also  LIS.,  vol.  i,  pp.  27-34. 

ST   VINGENTIAN        (a.d.  672  ?) 

The  only  information  which  we  possess  concerning  this  saint  is  quite  untrustworthy. 
It  come  to  us  in  a  biography  which  professes  to  have  been  written  by  a  certain 
deacon  Hermenbert,  who  was  his  tutor  when  a  boy  but  survived  him  long  enough  to 
write  this  account.  The  life  states  that  Vincentian  lost  his  parents  as  a  child  and 
was  brought  up  by  one  Berald,  Duke  of  Aquitaine,  who  eventually  agreed  to  the 
request  of  St  Didier,  Bishop  of  Cahors,  that  so  promising  a  child  should  be  trained 
for  the  priesthood.  But  Berald  died  soon  after,  and  his  son  and  successor  compelled 
the  bishop  to  send  the  youth  back  to  the  ducal  household,  where  he  was  placed  in 
charge  of  the  stables.  In  the  interval  Vincentian  had  acquired  the  habits  of  the 
most  fervent  piety.  He  gave  away  to  the  poor  his  clothes  and  his  food,  he  refused 
a  bride  who  was  pressed  upon  him,  and,  in  the  end,  he  was  so  cruelly  beaten, 
persecuted  and  threatened  that  he  ran  away  and  hid  himself  in  the  forest,  leading  a 
solitary  life  as  a  hermit.  It  is  useless  to  detail  the  extravagant  miracles  which  mark 
the  different  stages  of  the  story.  Eventually  death  came  to  release  Vincentian  at 
the  time  which  had  been  revealed  to  him  in  a  vision,  viz.,  January  2,  672.  The 
dead  body  was  placed  on  a  car  to  be  drawn  by  two  oxen  to  the  spot  which  his 
relics  were  destined  to  render  famous.  On  the  way  a  bear  killed  one  of  the  oxen, 
but  a  disciple  of  the  saint  commanded  the  bear  to  drag  the  car  in  the  place  of  the 
beast  it  had  killed,  and  it  at  once  obeyed. 

The  life  has  been  printed  by  W.  Levison  in  MGH.,  Scriptores  Merov.,  vol.  v,  pp.  1 12-128, 
with  an  introduction  in  which  he  proves  that  the  story  cannot  be  the  work  of  a  contemporary 
as  pretended  but  that  it  is  a  pure  fabrication,  two  or  three  hundred  years  later  in  date.  See 
also  Bruno  Krusch  in  Neues  Archiv,  vol.  xviii,  p.  561.  There  is  nothing  even  to  show  that 
such  a  person  as  St  Vincentian  ever  existed. 

ST    ADALHARD,  or  ADELARD,  Abbot        (a.d.  827) 

The  family  of  this  holy  monk  was  most  illustrious,  his  father  Bernard  being  son  of 
Charles  Martel  and  brother  of  King  Pepin,  so  that  Adalhard  was  first  cousin  to 
Charlemagne.  He  was  only  twenty  years  old  when,  in  773,  he  took  the  monastic 
habit  at  Corbie  in  Picardy,  a  monastery  that  had  been  founded  by  Queen  St  Ba- 
thildis.  The  first  employment  assigned  him  was  that  of  gardener,  in  which,  whilst 
his  hands  were  employed  in  digging  or  weeding,  his  thoughts  were  on  God  and 
heavenly  things.  The  great  example  of  his  virtue  defeated  the  projects  of  his 
humility  and  did  not  suffer  him  to  live  long  unknown,  and  some  years  after  he  was 
chosen  abbot.  Being  obliged  by  Charlemagne  often  to  attend  at  court,  he  soon,  in 
fact,  became  the  first  among  the  king's  counsellors,  as  he  is  styled  by  Hincmar,  who 
had  seen  him  there  in  796.  He  was  even  compelled  by  Charlemagne  to  quit  his 
monastery  altogether,  and  act  as  chief  minister  to  that  prince's  eldest  son  Pepin, 
who,  at  his  death  at  Milan  in  810,  appointed  the  saint  tutor  to  his  son  Bernard. 


BD  AYRALD  [January  2 

After  the  death  of  Charlemagne,  Adalhard  was  accused  of  supporting  the  revolt 
of  Bernard  against  Louis  the  Debonair,  who  banished  him  to  a  monastery  in  the 
little  island  of  Heri,  called  afterwards  Noirmoutier,  on  the  coast  of  Aquitaine.  The 
saint's  brother  Wala  (one  of  the  great  men  of  that  age,  as  appears  from  his  curious 
life,  published  by  Mabillon)  he  obliged  to  become  a  monk  at  Lerins.  This  exile 
St  Adalhard  regarded  as  a  great  gain,  and  in  it  his  tranquillity  of  soul  met  with  no 
interruptions.  The  emperor  at  length  was  made  sensible  of  his  innocence,  and 
after  five  years'  banishment  recalled  him  to  court  towards  the  close  of  the  year  821  ; 
but  he  soon  had  again  to  retire  to  his  abbey  at  Corbie,  where  he  delighted  to  take 
upon  himself  the  most  humbling  employments  of  the  house.  By  his  solicitude  and 
powerful  example  his  spiritual  children  grew  daily  in  fervour  ;  and  such  was  his 
zeal  for  their  advancement,  that  he  passed  no  week  without  speaking  to  every  one 
of  them  in  particular,  and  no  day  without  exhorting  them  all  in  general  by  his 
discourses.  The  inhabitants  of  the  country  round  had  also  a  share  in  his  labours, 
and  he  expended  upon  the  poor  the  revenues  of  his  monastery  with  a  profusion 
which  many  condemned  as  excessive,  but  which  Heaven  sometimes  approved  by 
sensible  miracles.  The  good  old  man  would  receive  advice  from  the  least  of  his 
monks.  When  entreated  to  moderate  his  austerities,  he  answered,  "  I  will  take 
care  of  your  servant  ",  meaning  himself,  "  that  he  may  serve  you  the  longer." 

During  his  banishment  another  Adalhard,  who  governed  the  monastery  by  his 
appointment,  began  at  our  saint's  suggestion  to  prepare  the  foundation  of  the 
monastery  of  New  Corbie,  commonly  called  Corvey,  in  the  diocese  of  Paderborn, 
that  it  might  be  a  nursery  of  evangelical  labourers  for  the  conversion  of  the  northern 
nations.  St  Adalhard,  after  his  return  to  Corbie,  completed  this  undertaking,  and 
to  perpetuate  the  strict  observance  which  he  established  in  his  two  monasteries  he 
compiled  a  book  of  statutes  for  their  use,  of  which  considerable  fragments  are 
extant.  Other  works  of  St  Adalhard  are  lost,  but  by  those  which  we  have,  and  also 
by  his  disciples  St  Paschasius  Radbertus,  St  Anskar  and  others,  it  is  clear  that  he 
was  a  zealous  promoter  of  literature  in  his  monasteries.  Paschasius  assures  us 
that  he  instructed  the  people  not  only  in  the  Latin,  but  also  in  the  Teutonic  and 
vulgar  French  languages.  Alcuin,  in  a  letter  addressed  to  him  under  the  name  of 
Antony,  calls  him  his  son,  whence  many  infer  that  he  had  been  scholar  to  that  great 
man.  St  Adalhard  had  just  returned  from  Germany  to  Corbie,  when  he  fell  ill 
three  days  before  Christmas  and  died  on  January  2,  827,  in  his  seventy-third  year. 
Upon  proof  of  several  miracles  the  body  of  the  saint  was  translated  with  solemnity 
in  1040  ;  of  which  ceremony  we  have  a  full  account,  by  an  author,  not  St  Gerard, 
who  also  composed  an  office  in  his  honour,  in  gratitude  for  having  been  cured  of 
intense  pains  in  the  bead  through  his  intercession. 

See  his  life,  compiled  with  accuracy  but  in  a  tone  of  panegyric,  by  his  disciple,  Paschasius 
Radbertus,  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  and  more  correctly  in  Mabillon  (vol.  v,  p.  306). 
Cf.  also  U.  Berliere  in  DHG.,  vol.  i,  cc.  457-458  ;   and  BHL.,  n.  11. 

BD    AYRALD,  Bishop  of  Maurienne        (a.d.  1146  ?) 

The  identity  of  this  holy  bishop  is  involved  in  much  confusion  and  obscurity.  His 
cultus  was  confirmed  in  1863,  and  in  the  decree  published  on  that  occasion  a  sum- 
mary of  his  life  is  given. 

If  we  may  credit  this  account,  he  was  a  son  of  William  II,  Count  of  Burgundy. 
Of  his  three  brothers,  one  was  elected  pope  under  the  name  of  Callistus  II ;  another, 


January  2]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

Raymond,  became  king  of  Castile ;  and  the  third,  Henry,  count  of  Portugal. 
Ayrald  himself,  however,  according  to  the  same  summary,  entered  the  Carthusian 
Order  at  Portes,  and  was  made  prior.  From  this  life  of  seclusion  he  was  called 
away  to  rule  the  see  of  Maurienne,  but  we  are  told  that  he  still  paid  long  visits  to 
his  old  monastery  to  renew  his  spirit  of  fervour,  and  that  he  died  at  a  comparatively 
early  age.  While  one  Carthusian  chronicler,  Dom  Le  Vasseur,  is  in  substantial 
agreement  with  this  account,  assigning  January  2,  1146,  as  the  date  of  Ayrald's 
death,  another,  Dom  Le  Couteulx,  contradicts  it  at  almost  every  point.  The  fact 
seems  to  be  that  in  the  twelfth  century  there  were  three  different  bishops  of 
Maurienne  named  Ayrald  or  Ayrard.  One  of  these,  either  the  first  or  the  third, 
but  not  the  second,  had  been  a  Carthusian  monk  at  Portes. 

In  honour  of  the  bishop  who  was  beatified  and  with  whom  we  are  here  concerned, 
the  following  epitaph  was  engraved  of  old  upon  his  tomb  in  the  cathedral  of 
Maurienne  : 

Hie  jacet  Airaldus,  claro  de  sanguine  natus, 
Portarum  monachus,  Pontificumque  decus  ; 

Ecclesiae  lumen,  miserorum  atque  columen, 
Virtute  et  signis  splendidus  innumeris. 

"  Here  lies  Ayrald,  a  man  of  noble  blood,  monk  of 
Portes,  glory  of  pontiffs,  a  light  of  the  Church,  stay  of  the 
unfortunate,  shining  with  goodness  and  unnumbered 
miracles.' ' 

A  lively  controversy,  of  which  a  full  bibliography  may  be  found  in  U.  Chevalier's 
Repertoire — Bio-bibliographie,  has  been  carried  on  regarding  the  identity  of  Bd  Ayrald.  See 
especially  C.  F.  Bellet,  Un  probleme  d'hagiographie  (1901),  and  Truchet,  Le  B.  Ayrald  (1891)  ; 
also  Le  Vasseur,  Ephemerides ,  vol.  i,  pp.  3-6  ;  Le  Couteulx,  Annates  Ord.  Carth.,  vols,  i, 
382  seq.,  and  ii,  43  seq.      Cf.  Historisches  Jahrbuch,  1903,  p.  142,  and  1904,  p.  279. 

BD    STEPHANA    QUINZANI,  Virgin        (a.d.  1530) 

Stephana  Quinzani  was  born  in  1457  near  Brescia,  of  a  middle-class  family. 
Strange  things  are  related  of  her  childhood,  and  she  is  said  to  have  consecrated 
herself  to  God  at  a  very  early  age.  Her  precise  vocation,  however,  was  not  decided 
until  her  father  and  mother  moved  to  Soncino,  and  she  came  under  the  influence 
of  the  Dominicans.  There  she  had  a  vision  of  St  Andrew  the  Apostle  holding  a 
cross.  Receiving  the  habit  of  the  third  order  of  St  Dominic,  she  spent  her  time  in 
nursing  the  sick  and  relieving  the  poor  until  she  was  able  herself  to  found  a  convent 
at  Soncino.  The  most  interesting  document  which  has  been  preserved  concerning 
her  is  a  contemporary  account,  drawn  up  in  1497  and  signed  by  twenty-one  wit- 
nesses, describing  one  of  the  ecstasies  in  which  she  represented  in  her  own  person 
the  different  stages  of  the  Passion,  including  the  scourging,  the  crowning  with 
thorns  and  the  nailing  to  the  cross.  In  these  ecstasies  the  wound  marks,  or 
stigmata,  seem  to  have  shown  themselves  in  her  hands  and  feet,  and  her  frame 
became  so  rigid  that  the  onlookers  could  not  change  her  position  or  bend  her  limbs. 
She  is  said  to  have  performed  many  miracles  of  healing  and  to  have  multiplied 
food  and  money. 

The  Legenda  Volgare>  from  which  all  accounts  of  Bd  Stephana  ultimately  derive, 
is  called  by  its  editor,  Mgr  Guerrini,  "  a  mystical  romance  in  full  flower,  written  as 
ascetical  edification  rather  than  history,  full  of  elevations  and  mystical  ramblings 
for  women  readers  ".     Another  source,  the  fragments  of  the  beata's  own  letters, 


ST  CASPAR  DEL  BUFALO  [January  2 

has  not  yet  been  properly  explored  and  studied  ;  she  corresponded  with  many 
people  in  northern  Italy.  Bd  Stephana  died  on  January  2,  1530,  and  her  cultus 
was  confirmed  in  1740. 

See  P.  de  Micheli,  La  b.  Stefana  Quinzani  :  memorie  e  document!,  and  P.  Guerrini,  La 
prima  Legenda  Volgare  de  la  b.  Stefana  Quinzani  (1930).  See  also  M.  C.  Ganay,  Les  Bses. 
Dominicaines  (1913),  pp.  413-434,  and  pp.  545-548  where  is  printed  part  of  the  relazione 
referred  to  above. 

ST    CASPAR    DEL    BUFALO,  Founder  of  the  Missioners  of  the 
Precious  Blood        (a.d.  1837) 

Caspar,  who  was  born  in  Rome,  the  son  of  a  chef,  in  1786,  received  his  education 
at  the  Collegio  Romano  and  was  ordained  priest  in  1808.  Shortly  after  this  Rome 
was  taken  by  Napoleon's  army,  and  he,  with  most  of  the  clergy,  was  exiled  for 
refusing  to  abjure  his  allegiance  to  the  Holy  See.  He  returned  after  the  fall  of 
Napoleon  to  find  a  wide  scope  for  work,  as  Rome  had  for  nearly  five  years  been 
almost  entirely  without  priests  and  sacraments. 

In  1 8 14  he  conducted  a  mission  at  Giano,  in  the  diocese  of  Spoleto,  and  there 
the  idea  of  the  Congregation  of  the  Most  Precious  Blood  first  came  to  him.  He 
found  a  house  at  Giano  suitable  for  his  purpose,  and  with  the  help  of  Cardinal 
Cristaldi,  ever  his  kind  friend,  and  the  hearty  approval  of  Pope  Pius  VII,  the  new 
congregation  was  formally  approved  in  181 5.  The  house  and  adjoining  church  of 
San  Felice  in  Giano  were  given  him  by  the  pope.  The  second  foundation  was 
made  in  18 19  and  the  third  shortly  afterwards  at  Albano.  His  wish  was  to  have  a 
house  in  every  diocese,  the  most  neglected  and  wicked  town  or  district  being  chosen. 
The  kingdom  of  Naples  was  in  those  days  a  nest  of  crime  of  every  kind  ;  no  one's 
life  or  property  was  safe,  and  in  1821  the  pope  wrote  with  his  own  hand  to  del 
Bufalo  asking  him  to  found  six  houses  there.  He  joyfully  responded,  but  met  with 
endless  difficulties  before  subjects  and  funds  were  collected.  His  biographer  tells 
us  that  Providence  had  scherzato  (played  practical  jokes)  with  him,  as  over  and  over 
again  one  difficulty  was  overcome  only  to  be  replaced  by  a  greater  ;  but  by  degrees 
men  gathered  round  him,  and  at  last  he  could  say  he  had  more  than  all  the  money 
he  wanted. 

Grave  difficulties  arose  under  Pope  Leo  XII  ;  but  these  were  cleared  up,  and 
in  1824,  the  houses  of  the  congregation  were  opened  to  young  clergy  who  wished 
to  be  trained  specially  as  missioners.  The  ideal  was  high,  the  work  arduous.  A 
missioner,  the  founder  said,  like  a  soldier  or  sailor,  must  never  give  in,  must  be 
ready  for  anything.  He  required  from  his  sons  not  only  devotion,  but  also  hard 
study.  To  evangelize  the  whole  world,  which  was  their  aim,  they  must  learn 
foreign  languages  besides  theology  and  Holy  Scripture.  In  his  life-time  their  work 
covered  the  whole  of  Italy.  Journeying  from  town  to  town,  enduring  endless 
hardships,  threatened  often  even  with  death,  their  founder  always  taking  the  most 
arduous  work  himself,  they  preached  their  message. 

Del  Bufalo's  biographer  gives  us  a  graphic  account  of  a  mission,  describing  its 
successive  stages.  Some  of  his  methods  were  distinctly  dramatic,  e.g.  the  mis- 
sioners took  the  discipline  in  the  public  piazza,  which  always  resulted  in  many 
conversions.  On  the  last  day  forbidden  firearms,  obscene  books,  and  anything  else 
that  might  offend  Almighty  God  were  publicly  burnt.  A  cross  was  erected  in 
memoriam,  a  solemn  Te  Deum  sung,  and  the  missioners  went  away  quietly.     Caspar 


January  3]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

would  often  say  at  the  end  of  a  mission,  exhausted  but  thankful,  "  If  it  is  so  sweet 
to  tire  ourselves  for  God,  what  will  it  be  to  enjoy  Him  !  "  One  of  his  principles 
was  that  everybody  should  be  made  to  work.  He  therefore  founded  works  of 
charity  in  Rome  for  young  and  old,  rich  and  poor  of  both  sexes.  He  opened  the 
night  oratory,  where  our  Lord  is  worshipped  all  night  by  men,  many  coming  to 
Him,  like  Nicodemus,  by  night  who  would  not  have  the  courage  to  go  to  confession 
by  day. 

His  last  mission  was  preached  in  Rome  at  the  Chiesa  Nuova  during  the  cholera 
outbreak  of  1836.  Feeling  his  strength  failing,  he  returned  at  once  to  Albano, 
and  made  every  preparation  for  death.  He  suffered  terribly  from  cold,  and  at 
night  from  parching  thirst,  but  he  would  not  take  anything  to  drink,  so  that  he 
might  be  able  to  celebrate  Mass.  He  asked  to  be  left  alone  as  much  as 
possible,  that  his  prayer  might  be  less  interrupted.  After  the  feast  of  St  Francis 
Xavier  he  went  to  Rome  to  die.  On  December  19  the  doctor  forbade  him  to 
say  Mass  ;  he  received  the  last  sacraments  on  December  28,  and  he  died  the 
same  day. 

Various  miracles  had  been  worked  by  Don  Caspar  during  his  lifetime,  and  after 
his  death  many  graces  were  obtained  by  his  intercession.  We  have,  in  fact,  a  long 
list  of  cures  and  other  miraculous  occurrences.     He  was  canonized  in  1954. 

See  the  summarium  presented  to  the  Congregation  of  Rites  in  the  process  of  beatification, 
and  Sardi,  Notizie  intorno  alia  vita  del  beato  Gaspare  del  Bufalo  (1904).  The  English  form 
of  the  name  Caspar  or  Gaspar  is  properly  Jasper. 

O  .  ST   ANTHERUS,  Pope  and  Martyr        (a.d.  236) 

THE  name  of  St  Antherus  occurs  in  the  list  of  popes  after  that  of  St  Pontian. 
He  is  believed  to  have  been  elected  November  21,  235,  and  to  have  died 
January  3,  236,  thus  reigning  only  forty-three  days.  Nothing  certain  is 
known  regarding  his  martyrdom,  though  the  Liber  Pontificate  states  that  he 
was  put  to  death  for  obtaining  copies  of  the  official  proceedings  against  the  martyrs 
with  the  view  of  preserving  them  in  the  episcopal  archives.  He  was  buried 
in  the  "  papal  crypt  "  in  the  catacombs  (Cemetery  of  St  Callistus),  and  the 
site  was  discovered  by  de  Rossi  in  1854,  together  with  the  fragments  of  a  Greek 

See  Allard,  Hist,  des  Persecutions,  vol.  ii,  p.  212  ;  G.  B.  de  Rossi,  Roma  Sotteranea, 
vol.  ii,  pp.  55  seq.  and  180  seq.  ;  and  the  Liber  Pontificalis,  ed.  L.  Duchesne  (1 886-1 892), 
vol.  i,  p.  147. 

ST    PETER    BALSAM,  Martyr        (a.d.  311) 

Peter  Balsam,  to  follow  the  narrative  of  his  published  "  acts  ",  was  a  native  of 
the  territory  of  Eleutheropolis  in  Palestine,  who  was  apprehended  at  Aulana 
in  the  persecution  of  Maximinus.  Being  brought  before  Severus,  governor 
of  the  province,  the  interrogatory  began  by  asking  him  his  name.  Peter 
answered,  "  Balsam  is  the  name  of  my  family  ;  but  I  received  that  of  Peter  in 

Severus  :    "Of  what  family  and  of  what  country  are  you  ?  " 


ST  PETER  BALSAM  [January  3 

Peter  :    "  I  am  a  Christian." 

Severus  :    "  What  is  your  employment  ?  " 

Peter  :  "  What  employment  can  I  have  more  honourable,  or  what  better  thing 
can  I  do  in  the  world,  than  to  live  as  a  Christian  ?  " 

Severus  :    "  Do  you  know  the  imperial  edicts  ?  " 

Peter  :    "  I  know  the  laws  of  God,  the  sovereign  of  the  universe." 

Severus  :  "  You  shall  quickly  know  that  there  is  an  edict  of  the  most  clement 
emperors,  commanding  all  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  or  be  put  to  death." 

Peter  :  "  You  will  also  know  one  day  that  there  is  a  law  of  the  eternal  King, 
proclaiming  that  everyone  shall  perish  who  offers  sacrifice  to  devils.  Which  do  you 
counsel  me  to  obey,  and  which,  think  you,  ought  I  to  choose — to  die  by  your  sword, 
or  to  be  condemned  to  everlasting  misery  by  the  sentence  of  the  great  King,  the 
true  God  ?  " 

Severus  :  "  Since  you  ask  my  advice,  it  is  that  you  obey  the  edict,  and  sacrifice 
to  the  gods." 

Peter  :  "I  can  never  be  prevailed  upon  to  sacrifice  to  gods  of  wood  and  stone, 
as  those  are  which  you  worship." 

Severus  :  "I  would  have  you  know  that  it  is  in  my  power  to  avenge  these 
affronts  by  putting  you  to  death." 

Peter  :  "  I  had  no  intention  of  affronting  you.  I  only  expressed  what  is 
written  in  the  divine  law." 

Severus  :   "  Have  compassion  on  yourself,  and  sacrifice." 

Peter  :   "  If  I  am  truly  compassionate  to  myself,  I  ought  not  to  sacrifice." 

Severus  :  "  I  want  to  be  lenient ;  I  therefore  still  allow  you  time  to  reflect, 
that  you  may  save  your  life." 

Peter  :  "  This  delay  will  be  to  no  purpose  for  I  shall  not  alter  my  mind  ;  do 
now  what  you  will  be  obliged  to  do  soon,  and  complete  the  work  which  the  devil, 
your  father,  has  begun  ;   for  I  will  never  do  what  Jesus  Christ  forbids  me." 

Severus,  on  hearing  these  words,  ordered  him  to  be  stretched  upon  the  rack, 
and  whilst  he  was  suspended  said  to  him  scoflingly,  "  What  say  you  now,  Peter  ; 
do  you  begin  to  know  what  the  rack  is  ?  Are  you  yet  willing  to  sacrifice  ?  "  Peter 
answered,  "  Tear  me  with  hooks,  and  talk  not  of  my  sacrificing  to  your  devils  : 
I  have  already  told  you,  that  I  will  sacrifice  only  to  that  God  for  whom  I  suffer." 
Hereupon  the  governor  commanded  his  tortures  to  be  redoubled.  The  martyr, 
far  from  any  complaint,  sung  with  alacrity  those  verses  of  the  royal  prophet,  "  One 
thing  I  have  asked  of  the  Lord  ;  this  will  I  seek  after  :  that  I  may  dwell  in  the  house 
of  the  Lord  all  the  days  of  my  life.  I  will  take  the  chalice  of  salvation,  and  will  call 
upon  the  name  of  the  Lord."  The  spectators,  seeing  the  martyr's  blood  run  down 
in  streams,  cried  out  to  him,  "  Obey  the  emperors  !  Sacrifice,  and  rescue  yourself 
from  these  torments  !  "  Peter  replied,  "  Do  you  call  these  torments  ?  I  feel  no 
pain  :  but  this  I  know,  that  if  I  be  not  faithful  to  my  God  I  must  expect  real  pain, 
such  as  cannot  be  conceived."  The  judge  also  said,  "  Sacrifice,  Peter  Balsam,  or 
you  will  repent  it." 

Peter  :    "  Neither  will  I  sacrifice,  nor  shall  I  repent  it." 

Severus  :   "I  am  on  the  point  of  pronouncing  sentence." 

Peter  :  "  It  is  what  I  most  earnestly  desire."  Severus  then  dictated  the 
sentence  in  this  manner  :  "  It  is  our  order  that  Peter  Balsam,  for  having  refused 
to  obey  the  edict  of  the  invincible  emperors,  and  obstinately  defending  the  law  of 
a  crucified  man,  be  himself  nailed  to  a  cross."      Thus  it  was  that  this  glorious 


January  3]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

martyr  finished  his  triumph,  at  Aulana,  on  January  11  ;  but  he  is  honoured  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology  on  January  3. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  that  Peter  Balsam  is  to  be  identified  with  the  martyr  Peter 
Abselamus,  whom  Eusebius  (De  Martyribus  Palest.,  x,  2-3)  describes  as  having  been  burnt 
to  death  at  Caesarea.  For  this  and  other  reasons  very  different  opinions  have  been  held  as 
to  the  trustworthiness  of  the  narrative  given  above.  Ruinart,  and  even  Bardenhewer 
(Geschichte  der  altkirchl.  Literatur,  vol.  ii,  p.  640),  treat  the  acts  as  authentic.  P.  Allard 
(Hist,  des  persecutions,  vol.  v,  p.  126)  and  H.  Leclercq  (Les  Martyrs,  vol.  ii,  p.  323)  believe 
them  to  have  been  compiled  inaccurately  ;  Father  Delehaye  more  logically  (Legendes  Hagio- 
graphiques,  p.  114)  considers  that  the  narrative  must  be  regarded  as  a  historical  romance 
founded  on  a  basis  of  genuine  fact.      See  also  Harnack   Chronol.  Altchrist.  Lit.,  vol.  ii,  p.  474. 

ST    GENEVIEVE,  or  GENOVEFA,  Virgin        (c.  ad.  500) 

Genevieve's  father's  name  was  Severus,  and  her  mother's  Gerontia  ;  she  was  born 
about  the  year  422  at  Nanterre,  a  small  village  four  miles  from  Paris,  near  Mont 
Valerien.  When  St  Germanus,  Bishop  of  Auxerre,  went  with  St  Lupus  into 
Britain  to  oppose  the  Pelagian  heresy,  he  spent  a  night  at  Nanterre  on  his  way.  The 
inhabitants  flocked  about  them  to  receive  their  blessing,  and  St  Germanus  gave  an 
address,  during  which  he  took  particular  notice  of  Genevieve,  though  she  was  only 
seven  years  of  age.  After  his  sermon  he  inquired  for  her  parents,  and  foretold  their 
daughter's  future  sanctity.  He  then  asked  Genevieve  whether  it  was  not  her  desire 
to  serve  God  only  and  to  be  naught  else  but  a  spouse  of  Jesus  Christ.  She  answered 
that  this  was  what  she  desired,  and  begged  that  by  his  blessing  she  might  be  from 
that  moment  consecrated  to  God.  The  holy  prelate  went  to  the  church,  followed 
by  the  people,  and  during  the  long  singing  of  psalms  and  prayers,  says  Constantius 
— that  is,  during  the  recital  of  None  and  Vespers,  as  one  text  of  the  Life  of  St 
Genevieve  expresses  it — he  laid  his  hand  upon  the  maiden's  head.  After  he  had 
supped  he  dismissed  her,  telling  her  parents  to  bring  her  again  to  him  the  next 
morning.  The  father  obeyed,  and  St  Germanus  asked  the  child  whether  she 
remembered  the  promise  she  had  made  to  God.  She  said  she  did,  and  declared 
that  she  hoped  to  keep  her  word.  The  bishop  gave  her  a  medal  or  coin,  on  which 
a  cross  was  engraved,  to  wear  about  her  neck,  in  memory  of  the  consecration  she  had 
received  the  day  before  ;  and  he  charged  her  never  to  wear  bracelets  or  jewels  or 
other  trinkets.  The  author  of  her  life  tells  us  that  the  child,  begging  one  day  that 
she  might  go  to  church,  her  mother  struck  her  on  the  face,  but  in  punishment  lost 
her  sight ;  she  only  recovered  it  two  months  after,  by  washing  her  eyes  with  water 
which  her  daughter  fetched  from  the  well  and  over  which  she  had  made  the  sign 
of  the  cross.  Hence  the  people  look  upon  the  well  at  Nanterre  as  having  been 
blessed  by  the  saint. 

When  she  was  about  fifteen  years  of  age,  Genevieve  was  presented  to  the  bishop 
of  Paris  to  receive  the  religious  veil,  together  with  two  other  girls.  Though  she 
was  the  youngest  of  the  three,  the  bishop  gave  her  the  first  place,  saying  that 
Heaven  had  already  sanctified  her,  by  which  he  seems  to  have  alluded  to  her 
promise  of  consecrating  herself  to  God.  From  that  time  she  frequently  ate  only 
twice  in  the  week,  on  Sundays  and  Thursdays,  and  her  food  was  barley  bread  with 
a  few  beans.  After  the  death  of  her  parents  she  left  Nanterre,  and  settled  with  her 
godmother  in  Paris,  but  sometimes  undertook  journeys  for  motives  of  charity.  The 
cities  of  Meaux,  Laon,  Tours,  Orleans  and  all  other  places  she  visited  bore  witness 
to  her  miracles  and  remarkable  predictions.     God  permitted  her  to  meet  with  some 



severe  trials  ;  for  at  a  certain  time  everybody  seemed  to  be  against  her,  and  perse- 
cuted her  under  the  opprobrious  names  of  visionary,  hypocrite  and  the  like.  The 
arrival  of  St  Germanus  at  Paris,  probably  on  his  second  journey  to  Britain,  for  some 
time  silenced  her  calumniators  ;  but  it  was  not  long  before  the  storm  broke  out 
anew.  Her  enemies  were  fully  determined  to  discredit  and  even  to  drown  her, 
when  the  archdeacon  of  Auxerre  arrived  with  eulogiae,  blessed  bread,  sent  her  by 
St  Germanus  as  a  testimony  of  his  particular  esteem  and  a  token  of  communion. 
This  seems  to  have  happened  whilst  Germanus  was  absent  in  Italy  in  448.  The 
tribute  thus  paid  her  converted  the  prejudices  of  her  calumniators  into  veneration 
for  the  remainder  of  her  life. 

The  Franks  had  at  this  time  gained  possession  of  the  better  part  of  Gaul,  and 
Childeric,  their  king,  took  Paris.  During  the  long  blockade  of  that  city,  the  citizens 
being  reduced  to  extremities  by  famine,  St  Genevieve,  as  the  author  of  her  life 
relates,  went  out  at  the  head  of  a  company  who  were  sent  to  procure  provisions, 
and  brought  back  from  Arcis-sur-Aube  and  Troyes  several  boats  laden  with  corn. 
Childeric,  when  he  had  made  himself  master  of  Paris,  though  always  a  pagan, 
respected  St  Genevieve,  and  upon  her  intercession  spared  the  lives  of  many 
prisoners  and  did  other  generous  acts.  She  also  awakened  the  zeal  of  many  persons 
to  build  a  church  in  honour  of  St  Dionysius  of  Paris,  which  King  Dagobert  I 
afterwards  rebuilt  with  a  monastery  in  629.  St  Genevieve  likewise  undertook  many 
pilgrimages,  in  company  with  other  maidens,  to  the  shrine  of  St  Martin  at  Tours, 
and  the  reputation  of  her  holiness  is  said  to  have  been  so  great  that  her  fame  even 
reached  St  Simeon  Stylites  in  Syria.  King  Clovis,  who  embraced  the  faith  in  496, 
often  listened  with  deference  to  St  Genevieve,  and  more  than  once  granted  liberty 
to  captives  at  her  request.  Upon  the  report  of  the  march  of  Attila  with  hi?  army 
of  Huns  the  Parisians  were  preparing  to  abandon  their  city,  but  St  Genevieve,  like 
a  Christian  Judith  or  Esther,  encouraged  them  to  avert  the  scourge  by  fasting  and 
prayer.  Many  of  her  own  sex  passed  whole  days  with  her  in  prayer  in  the  bap- 
tistery ;  from  whence  the  particular  devotion  to  St  Genevieve,  formerly  practised 
at  S.-Jean-le-Rond,  the  ancient  public  baptistery  of  the  church  of  Paris,  seems  to 
have  taken  rise.  She  assured  the  people  of  the  protection  of  Heaven,  and  though 
she  was  treated  by  many  as  an  impostor,  the  event  verified  the  prediction,  for  the 
barbarous  invader  suddenly  changed  the  course  of  his  march.  Our  author  attri- 
butes to  St  Genevieve  the  first  suggestion  of  the  church  which  Clovis  began  to  build 
in  honour  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  in  deference  to  the  wishes  of  his  wife,  St  Clotilda, 
in  which  church  the  body  of  St  Genevieve  herself  was  enshrined  after  her  death 
about  the  year  500. 

The  miracles  which  were  performed  there  from  the  time  of  her  burial  rendered 
this  church  famous  over  all  France,  so  that  at  length  it  began  to  be  known  by  her 
name.  The  fabric,  however,  fell  into  decay,  and  a  new  church  was  begun  in  1764. 
This  has  long  been  secularized  and,  under  the  name  of  the  Pantheon,  is  now  used 
as  a  national  mausoleum.  The  city  of  Paris  has  frequently  received  sensible  proofs 
of  the  divine  protection,  through  St  Genevieve's  intercession.  The  most  famous 
instance  is  that  called  the  miracle  des  Ar dents,  or  of  the  burning  fever.  In  1129  a 
disease,  apparently  poisoning  by  ergot,  swept  off  in  a  short  time  many  thousand 
persons,  nor  could  the  art  of  physicians  afford  any  relief.  Stephen,  Bishop  of 
Paris,  with  the  clergy  and  people,  implored  the  divine  mercy  by  fasting  and  sup- 
plications. Yet  the  epidemic  did  not  abate  till  the  shrine  of  St  Genevieve  was 
carried  in  a  solemn  procession  to  the  cathedral.     Many  sick  persons  were  cured  by 


January  4]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

touching  the  shrine,  and  of  all  who  then  were  suffering  from  the  disease  in  the  whole 
town  only  three  died,  and  no  others  fell  ill.  Pope  Innocent  II,  coming  to  Paris  the 
year  following,  after  due  investigation  ordered  an  annual  festival  in  commemoration 
of  the  miracle  on  November  26,  which  is  still  kept  in  Paris.  It  was  formerly  the 
custom,  in  extraordinary  public  calamities,  to  carry  the  shrine  of  St  Genevieve  in 
procession  to  the  cathedral.  The  greater  part  of  the  relics  of  the  saint  were 
destroyed  or  pillaged  at  the  French  Revolution. 

The  ancient  life  of  S  t  Genevieve  from  which  most  of  the  above  account  is  derived,  and 
which  purports  to  h  ave  been  written  by  a  contemporary  eighteen  years  after  the  saint's  death, 
has  been  the  subjec  t  of  keen  controversy.  There  are  three  principal  recensions  of  it,  known 
respectively  as  the  A,  B  and  C  texts.  Text  A  has  been  edited  by  B.  Krusch  in  MGH., 
Scriptores  Merov.,  vol.  iii  (1896).  Text  B  is  printed  in  the  very  valuable  essay  of  C.  Kohler, 
Etude  critique  sur  le  texte  de  la  vie  latine  de  Sainte  Genevieve  (1881),  and  Text  C  may  be  found 
in  the  Teubner  edition  of  the  Vita  Sanctae  Genovefae,  edited  by  C.  Kiinstle  in  1910.  Al- 
though Text  C  has  in  its  favour  the  authority  of  the  oldest  manuscripts  (eighth  century),  the 
priority  of  that  recension  is  by  no  means  generally  admitted.  But  the  more  important 
controversy  is  that  regarding  the  authenticity  of  the  life  itself.  Bruno  Krusch  declares  it 
to  be  a  forgery,  and  that  the  author,  instead  of  being  a  contemporary  as  he  pretends,  did  not 
compile  the  life  until  more  than  250  years  later,  towards  the  close  of  the  eighth  century.  It 
is  impossible  here  to  do  more  than  mention  the  acrimonious  discussion  to  which  Krusch's 
pronouncement  has  given  rise.  It  must  be  sufficient  to  say  that  his  views  have  by  no  means 
carried  with  them  the  support  of  the  majority  of  competent  critics.  Such  scholars  as  Mgr 
Duchesne,  Prof.  G.  Kurth,  C.  Kiinstle  and  A.  Poncelet  strenuously  maintain  that  the  life 
was  really  written  by  a  contemporary,  and  that,  so  far  as  regards  the  substance  of  its  contents, 
it  is  trustworthy.  Readers  will  find  an  excellent  summary  of  all  that  is  really  known  about 
St  Genevieve  in  H.  Les^tre,  Ste  Genevieve  (in  the  series  "  Les  Saints  "),  and  in  the  essay  of 
E.  Vacandard,  Etudes  de  critique,  vol.  iv,  pp.  67-124,  and  255-266.  For  a  charming  popular 
account  of  the  saint,  see  M.  Reynes-Monlaur,  Ste  Genevieve  (1924).  A  story  in  the  life  tells 
how  the  devil,  when  St  Genevieve  went  to  pray  in  the  church  at  night,  blew  out  her  candle  to 
frighten  her.  She  is,  therefore,  often  represented  in  art  with  a  candle.  Sometimes  the  devil 
and  a  pair  of  bellows  are  also  depicted  beside  her. 

ST    BERTILIA    OF   MAREUIL,  Widow        (Eighth  Century) 

The  life  of  St  Bertilia  was  an  uneventful  one.  Born  of  noble  parents,  she  spent  her 
youth  in  exercises  of  charity.  In  due  time  she  married  a  noble  youth,  and  they 
spent  their  lives  helping  the  poor  and  sick.  On  the  death  of  her  husband  she  lived 
the  life  of  a  solitary  at  Mareuil  in  the  diocese  of  Arras,  where  she  built  a  church 
which  her  cell  adjoined.  She  died  early  in  the  eighth  century,  and  must  be 
distinguished  from  her  contemporary  St  Bertila  of  Chelles. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  3  ;  Parenty,  Histoire  de  Ste  Bertilie  (1847)  ;  Destombes, 
Vies  des  saints  des  dioceses  de  Cambrai  et  d' Arras,  vol.  i,  pp.  37  seq.  ;  and  P.  Bertin,  Ste  Bertilie 
de  Maroeuil  (1943).  W.  Levison  has  produced  a  critical  edition  of  the  text  of  the  life,  with 
a  valuable  introduction,  in  MGH.,  Scriptores  Merov.,  vol.  vi,  pp.  95-109. 


ST    GREGORY,  Bishop  of  Langres        (a.d.  539) 

THIS  saint  is  well  known  to  us  from  the  writings  of  St  Gregory  of  Tours, 
who  was  his  great-grandson.  Of  very  distinguished  birth,  he  for  forty 
years  governed  the  district  of  Autun  as  count  (comes),  administering  justice 
equitably  but  sternly.  It  was  only  late  in  life,  after  the  death  of  his  wife  Armentaria, 
that  he  turned  from  the  world  and  gave  himself  unreservedly  to  God.     The  clergy 


ST  PHARAILDIS  [January  4 

and  people  then  elected  him  bishop  of  Langres,  and  for  the  rest  of  his  days  he 
showed  an  admirable  example  of  devotion  to  his  pastoral  duties.  His  abstemious- 
ness in  food  and  drink,  which  he  was  ingenious  in  concealing  from  the  knowledge 
of  others,  was  remarkable,  and  he  often  gave  the  hours  of  the  night  to  prayer, 
frequenting  especially  the  baptistery  of  Dijon,  in  which  town  he  commonly  lived. 
There  the  saints  came  to  visit  him  and  join  him  in  chanting  the  praises  of  God  ;  in 
particular  St  Benignus,  the  apostle  of  Burgundy,  whose  cultus  he  had  at  first 
neglected,  after  some  words  of  fatherly  rebuke  directed  him  to  restore  his  dilapidated 
shrine,  which  has  ever  since  been  so  famous  in  Dijon.  It  was  here  that  Gregory 
himself,  who  died  at  Langres  in  539,  was  brought  to  be  buried  in  accordance  with 
his  own  desire.  His  epitaph,  composed  by  Venantius  Fortunatus,  suggests  that 
any  severity  he  had  displayed  as  a  secular  ruler  was  expiated  by  the  tender  charity 
he  showed  to  all  in  his  last  years.  Even  in  the  miracles  recorded  after  death  he 
seemed  to  give  the  preference  to. captives  who  had  been  arrested  by  the  officers  of 
human  justice. 

See  Gregory  of  Tours,  Vitae  patrum,  bk  vii  ;  Historia  Francorum,  bks  iii,  iv  and  v  ;  and 
De  gloria  martyrum,  li,  L.  Duchesne,  Fastes  Episcopaux,  vol.  ii,  pp.  185-186  ;  DCB.,  vol.  ii, 
P-  770. 

ST   PHARAILDIS,  Virgin        (c.  a.d.  740) 

There  is  a  great  deal  which  is  extremely  confused  and  improbable  in  the  accounts 
preserved  to  us  of  this  Belgian  saint,  and  it  is  difficult  to  know  how  much  of  her 
legend  can  be  regarded  as  based  on  historical  fact.  The  main  feature  of  her  story 
is  that,  though  she  had  secretly  consecrated  her  virginity  to  God,  she  was  given  in 
marriage  by  her  parents  to  a  wealthy  suitor,  without  any  adequate  consent  on  her 
part.  Resolutely  determined  to  keep  her  vow,  she  refused  to  live  with  him 
maritalement,  and  lie  on  his  part  treated  her  brutally.  God  protected  her,  until 
at  last  the  husband  died.  Little  else  is  recorded  of  her  except  miracles  and  the 
numerous  translations  of  her  remains.  There  cannot,  however,  be  any  doubt  that 
she  became  a  very  popular  saint  in  Flanders,  and  that  her  cultus  supplies  abundant 
matter  of  interest  to  the  student  of  folklore.  Among  her  own  countryfolk  she  is 
called  most  commonly  St  Varelde,  Verylde  or  Veerle.  She  is  represented  some- 
times with  a  goose,  sometimes  with  loaves  of  bread,  and  more  rarely  with  a  cat. 
The  goose  may  have  reference  to  a  story  told  of  her,  as  also  of  St  Werburga,  that 
when  a  goose  had  been  plucked  and  cooked  the  saint  restored  it  to  life  and  full 
plumage.  But  it  may  also  be  connected  with  the  city  of  Ghent  or  Gand,  where 
her  relics  repose,  for  in  Flemish,  as  in  German,  gans  (cf.  English  "  gander  ")  means 
a  goose.  The  bread  without  doubt  must  have  been  suggested  by  a  miracle  said  to 
have  been  worked  beside  her  tomb,  when  an  uncharitable  woman  who  had  been 
asked  to  give  a  loaf  to  a  beggar  declared  that  she  had  none,  and  then  discovered  that 
the  loaves  she  had  been  hiding  were  turned  into  stones.  St  Pharaildis  is  also 
supposed  to  have  caused  a  fountain  of  water  to  spring  out  of  the  ground  at  Bruay, 
near  Valenciennes,  to  relieve  the  thirst  of  the  harvesters  who  were  reaping  for  her. 
The  water  of  this  spring  is  believed  to  be  of  efficacy  in  children's  disorders,  and  she 
is  constantly  invoked  by  mothers  who  are  anxious  about  the  health  of  their  little  ones. 

See  Hautecoeur,  Actes  de  Ste  Pharaildis  (1882)  ;  Destombes,  Vies  des  saints  de  Cambrai 
et  Arras,  vol.  i,  pp.  30-36  ;  L.  van  der  Essen,  Etude  critique  sur  les  Vitae  des  saints  merovingiens 
(1907),  pp.  303  seq.  ;   H.  Detzel,  Christliche  Ikonographie  (1896),  vol.  ii,  p.  583. 


January  4]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

ST   RIGOBERT,  Archbishop  of  Rheims        (c.  a.d.  745) 

Rigobert  seems  to  have  been  first  of  all  abbot  of  Orbais,  and  afterwards  to  have 
been  elected  to  the  see  of  Rheims,  but  it  is  not  easy  to  adjust  the  chronology,  and 
his  life,  written  much  later,  at  the  close  of  the  ninth  century,  cannot  be  depended 
upon.  St  Rigobert,  it  would  appear,  offended  Charles  Martel  because  he  would 
not  takes  sides  against  Raganfred,  the  mayor  of  Neustria.  Charles  accordingly 
banished  Rigobert  to  Gascony  and  gave  his  bishopric  to  Milon,  who  already  held 
the  temporalities  of  the  see  of  Trier.  In  the  end  some  compromise  was  effected, 
and  the  saint  was  allowed  again  to  officiate  in  Rheims.  His  patient  acceptance  of 
all  trials,  his  love  of  retirement  and  prayer,  and  the  miraculous  cures  attributed  to 
him,  gained  him  the  repute  of  high  sanctity.  He  must  have  died  between  740 
and  750. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  4  ;  Levison  in  MGH.,  Scriptores  Merov.,  vol.  vii,  pp.  54-80  ; 
and  Duchesne,  Fastes  fipiscopaux,  vol.  iii,  pp.  85-86.  There  is  a  very  important  general 
paper  on  Charles  Martel  and  his  bishops  :  "  Milo  et  eiusmodi  similes  ",  by  Eugen  Ewig,  in 
St  Bonifatius.  Gedenkgabe  zum  zwolfhundertjahrigen   Todestag  (Fulda,  1954),  pp.  412-440. 

BD    ROGER    OF    ELLANT        (a.d.  1160) 

Bd  Roger  of  Ellant  takes  his  name  from  the  monastery  of  Ellant  in  the  diocese 
of  Rheims,  founded  by  him  in  the  twelfth  century.  By  birth  an  Englishman,  he 
had  crossed  over  to  France  and  entered  the  Cistercian  monastery  of  Lorroy  in 
Berry.  Noted  for  his  poverty  and  his  exactness  in  carrying  out  the  rule,  he  was 
chosen  to  found  and  build  a  new  monastery  at  Ellant.  The  sick  and  the  suffering 
were  the  object  of  his  particular  care.  A  chapel  was  dedicated  in  his  honour  in  the 
abbey  church  where  his  body  was  buried.     He  died  January  4,  1160. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  4  ;   and  Gallia  Christiana,  vol.  ix,  p.  310. 

BD    ORINGA,  Virgin        (a.d.  13 10) 

Although  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  her  historical  existence,  the  story  of  Bd 
Oringa's  life,  told  by  biographers  of  late  date,  is  little  more  than  legend.  She 
seems  to  have  been  born  and  also  to  have  spent  her  last  years  at  Castello  di  Santa 
Croce  in  the  valley  of  the  Arno.  It  is  also  probably  true  that  she  gathered  round 
her  a  band  of  devout  women  and  lived  with  them  under  the  Rule  of  St  Augustine. 
But  the  rest  is  a  patchwork  of  vague  traditions  worked  up  with  fictitious  embellish- 
ments. As  a  child,  when  she  tended  the  cattle,  we  are  told  that  she  went  aside  to 
pray,  bidding  the  dumb  beasts  not  to  touch  the  crops,  and  that  they  always  obeyed 
her.  Her  brothers  beat  her  because  she  refused  to  marry,  but  she  took  refuge  in 
the  river,  or  crossed  it,  without  ever  getting  wet.  At  length  Oringa  ran  away  from 
home.  Night  came  upon  her  before  she  could  reach  Lucca,  her  destination,  but 
a  hare  came  to  her,  played  with  her,  and  finally  went  to  sleep  in  her  arms.  In  the 
morning  it  ran  before  her  and  guided  her  safely  to  the  town  for  which  she  was 
bound.  After  many  pilgrimages  and  adventures,  during  which  she  was  always 
protected  from  harm,  leading  a  life  of  extreme  poverty  and  continual  prayer,  she 
returned  to  her  native  place  and  founded  a  convent  there. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  under  January  10  (The  Augustinians  keep  her  feast  on  January  4)  ; 
and  a  popular  sketch  by  M.  Baciocchi  de  Peon,  La  vergine  Oringa  (1926). 


ST  SYNCLETICA  [January  5 


ST    TELESPHORUS,  Pope  and  Martyr        (c.  a.d.  136) 

ST  Telesphorus,  who  figures  in  the  list  of  popes  as  the  seventh  bishop  of  Rome, 
is  said  to  have  been  a  Greek  by  birth.  Towards  the  year  126  he  succeeded  St 
Sixtus  I,  and  saw  the  havoc  which  the  persecution  of  Hadrian  made  in  the 
Church.  "  He  ended  his  life  by  a  glorious  martyrdom  ",  says  Eusebius,  and  he  is  the 
first  one  of  the  successors  of  St  Peter  whom  St  Irenaeus  and  other  early  writers  refer 
to  as  a  martyr.  The  ordinances  attributed  to  him  in  the  Liber  Pontificalis,  e.g. 
that  the  Mass  of  Christmas — a  feast  that  did  not  then  exist — should  be  celebrated 
at  midnight,  cannot  with  any  probability  be  ascribed  to  his  pontificate.  St  Teles- 
phorus is  commemorated  to-day  in  the  Mass  and  Office  of  the  vigil  of  the  Epiphany. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  5  ;  and  the  Liber  Pontificalis  (ed.  Duchesne),  vol.  i, 
p.  129.  In  the  calendar  of  the  Carmelites  this  pope  is  claimed  as  a  member  of  their  order, 
but  it  is  difficult  to  understand  what  historical  basis  can  be  pleaded  for  such  a  claim. 

ST    APOLLINARIS,  Virgin        (No  Date) 

Although  the  Roman  Martyrology  on  January  5  has  an  entry,  "  In  Egypt,  St 
Apollinaris,  Virgin  ",  the  pretended  biography  which  is  found  in  the  Metaphrast 
and  the  Greek  menaia,  under  the  name  of  Apollinaris  Syncletica,  belongs  to  the 
category  of  religious  romances.  It  turns  on  the  familiar  theme  of  a  girl  putting 
on  male  attire  and  living  for  many  years  undiscovered.  In  this  case  Apollinaris, 
who  is  the  daughter  of  the  **  Emperor  "  Anthemius,  runs  away  from  home,  dis- 
guises herself  as  a  man,  calls  herself  Dorotheus,  and  leads  a  hermitical  life  in  the 
desert  under  the  direction  of  the  renowned  ascetic,  Macarius.  Meanwhile  her 
sister  at  home  is  possessed  by  the  devil,  and  being  brought  to  the  desert  to  be 
exorcised,  is  eventually  consigned  to  the  care  of  "  Dorotheus  ".  The  sister  is 
restored  to  her  right  mind,  but  owing  to  the  machinations  of  the  Evil  One,  "  Doro- 
theus "  is  suspected  of  improper  conduct.  She  is  brought  before  her  own  father 
to  answer  the  charge  and  then  reveals  herself  to  him.  However,  after  obtaining 
her  sister's  complete  cure  by  her  prayers,  she  insists  on  returning  to  the  desert, 
where  her  sex  is  only  discovered  by  her  fellow  hermits  after  her  death.  The  entry 
has  probably  been  attracted  to  this  day  by  the  identity  of  the  name  Syncletica  with 
that  of  the  saint  who  is  commemorated  on  the  previous  day  in  the  Greek  synaxaries 
and  today  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  (see  below). 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  5  ;   and  cf.  herein  St  Pelagia,  under  October  8. 

ST    SYNCLETICA    Virgin        (c.  a.d.  400) 

She  was  born  at  Alexandria  in  Egypt,  of  wealthy  Macedonian  parents.  Her  great 
fortune  and  beauty  induced  many  young  men  to  become  her  suitors,  but  she  had 
already  bestowed  her  heart  on  her  heavenly  Spouse.  Flight  was  her  refuge  against 
exterior  assaults,  and,  regarding  herself  as  her  own  most  dangerous  enemy,  she 
began  early  to  subdue  her  flesh  by  fasts  and  other  mortifications.  She  never 
seemed  to  suffer  more  than  when  obliged  to  eat  oftener  than  she  desired.  Her 
parents  at  their  death  left  her  sole  heiress  to  their  estate,  for  her  two  brothers  had 
died  before  them  and  her  sister,  being  blind,  was  committed  entirely  to  her 
guardianship.  Syncletica,  having  distributed  her  fortune  among  the  poor,  retired 
with  her  sister  to  a  disused  sepulchral  chamber  on  the  estate  of  a  relative,  where, 


January  5]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

having  sent  for  a  priest,  she  cut  off  her  hair  in  his  presence  as  a  sign  whereby  she 
renounced  the  world  and  renewed  the  consecration  of  herself  to  God.  Prayer 
and  good  works  were  from  that  time  her  principal  employment;  but  her  strict 
retirement,  by  concealing  her  from  the  eyes  of  the  world,  has  deprived  us  in  a  great 
measure  of  the  knowledge  of  them. 

Many  women  resorted  to  her  to  ask  counsel,  and  her  humility  made  her  un- 
willing to  take  upon  herself  the  task  of  instructing  ;  but  charity  gave  her  courage 
to  speak.  Her  discourses  were  inspired  with  so  much  zeal  and  accompanied  by 
such  an  unfeigned  humility  that  no  words  can  express  the  deep  impression  they 
made  on  her  hearers.  "  Oh  ",  exclaimed  Syncletica,  "  how  happy  should  we  be, 
did  we  but  take  as  much  pains  to  gain  Heaven  and  please  God  as  worldlings  do  to 
heap  up  riches  and  perishable  goods  !  By  land  they  venture  among  thieves  and 
robbers  ;  at  sea  they  expose  themselves  to  winds  and  waves  ;  they  suffer  shipwrecks 
and  perils  ;  they  attempt  all,  dare  all,  hazard  all  :  but  we,  in  serving  so  great  a 
Master,  for  so  immense  a  good,  are  afraid  of  every  contradiction."  She  frequently 
inculcated  the  virtue  of  humility  :  "  A  treasure  is  secure  so  long  as  it  remains 
concealed  ;  but  when  once  disclosed,  and  laid  open  to  every  bold  invader,  it  is 
presently  rifled  ;  so  virtue  is  safe  as  long  as  it  is  secret,  but  if  rashly  exposed,  it  but 
too  often  evaporates  in  smoke."  By  these  and  the  like  discourses  did  this  devout 
woman  excite  others  to  charity,  vigilance  and  every  other  virtue. 

In  the  eightieth  year  of  her  age  St  Syncletica  was  seized  with  an  inward  burning 
fever  ;  at  the  same  time  her  lungs  were  attacked,  and  a  gangrenous  affection  ate 
away  her  jaws  and  mouth.  She  bore  all  with  incredible  patience  and  resignation, 
and  during  the  last  three  months  of  her  life  she  found  no  repose.  Though  the 
cancer  had  robbed  her  of  speech,  her  patience  served  to  preach  to  others  more 
movingly  than  words  could  have  done.  Three  days  before  her  death  she  foresaw 
that  on  the  third  day  she  would  be  released  from  the  prison  of  her  body  ;  and  when 
the  hour  came,  surrounded  by  a  heavenly  light  and  ravished  by  consoling  visions, 
she  surrendered  her  soul  into  the  hand s  of  her  Creator,  in  the  eighty-fourth  year 
of  her  age. 

The  ancient  beautiful  life  of  St  Syncletica  is  quoted  in  the  Lives  of  the  Fathers  published 
by  Rosweyde,  bk  i,  and  in  the  writings  of  St  John  Climacus.  It  appears  from  the  work  itself 
that  the  author  was  personally  acquainted  with  the  saint.  It  has  been  ascribed  to  St  Athanasius, 
but  without  sufficient  grounds.      See  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  5. 

ST    SIMEON    THE    STYLITE        (ad.  459) 

St  Simeon  was,  in  his  life  and  conduct,  a  subject  of  astonishment  not  only  to  the 
whole  Roman  empire,  but  also  to  many  barbarous  and  infidel  peoples  who  had  the 
highest  veneration  for  him.  The  Roman  emperors  solicited  his  prayers,  and  con- 
sulted him  on  matters  of  importance.  It  must,  nevertheless,  be  acknowledged 
that  his  most  remarkable  actions  are  a  subject  of  admiration,  not  of  imitation. 
They  may  serve,  notwithstanding,  for  our  spiritual  edification,  as  we  cannot  well 
reflect  on  his  fervour  without  being  confounded  at  our  own  indolence  in  the  ser- 
vice of  God. 

St  Simeon  was  the  son  of  a  shepherd  in  Cilicia,  on  the  borders  of  Syria,  and  at 
first  kept  his  father's  sheep.  Being  only  thirteen  years  of  age,  about  the  year  402, 
he  was  much  moved  by  hearing  the  beatitudes  one  day  read  in  church,  particularly 
the  words,  "  Blessed  are  they  that  mourn  ;  blessed  are  the  clean  of  heart  ".  The 
youth  addressed  himself  to  a  certain  old  man  to  learn  their  meaning,  and  begged 


ST  SIMEON  THE  STYLITE  [January  5 

to  know  how  the  happiness  they  promised  was  to  be  obtained.  He  was  told  that 
continual  prayer,  watching,  fasting,  weeping,  humiliation  and  the  patient  suffering 
of  persecution  were  pointed  out  by  these  texts  as  the  road  to  true  happiness  ;  and 
that  a  solitary  life  afforded  the  best  opportunity  for  the  practice  of  virtue.  Simeon 
upon  this  withdrew  to  a  little  distance  where,  falling  upon  the  ground,  he  besought 
Him  who  desires  all  to  be  saved  to  conduct  him  in  the  paths  which  lead  to  happiness 
and  perfection.  At  length,  falling  asleep,  he  had  a  vision,  which  he  often  related 
afterwards.  He  seemed  to  himself  to  be  digging  for  the  foundation  of  a  house, 
and  that  as  often  as  he  stopped  to  take  a  little  breath,  which  was  four  times,  he  was 
commanded  each  time  to  dig  deeper,  till  at  length  he  was  told  he  might  desist,  the 
pit  being  deep  enough  to  receive  the  intended  foundation,  on  which  he  would  be 
able  to  raise  a  superstructure  of  what  kind  and  to  what  height  he  pleased.  "  The 
event  ",  says  Theodoret,  "  verified  the  prediction  ;  the  actions  of  this  wonderful 
man  were  so  much  above  nature,  that  they  might  well  require  deep  foundations  to 
build  such  a  structure  securely." 

Rising  from  the  ground,  he  went  to  a  monastery  near  at  hand  ruled  by  an  abbot 
called  Timothy.  There  he  remained  at  the  gate  for  several  days,  without  either 
eating  or  drinking,  begging  to  be  admitted  on  the  footing  of  the  lowest  servant  in 
the  house.  His  petition  was  granted,  and  he  complied  with  the  terms  of  it  for  four 
months.  During  this  time  he  learned  the  psalter  by  heart,  and  his  familiarity  with 
the  sacred  words  greatly  helped  to  nourish  his  soul.  Though  still  no  more  than 
a  boy,  he  practised  all  the  austerities  of  the  house,  and  by  his  humility  and  charity 
gained  the  good-will  of  all  the  monks.  Having  here  spent  two  years,  he  removed 
to  the  monastery  of  Heliodorus,  who  had  spent  sixty-two  years  in  that  community 
so  abstracted  from  the  world  as  to  be  utterly  ignorant  of  it,  as  Theodoret  relates, 
who  knew  him  well.  Here  Simeon  much  increased  his  mortifications.  Judging 
the  tough  rope  of  the  well,  made  of  twisted  palm  leaves,  a  proper  instrument  of 
penance,  he  tied  it  close  about  his  naked  body,  where  it  remained,  unknown  both 
to  the  community  and  his  superior,  till  it  ate  into  his  flesh.  Three  days  successively 
his  clothes,  which  clung  to  it,  had  to  be  softened  with  liquids  to  disengage  them  ; 
and  the  incisions  made  to  cut  the  cord  out  of  his  body  were  attended  with  such  pain 
that  he  lay  for  some  time  as  dead.  On  his  recovery  the  abbot,  as  a  warning  to  the 
rest  to  avoid  such  dangerous  singularities,  dismissed  him. 

After  this  he  repaired  to  a  hermitage  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Telanissae,  where  he 
resolved  to  pass  the  whole  forty  days  of  Lent  in  total  abstinence,  after  the  example 
of  Christ,  without  either  eating  or  drinking.  Bassus,  a  priest  to  whom  he  com- 
municated his  design,  gave  him  ten  loaves  and  some  water,  that  he  might  eat  if  he 
found  it  necessary.  At  the  expiration  of  the  forty  days  Bassus  came  to  visit  him, 
and  found  the  loaves  and  water  untouched,  but  Simeon  lay  stretched  on  the  ground 
almost  without  any  signs  of  life.  Taking  a  sponge,  he  moistened  his  lips  with 
water,  then  gave  him  the  blessed  Eucharist.  Simeon  having  recovered  a  little, 
rose  up,  and  by  degrees  found  himself  able  to  swallow  a  few  lettuce-leaves.  This 
was  his  method  of  keeping  Lent  during  the  remainder  of  his  life  ;  and  he  had 
passed  twenty-six  Lents  after  this  manner  when  Theodoret  wrote  his  account  of 
him  ;  in  which  he  adds  other  particulars — that  Simeon  spent  the  first  part  of  Lent 
in  praising  God  standing  ;  growing  weaker,  he  continued  his  prayer  sitting  ;  while 
towards  the  end,  being  unable  to  support  himself  in  any  other  posture,  he  lay  on 
the  ground.  However,  it  is  probable  that  in  his  advanced  years  he  admitted  some 
mitigation  of  this  incredible  austerity.     When  on  his  pillar,  he  kept  himself  during 


January  5]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

this  fast  tied  to  a  pole  ;  but  in  the  end  was  able  to  fast  the  whole  term  without  any 
support.  Some  attribute  this  to  the  strength  of  his  constitution,  which  was 
naturally  very  robust,  and  had  been  gradually  habituated  to  an  extreme  privation 
of  food.  It  is  well  known  that  the  hot  climate  affords  surprising  instances  of  long 
abstinence  among  the  Indians.  A  native  of  France  has,  within  our  memory,  fasted 
the  forty  days  of  Lent  almost  in  the  same  manner.*  But  few  examples  occur  of 
persons  abstaining  entirely  from  food  for  many  days  unless  prepared  and  inured 
by  habit. 

After  three  years  spent  in  this  hermitage  the  saint  removed  to  the  top  of  the 
same  mountain,  where  he  made  an  inclosure,  but  without  any  roof  or  shelter  to 
protect  him  from  the  weather  ;  and  to  confirm  his  resolution  of  pursuing  this 
manner  of  life,  he  fastened  his  right  leg  to  a  rock  with  a  chain.  Meletius,  vicar  to 
the  patriarch  of  Antioch,  told  him  that  a  firm  will,  supported  by  God's  good  grace, 
would  enable  him  to  abide  in  his  solitary  inclosure  without  having  recourse  to  any 
bodily  restraint ;  whereupon  the  obedient  servant  of  God  sent  for  a  smith  and  had 
his  chains  knocked  off.  But  visitors  began  to  throng  to  the  mountain,  and  the 
solitude  his  soul  sighed  after  came  to  be  interrupted  by  the  multitudes  that  flocked 
to  receive  his  benediction,  by  which  many  sick  recovered  their  health.  Some  were 
not  satisfied  unless  they  also  touched  him. 

So  Simeon,  to  remove  these  causes  of  distraction,  projected  for  himself  a  new 
and  unprecedented  manner  of  life.  In  423  he  erected  a  pillar  six  cubitsf  high, 
and  on  it  he  dwelt  four  years  ;  on  a  second,  twelve  cubits  high,  he  lived  three  years  ; 
on  a  third,  twenty-two  cubits  high,  ten  years  ;  and  on  a  fourth,  forty  cubits  high, 
built  for  him  by  the  people,  he  spent  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life.  Thus  he 
lived  thirty-seven  years  on  pillars,  and  was  called  Stylites,  from  the  Greek  word 
stylos,  which  signifies  a  pillar.  This  singularity  was  at  first  censured  by  all  as  a 
piece  of  extravagance.  To  make  trial  of  his  humility  an  order  was  sent  him  in  the 
name  of  the  neighbouring  bishops  and  abbots  to  quit  his  pillar  and  give  up  his  new 
manner  of  life.  The  saint  at  once  made  ready  to  come  down  ;  but  the  messenger 
said  that,  as  he  had  shown  a  willingness  to  obey,  it  was  their  desire  that  he  should 
follow  his  vocation  in  God. 

His  pillar  did  not  exceed  six  feet  in  diameter  at  the  top,  which  made  it  difficult 
for  him  to  lie  extended  on  it ;  neither  would  he  allow  a  seat.  He  only  stooped, 
or  leaned,  to  take  a  little  rest,  and  often  in  the  day  bowed  his  body  in  prayer.  A 
visitor  once  reckoned  1,244  such  profound  reverences  made  by  him  at  one  time. 
He  made  exhortations  to  the  people  twice  a  day.  His  garments  were  the  skins  of 
beasts,  and  he  never  suffered  any  woman  to  come  within  the  inclosure  where  his 
pillar  stood.  His  disciple  Antony  mentions  that  he  prayed  most  fervently  for  the 
soul  of  his  mother  after  her  decease. 

God  is  sometimes  pleased  to  conduct  certain  souls  through  extraordinary  paths, 
in  which  others  would  find  only  danger  of  illusion  and  self-will.  We  should, 
notwithstanding,  consider  that  the  holiness  of  these  persons  does  not  consist  in 
such  wonderful  actions  or  in  their  miracles,  but  in  the  perfection  of  their  charity, 

*  Dom  Claude  Leaute,  a  Benedictine  monk  of  the  congregation  of  Saint-Maur.  This  fact 
is  attested  by  his  brethren  and  superiors  in  a  relation  printed  at  Sens  in  1731  ;  and  recorded 
by  Dom  L'Isle  in  his  History  of  Fasting.  (Some  other  remarkable  examples  may  be  found 
cited  by  Father  Thurston  in  two  articles  in  The  Month,  February  and  March,  1921,  on  "  The 
Mystic  as  a  Hunger  Striker  ".) 

t  A  cubit  was  a  measure  of  from  18  to  22  inches. 


ST  CONVOYON  [January  5 

patience  and  humility  ;  and  it  was  these  solid  virtues  which  shone  so  conspicuously 
in  the  life  of  St  Simeon.  He  exhorted  people  vehemently  against  the  horrible 
custom  of  swearing  ;  as  also  to  observe  strict  justice,  to  take  no  usury,  to  be  earnest 
in  their  piety,  and  to  pray  for  the  salvation  of  souls.  The  great  deference  paid  to 
his  instructions,  even  by  barbarians,  cannot  be  described.  Many  Persians, 
Armenians  and  Iberians  were  converted  by  his  miracles  or  by  his  discourses,  which 
they  crowded  to  hear.  The  Emperors  Theodosius  and  Leo  I  often  consulted  him 
and  desired  his  prayers.  The  Emperor  Marcian  visited  him  in  disguise.  By  an 
invincible  patience  he  bore  all  afflictions  and  rebukes  without  a  word  of  complaint ; 
he  sincerely  looked  upon  himself  as  the  outcast  of  the  world  ;  and  he  spoke  to  all 
with  the  most  engaging  sweetness  and  charity.  Domnus,  Patriarch  of  Antioch, 
and  others  brought  him  holy  communion  on  his  pillar.  In  459,  on  a  Wednesday, 
September  2  (or  as  some  say,  on  the  previous  July  24,  a  Friday),  this  incomparable 
penitent,  bowing  on  his  pillar  as  if  intent  on  prayer,  gave  up  the  ghost,  in  the  sixty- 
ninth  year  of  his  age.  Two  days  later  his  body  was  conveyed  to  Antioch,  attended 
by  the  bishops  and  the  whole  country.  Many  miracles,  related  by  Evagrius, 
Antony  and  Cosmas,  were  wrought  on  this  occasion. 

Incredible  as  some  of  the  feats  of  endurance  may  seem  which  are  attributed  to  St  Simeon 
the  Elder  and  to  the  other  Stylites,  or  "  Pillar-Saints  ",  his  imitators,  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  the  facts  are  vouched  for  by  the  best  historical  evidence.  The  church  historian  Theo- 
doret,  for  example,  who  is  one  of  our  principal  authorities,  knew  Simeon  well,  possessed  his 
confidence,  and  wrote  his  account  while  the  saint  was  still  living.  The  whole  question  of  this 
extraordinary  phase  of  asceticism  is  discussed  with  great  thoroughness  by  Hippolyte  Delehaye, 
in  his  monograph  Les  Saints  Stylites  (1923).  This  supersedes  all  previous  works  on  the 
subject.  A  popular  summary  by  Fr  Thurston  of  the  outstanding  features  of  this  mpde  of 
life,  based  upon  Delehaye 's  researches,  may  be  found  in  the  Irish  quarterly  Studies,  December, 
1923,  pp.  584-596.  Besides  the  account  of  Theodoret,  we  have  two  other  primary  authorities 
for  the  life  of  St  Simeon  :  one  the  Greek  biography  by  his  disciple  and  contemporary  Antony, 
the  other  the  Syriac,  which  also  must  certainly  have  been  written  within  fifty  years  of  the 
saint's  death.  Both  these  texts  have  been  critically  edited  by  Lietzmann  in  his  Das  Leben 
des  heiligen  Symeon  Stylites  (1908)  ;  see  also  P.  Peeters  on  Simeon's  earliest  biographers,  in 
Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  lxi  (1943),  pp.  71  seq.  Between  the  Syriac  and  the  Greek  accounts 
there  are  a  good  many  points  of  divergence  in  matters  of  detail  which  cannot  be  gone  into 
here.  In  the  Roman  Martyrology  St  Simeon  is  commemorated  on  January  5,  and  the 
Bollandists  and  Butler  have  followed  this  example.  On  a  tree-dweller  (dendrite)  see  A. 
Vasiliev,  "  Life  of  David  of  Thessalonika  ",  in  Traditio,  vol.  iv  (1946),  pp.  1 15-147. 

ST    CONVOYON,  Abbot        (a.d.  868) 

In  1866  Pope  Pius  IX  approved  the  cultus  which  from  time  immemorial  had  been 
paid  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Redon  in  Brittany  to  the  Benedictine  monk  who  was 
the  founder  and  abbot  of  the  monastery  of  Saint  Saviour.  He  was  himself  a 
Breton  by  birth,  and  it  was  in  831  that  he,  with  six  companions,  obtained  a  grant 
of  land  on  which  to  build  an  abbey.  In  the  disturbed  political  conditions  of  the 
time,  the  early  years  of  the  new  foundation  seem  to  have  been  full  of  privation  and 
hardship.  Owing  in  part  to  a  charge  of  simony  brought  against  certain  bishops  of 
the  province,  Convoyon  in  848  found  himself  a  member  of  a  deputation  sent  to 
Rome  to  appeal  to  Pope  Leo  IV.  He  is  said  tc  have  brought  back  with  him  to 
his  monastery  a  chasuble  which  Leo  gave  him,  and  also  the  relics  of  Pope  St  Marcel- 
linus.  Later  Convoyon  was  driven  from  his  monastery  by  the  incursions  of  the 
Norsemen,  and  was  absent  from  it  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  868.  In  1866  the 
abbey  of  Saint  Saviour  at  Redon  had  passed  into  the  hands  of  a  community  of 


January  5]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

the  Eudist  fathers,  who  were  very  active  in  procuring  the  confirmation  of  cultus 
for  this  local  saint. 

Mabillon  (vol.  iv,  2,  pp.  188  seq.)  prints  two  lives  of  St  Convoyon,  one  of  which  purports 
to  be  written  by  a  contemporary.  An  interesting  summary  of  the  case  presented  to  obtain 
confirmation  of  the  cult  may  be  found  in  the  Analecta  Juris  Pontificii  (1866),  vol.  viii,  pp. 
2177  seq.      See  also  Lobineau,  Saints  de  la  Bretagne,  vol.  ii,  pp.  261  seq. 

ST  DOROTHEUS  THE  YOUNGER,  Abbot        (Eleventh  Century) 

Trebizond,  on  the  Black  Sea,  was  the  birthplace  of  St  Dorotheus  the  Younger,  who 
is  also  known  as  St  Dorotheus  of  Khiliokomos.  He  came  of  a  patrician  family, 
but  ran  away  from  home  at  the  age  of  twelve  to  escape  from  a  marriage  which  his 
parents  were  forcing  upon  him.  After  wandering  for  some  time  he  reached  the 
monastery  of  Genna  at  Amisos  (the  present  Samsun),  in  Pontus,  where  he  received 
the  habit  from  the  Abbot  John.  He  became  a  pattern  of  monastic  virtue  and  was 
raised  to  the  priesthood.  Besides  being  endowed  with  the  gift  of  prophecy  he  was 
frequently  rapt  in  ecstasy.  One  day  when  he  was  on  an  errand  outside  the  monas- 
tery, a  mysterious  stranger  told  him  to  found  a  community  on  a  mountain  near 
Amisos,  at  a  spot  which  he  indicated,  and  to  dedicate  it  to  the  Holy  Trinity. 
Dorotheus  was  loth  to  leave  his  brethren,  besides  being  uncertain  as  to  the  nature 
of  the  call,  but  his  abbot  bade  him  obey.  The  saint  accordingly  began  to  build, 
having  at  first  only  one  companion  to  assist  him.  Other  disciples  soon  gathered 
round  him  and  he  became  the  abbot  of  a  great  monastery  to  which  he  gave  the  name 
of  Khiliokomos.  Among  many  miracles  with  which  he  is  credited  he  is  said  to 
have  multiplied  corn,  to  have  saved  from  shipwreck  a  vessel  far  away  out  at  sea  and 
on  another  occasion  by  invoking  the  Holy  Trinity  to  have  caused  a  huge  stone 
which  crashed  down  during  the  building  operations  to  rise  unassisted  and  resume 
its  proper  place. 

The  text  of  the  Greek  life  writen  by  his  disciple  John  Mauropus  is  printed  in  the  Acta 
Sanctorum,  June,  vol.  i. 

ST    GERLAG        (c.  a.d.  1170) 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Valkenburg  (Holland)  there  is  still  a  holy  well  called  after 
St  Gerlac.  According  to  an  almost  contemporary  biography,  the  hermit  used  this 
water  while  for  seven  years  he  lived  his  solitary  life  in  the  hollow  of  a  tree.  In 
early  manhood  he  was  devoted  to  feats  of  arms,  and  gave  himself  up  to  all  the  vices 
of  the  camp,  but  the  news  of  the  sudden  death  of  his  wife  opened  his  eyes  to  the 
danger  of  his  position.  He  said  good-bye  to  the  world  and  set  out  for  Rome. 
There  he  did  seven  years'  penance,  tending  the  sick  in  the  hospitals  and  practising 
great  austerities.  Afterwards  he  obtained  the  pope's  sanction  to  become  a  hermit 
without  entering  a  religious  order.  For  the  place  of  his  solitary  life  he  chose  a 
hollow  tree,  situated  on  his  own  estate,  although,  on  his  coming  back  to  his  native 
city,  he  had  given  his  possessions  to  the  poor.  The  nearest  church  was  at  a 
considerable  distance,  yet  for  seven  years  he  made  his  way  thither  over  difficult 
ground  at  all  seasons  of  the  year,  to  be  present  at  the  divine  offices.  The  monks 
considered  his  vocation  an  anomaly,  and  tried  to  force  the  bishop  to  make  him  enter 
their  monastery.  The  quarrel  was  embittered  by  calumny,  and  the  feeling  against 
Gerlac  became  so  incredibly  violent  that  the  monks  refused  him  the  sacraments  as 
he  lay  dying.      According  to  his  biographer,  Gerlac  received  the  last  rites  from  a 



venerable  old  man  who  entered  his  cell,  gave  him  viaticum,  anointed  him,  and  then 
was  never  seen  again. 

Acta  Sanctorum,  January  5  ;  F.  Wesselmann,  Der  hi.  Gerlach  von  Houthem  (1897). 
Although  Gerlac  was  never  canonized,  fragments  are  extant  of  a  liturgical  office  which  was 
recited  in  his  honour. 


EPIPHANY,  which  in  Greek  signifies  appearance  or  manifestation,  is  a 
festival  principally  solemnized  in  honour  of  the  revelation  Jesus  Christ  made 
of  Himself  to  the  Magi,  or  wise  men  ;  who,  soon  after  His  birth,  by  a  par- 
ticular inspiration  of  Almighty  God,  came  to  worship  Him  and  bring  Him  presents. 
Two  other  manifestations  of  our  Lord  are  jointly  commemorated  on  this  day  in  the 
office  of  the  Church  :  that  at  His  baptism,  when  the  Holy  Ghost  descended  on 
Him  in  the  visible  form  of  a  dove,  and  a  voice  from  Heaven  was  heard  at  the  same 
time  :  "  This  is  my  beloved  Son,  in  whom  I  am  well  pleased  ;  "  and  that  of  His 
divine  power  at  the  doing  of  His  first  miracle,  the  changing  of  water  into  wine  at 
the  marriage  of  Cana,  by  which  He  manifested  His  glory,  and  His  disciples  believed 
in  Him.  Upon  all  these  accounts  this  festival  lays  claim  to  a  more  than  ordinary 
regard  and  veneration  ;  but  from  none  more  than  us  Gentiles,  who  in  the  person 
of  the  wise  men,  our  first-fruits  and  forerunners,  were  on  this  day  called  to  the  faith 
and  worship  of  the  true  God. 

The  summons  of  the  Gentiles  to  Bethlehem  to  pay  homage  to  the  world's 
Redeemer  was  obeyed  by  several  whom  the  Bible  mentions  under  the  name 
and  title  of  Magi,  or  wise  men  ;  but  is  silent  as  to  their  number.  The  general 
opinion,  supported  by  the  authority  of  St  Leo,  Caesarius,  Bede  and  others,  declares 
for  three.  However,  the  number  was  small  in  comparison  with  those  many  others 
who  saw  that  star  no  less  than  the  wise  men,  but  paid  no  regard  to  it ;  admiring, 
no  doubt,  its  unusual  brightness,  but  indifferent  to  its  divine  message,  or  hardening 
their  hearts  against  any  salutary  impression,  enslaved  by  their  passions  and  self- 
love.  Steadfast  in  the  resolution  of  following  the  divine  call  and  fearless  of 
danger,  the  Magi  inquire  in  Jerusalem  with  confidence  and  pursue  their  inquiry 
in  the  very  court  of  Herod  himself  ;  "  Where  is  He  that  is  born  King  of  the  Jews  ?  " 
The  whole  nation  of  the  Jews  on  account  of  Jacob's  and  Daniel's  prophecies  was 
in  expectation  of  the  Messiah's  appearance  among  them,  and  the  circumstances 
having  been  also  foretold,  the  wise  men,  by  the  interposition  of  Herod's  authority, 
quickly  learned  from  the  Sanhedrin,  or  great  council  of  the  Jews,  that  Bethlehem 
was  the  place  which  was  to  be  honoured  with  His  birth,  as  had  been  pointed  out 
by  the  prophet  Micheas  many  centuries  before. 

The  wise  men  readily  comply  with  the  voice  of  the  Sanhedrin,  notwithstanding 
the  little  encouragement  these  Jewish  leaders  afford  them  by  their  own  example 
to  persist  in  their  search  :  for  not  one  single  priest  or  scribe  is  disposed  to  bear 
them  company  in  seeking  after  and  paying  homage  to  their  own  king.  No  sooner 
had  they  left  Jerusalem  but,  to  encourage  their  faith,  God  was  pleased  again  to  show 
them  the  star  which  they  had  seen  in  the  East,  and  it  continued  to  go  before  them 
till  it  conducted  them  to  the  very  place  where  they  were  to  see  and  worship  their 


January  6]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

Saviour.  The  star,  by  ceasing  to  advance,  tells  them  in  its  mute  language,  "  Here 
shall  you  find  the  new-born  King."  The  holy  men  entered  the  poor  place, 
rendered  more  glorious  by  this  birth  than  the  most  stately  palace  in  the  universe  ; 
and  finding  the  Child  with  His  mother,  they  prostrate  themselves,  they  worship 
Him,  they  pour  forth  their  souls  in  His  presence.  St  Leo  thus  extols  their  faith 
and  devotion  :  "  When  a  star  had  conducted  them  to  worship  Jesus,  they  did  not 
find  Him  commanding  devils  or  raising  the  dead  or  restoring  sight  to  the  blind  or 
speech  to  the  dumb,  or  employed  in  any  divine  action  ;  but  a  silent  babe,  dependent 
upon  a  mother's  care,  giving  no  sign  of  power  but  exhibiting  a  miracle  of  humility.' ' 
The  Magi  offer  to  Jesus  as  a  token  of  homage  the  richest  produce  their  countries 
afforded — gold,  frankincense  and  myrrh.  Gold,  as  an  acknowledgement  of  His 
regal  power  ;  incense,  as  a  confession  of  His  Godhead  ;  and  myrrh,  as  a  testimony 
that  He  was  become  man  for  the  redemption  of  the  world.  But  their  far  more 
acceptable  presents  were  the  dispositions  they  cherished  in  their  souls  :  their 
fervent  charity,  signified  by  gold  ;  their  devotion,  figured  by  frankincense  ;  and 
the  unreserved  sacrifice  of  themselves,  represented  by  myrrh. 

The  earliest  mention  of  a  Christian  festival  celebrated  on  January  6  seems  to 
occur  in  the  Stromata  (i,  21)  of  Clement  of  Alexandria,  who  died  before  216.  He 
states  that  the  gnostic  sect  of  the  Basilidians  kept  the  commemoration  of  our 
Saviour's  baptism  with  great  solemnity  on  dates  held  to  correspond  with  the  10th 
and  6th  of  January  respectively.  The  notice  might  seem  of  little  importance  were 
it  not  for  the  fact  that  in  the  course  of  the  next  two  centuries  there  is  abundant 
evidence  that  January  6  had  come  to  be  observed  throughout  the  East  as  a  festival 
of  high  importance,  and  was  always  closely  associated  with  the  baptism  of  our 
Lord.  In  a  document  known  as  the  "  Canons  of  Athanasius  ",  whose  text  may 
in  substance  belong  to  the  time  of  St  Athanasius,  say  a.d.  370,  the  writer  recognizes 
only  three  great  feasts  in  the  year — Easter,  Pentecost  and  the  Epiphany.  He 
directs  that  a  bishop  ought  to  gather  the  poor  together  on  solemn  occasions,  notably 
upon  "  the  great  festival  of  the  Lord  "  (Easter)  ;  Pentecost,  "  when  the  Holy  Ghost 
came  down  upon  the  Church  "  ;  and  "  the  feast  of  the  Lord's  Epiphany,  which 
was  in  the  month  Tubi,  that  is  the  feast  of  Baptism  "  (canon  16) ;  and  he  specifies 
again  in  canon  66,  "  the  feast  of  the  Pasch,  and  the  feast  of  the  Pentecost  and  the 
feast  of  the  Epiphany,  which  is  the  nth  day  of  the  month  Tubi." 

According  to  oriental  ideas  it  was  through  the  divine  pronouncement  "  this  is 
my  beloved  Son  in  whom  I  am  well  pleased  "  that  the  Saviour  was  first  manifested 
to  the  great  world  of  unbelievers.  In  the  opinion  of  the  Greek  fathers,  the 
Epiphany  (eVt^aveta,  showing  forth),  which  is  also  called  0€o<f>dveia  (manifesta- 
tion of  the  deity)  and  r<x  (fxjora  (illumination),  was  identified  primarily  with  the 
scene  beside  the  Jordan.  St  John  Chrysostom,  preaching  at  Antioch  in  386,  asks, 
"  How  does  it  happen  that  not  the  day  on  which  our  Lord  was  born,  but  that  on 
which  He  was  baptized,  is  called  the  Epiphany  ?  "  And  then,  after  dwelling  upon 
certain  details  of  liturgical  observance,  particularly  the  blessing  of  water  which 
the  faithful  took  home  with  them  and  preserved  for  a  twelvemonth — he  seems  to 
suggest  that  the  fact  of  the  water  remaining  sweet  must  be  due  to  some  miracle — 
the  saint  comes  back  to  his  own  question  :  "  We  give  ",  he  says,  "  the  name 
Epiphany  to  the  day  of  our  Lord's  baptism  because  He  was  not  made  manifest  to 
all  when  he  was  born,  but  only  when  He  was  baptized  ;  for  until  that  time  He  was 
unknown  to  the  people  at  large."      Similarly  St  Jerome,  living  near  Jerusalem, 



testifies  that  in  his  time  only  one  feast  was  kept  there,  that  of  January  6,  to  com- 
memorate both  the  birth  and  the  baptism  of  Jesus  ;  nevertheless  he  declares  that 
the  idea  of  "  showing  forth  "  belonged  not  to  His  birth  in  the  flesh,  "  for  then  He 
was  hidden  and  not  revealed  ",  but  rather  to  the  baptism  in  the  Jordan,  "  when 
the  heavens  were  opened  upon  Christ  ". 

With  the  exception,  however,  of  Jerusalem,  where  the  pilgrim  lady,  Etheria 
(c.  395),  bears  witness,  like  St  Jerome,  to  the  celebration  of  the  birth  of  our  Lord 
together  with  the  Epiphany  on  one  and  the  same  day  (January  6),  the  Western 
custom  of  honouring  our  Saviour's  birth  separately  on  December  25  came  into 
vogue  in  the  course  of  the  fourth  century,  and  spread  rapidly  from  Rome  over  all 
the  Christian  East.*  We  learn  from  St  Chrysostom  that  at  Antioch  December  25 
was  observed  for  the  first  time  as  a  feast  somewhere  about  376.  Two  or  three 
years  later  the  festival  was  adopted  at  Constantinople,  and,  as  appears  from  the 
funeral  discourse  pronounced  by  St  Gregory  of  Nyssa  over  his  brother  St  Basil, 
Cappadocia  followed  suit  at  about  the  same  period.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
celebration  of  January  6,  which  undoubtedly  had  its  origin  in  the  East,  and  which 
from  a  reference  in  the  passio  of  St  Philip  of  Heraclea  may  perhaps  already  be 
recognized  in  Thrace  at  the  beginning  of  the  fourth  century,  seems  by  a  sort  of 
exchange  to  have  been  adopted  in  most  Western  lands  before  the  death  of  St 
Augustine.  It  meets  us  first  at  Vienne  in  Gaul,  where  the  pagan  historian  Am- 
mianus  Marcellinus,  describing  the  Emperor  Julian's  visit  to  one  of  the  churches, 
refers  to  "  the  feast-day  in  January  which  Christians  call  the  Epiphany  ".  St 
Augustine  in  his  time  makes  it  a  matter  of  reproach  against  the  Donatists  that  they 
had  not  adopted  this  newer  feast  of  the  Epiphany  as  the  Catholics  had  done.  We 
find  the  Epiphany  in  honour  at  Saragossa  c.  380,  and  in  400  it  is  one  of  the  days 
on  which  the  circus  games  were  prohibited. 

Still,  although  the  day  fixed  for  the  celebration  was  the  same,  the  character  of 
the  Epiphany  feast  in  East  and  West  was  different.  In  the  East  the  baptism  of  our 
Lord,  even  down  to  the  present  time,  is  the  motif  almost  exclusively  emphasized, 
and  the  /xeyas"  dytaa/xos",  or  great  blessing  of  the  waters,  on  the  morning  of  the 
Epiphany  still  continues  to  be  one  of  the  most  striking  features  of  the  oriental 
ritual.  In  the  West,  on  the  other  hand,  ever  since  the  time  of  St  Augustine  and 
St  Leo  the  Great,  many  of  whose  sermons  for  this  day  are  still  preserved  to  us,  the 
principal  stress  has  been  laid  upon  the  journey  and  the  gift-offerings  of  the  Magi. 
The  baptism  of  our  Lord  and  the  miracle  of  Cana  in  Galilee  have  also,  no  doubt 
from  an  early  period,  been  included  in  the  conception  of  the  feast,  but  although 
we  find  clear  references  to  these  introduced  by  St  Paulinus  of  Nola  at  the  beginning 
of  the  fifth  century,  and  by  St  Maximus  of  Turin  a  little  later,  into  their  interpre- 
tation of  the  solemnities  of  this  day,  no  great  prominence  has  ever  been  given  in 
the  Western  church  to  any  other  feature  but  the  revelation  of  our  Lord  to  the 
Gentiles  as  represented  by  the  coming  of  the  Magi. 

See  H.  Leclercq  in  DAC,  vol.  v,  pp.  197-201  ;  Vacandard,  Etudes  de  critique  et  d'histoire 
religieuse,  vol.  iii,  pp.  1-56  ;  Hugo  Kehrer,  Die  heiligen  Drei  Konige  (1908),  vol.  i,  pp.  46-52 
and  22-31  ;  Duchesne,  Christian  Worship,  pp.  257-265  ;  Usener-Lietzmann,  Religions- 
geschichtliche  Untersuchungen,  Part  I  ;  Kellner,  Heortology,  pp.  166-173  ;  G.  Morin  in 
Revue  Benedictine,  vol.  v  (1888),  pp.  257-264  ;  F.  C.  Conybeare  in  Rituale  Armenorum,  pp. 

*  But  to  this  day  the  non-Catholic  Armenians  celebrate  Christmas  with  the  Epiphany  on 
January  6.  And  it  is  to  be  remarked  that  even  in  the  Western  church  the  liturgical  rank  of 
the  Epiphany  feast,  with  Easter  and  Pentecost,  is  above  that  of  Christmas. 


January  6]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

165-190  ;  and  especially  Dom  de  Puniet  in  Rassegna  Gregoriana,  vol.  v  (1906),  pp.  497-514. 
See  also  Riedel  and  Crum,  The  Canons  of  Athanasius,  pp.  27,  131;  Anecdota  Maredsolana, 
t.  iii,  pp.  396-397  ;  Rassegna  Gregoriana,  vol.  x  (191 1),  pp.  51-58  ;  and  Migne,  PG.,  vol. 
xlix,  p.  366  (Chrysostom),  and  PL.,  vol.  xxv,  cc.  18-19  (Jerome),  vol.  xxxviii,  c.  1033 

ST   WILTRUDIS,  Widow        (c.  a.d.  986) 

Raderus  in  his  Bavaria  Sancta  describes  Wiltrudis  as  a  maiden  who  obtained  the 
consent  of  her  brother,  Count  Ortulf,  to  refuse  the  proposals  of  marriage  which 
had  been  made  for  her.  The  truth,  however,  appears  to  be  that  she  was  the  wife 
of  Berthold,  Duke  of  Bavaria,  who,  after  her  husband's  death,  about  the  year  947, 
became  a  nun.  Even  in  the  world  she  had  been  renowned  for  her  piety  and  for 
her  skill  in  handicrafts.  After  she  gave  herself  to  God  her  fervour  redoubled  and 
she  eventually  founded,  about  976,  an  abbey  of  Benedictine  nuns  which  became 
famous  as  that  of  Bergen,  or  Baring,  bei  Neuburg.  She  became  the  first  abbess, 
and  died  about  986. 

See  Rietzler,  Geschichte  Bayerns,  vol.  i,  pp.  338  and  381  ;   and  Raderus,  Bavaria  Sancta, 
vol.  iii,  p.  137. 

ST   ERMINOLD,  Abbot        (a.d.  1121) 

The  medieval  Life  of  St  Erminold  represents  a  rather  unsatisfactory  type  of 
spiritual  biography.  The  writer  seems  to  have  been  intent  only  on  glorifying  his 
hero,  and  we  cannot  be  quite  satisfied  as  to  his  facts.  Erminold,  brought  to  the 
monastery  of  Hirschau  as  a  child,  spent  all  his  life  in  the  cloister.  Being  conspicu- 
ous for  his  strict  observance  of  rule,  he  was  chosen  abbot  of  Lorsch,  but  a  dispute 
about  his  election  caused  him  to  resign  within  a  year.  In  11 14,  at  the  instance  of 
St  Otto  of  Bamberg,  he  was  sent  to  the  newly  founded  monastery  of  Priifening, 
and  there  he  exercised  authority,  first  as  prior,  and  from  11 17  onwards  as 
abbot.  He  is  described  in  local  calendars  and  martyrologies  as  a  martyr,  but 
his  death,  which  took  place  on  January  6,  1121,  resulted  from  the  conspiracy 
of  an  unruly  faction  of  his  own  subjects  who  resented  the  strictness  of  his 
government.  One  of  them  struck  him  on  the  head  with  a  heavy  piece  of 
timber,  and  Erminold,  lingering  for  a  few  days,  died  on  the  Epiphany  at  the 
hour  he  had  foretold.  He  was  famed  both  for  his  spirit  of  prayer  and  for  his 
charity  to  the  poor.  A  large  number  of  miracles  are  recorded  at  his  tomb  after 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  6  ;    and  also  the  MGH.,  Scriptores,  vol.  xii,  pp.  481-500. 

ST  GUARINUS,  or  GUfatlN,  Bishop  of  Sion        (a.d.  1150) 

No  formal  biography  of  St  Guarinus  seems  to  have  been  left  us  by  any  of  his 
contemporaries,  but  a  considerable  local  cult  has  been  paid  to  him  ever  since  his 
death.  He  was  originally  a  monk  of  Molesmes,  but  having  been  appointed  abbot 
of  St  John  of  Aulps  (de  Alpibus),  in  the  diocese  of  Geneva,  he  some  years  later 
wrote  to  St  Bernard,  then  at  the  height  of  his  fame,  to  ask  that  he  and  his  community 
might  be  affiliated  to  Clairvaux.  One  of  St  Bernard's  letters  in  reply  is  still 
preserved,  and  from  this  and  another  letter  of  his  it  is  evident  how  highly  he 
esteemed  Guarinus.      This  second  letter  was  written  to  console  the  community 


ST  JOHN  DE  RIBERA  [January  6 

of  Aulps  when  their  abbot  was  taken  from  them  to  be  made  bishop  of  Sion  in  the 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  6  ;   and  J.  F.  Gonthier,  Vie  de  St  Guerin  (1896). 

BD  GERTRUDE  OF  DELFT,  Virgin        (a.d.  1358) 

Much  interest  attaches  to  the  life  of  this  mystic,  who  was  first  a  servant-maid  and 
afterwards  a  beguine  at  Delft  in  Holland.  Beguines  are  not,  strictly  speaking, 
members  of  a  religious  order,  though  they  dwell  in  a  settlement  apart,  perform 
their  religious  exercises  in  common,  and  make  profession  of  chastity  and  obedience. 
But  they  are  not  vowed  to  poverty,  and  they  live  in  little  separate  houses,  each  with 
one  or  two  companions,  occupied  for  the  most  part  in  active  good  works.  In  her 
early  days  Gertrude  had  been  engaged  to  be  married  to  a  man  who  left  her  for 
another  girl,  causing  great  anguish  of  mind  to  the  betrothed  he  had  forsaken. 
Seeing  the  providence  of  God  in  this  disappointment,  she  turned  her  thoughts  to 
other  things,  and  afterwards  generously  befriended  the  rival  who  had  somewhat 
treacherously  stolen  her  lover. 

As  the  crown  of  a  life  now  spent  in  contemplation  and  austerity,  our  Lord  was 
pleased  to  honour  her,  on  Good  Friday  1340,  with  the  marks  of  His  sacred  wounds. 
We  read  that  this  privileged  state  had  already  been  foretold  to  her  by  a  holy  friend 
named  Lielta,  and  also  that  she  had  experienced  a  very  curious  bodily  manifestation 
in  the  Christmas  season  of  the  previous  year.  When  the  stigmata  were  thus  given 
her,  apparently  as  a  permanent  mark  of  God's  favour,  they  used  to  bleed  seven 
times  every  day.  She  confided  to  her  fellow  beguine  Diewerdis  the  news  of  this 
strange  wonder.  Naturally  the  tidings  spread,  and  very  soon  crowds  came,  not 
only  from  Delft,  but  from  all  the  country  round  to  behold  the  marvel.  This 
destroyed  all  privacy  and  recollection,  and  so  Gertrude  implored  our  Lord  to  come 
to  her  aid.  The  stigmata  consequently  ceased  to  bleed,  but  the  marks  persisted. 
For  the  eighteen  years  she  remained  on  earth  she  led  a  very  suffering  life,  but  she 
seems,  like  other  mystics  who  have  been  similarly  favoured  with  these  outward 
manifestations,  to  have  possessed  a  strange  knowledge  of  people's  thoughts  and 
of  distant  and  future  events,  of  which  her  biographer  gives  instances.  The  name 
"  van  Oosten  ",  by  which  she  is  known  in  the  place  of  a  surname,  is  stated  to  have 
come  to  her  from  her  fond  repetition  of  an  old  Dutch  hymn  beginning,  Het  daghet 
in  den  Oosten  ("  The  day  is  breaking  in  the  east  ").  There  seems  a  curious  appro- 
priateness in  the  fact  that  she  died  (1358)  on  the  feast  of  the  Epiphany  when  the 
wise  men  came  from  the  east  to  greet  their  infant  Saviour.  "  I  am  longing  ",  she 
said  a  few  minutes  before  her  death,  "  I  am  longing  to  go  home." 

See  the  life  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  6.  A  short  Dutch  text  was  published  at 
Amsterdam  in  1879  by  Alberdingk  Thijm  in  Verspreide  Vcrhalen  in  Prosa,  vol.  i,  pp.  54-60. 
The  hymn,  Het  daghet  in  den  Oosten,  has  been  printed  by  Hoffmann  von  Fallersleben  in  his 
Horae  Belgicae. 

ST  JOHN  DE  RIBERA,  Archbishop  of  Valencia        (a.d.  161  i) 

Peter  de  Ribera,  the  father  of  Don  John,  was  one  of  the  highest  grandees  in  Spain  ; 
he  was  created  duke  of  Alcala,  but  already  held  many  other  titles  and  important 
charges.  Among  the  rest,  he  for  fourteen  years  governed  Naples  as  viceroy.  But 
above  all,  he  was  a  most  upright  and  devout  Christian.  His  son,  therefore,  was 
admirably  brought  up,  and  during  a  distinguished  university  career  at  Salamanca 


January  6]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

and  elsewhere,  divine  Providence  seems  perceptibly  to  have  intervened  to  shield 
his  virtue  from  danger.  Realizing  the  perils  to  which  he  was  exposed,  he  gave 
himself  up  to  penance  and  prayer  in  preparation  for  holy  orders.  In  1557,  at  the 
age  of  twenty-five,  Don  John  was  ordained  priest ;  and  after  teaching  theology  at 
Salamanca  for  a  while,  he  was  preconized  bishop  of  Badajoz,  much  to  his  dismay, 
by  St  Pius  V  in  1562.  His  duties  as  bishop  were  discharged  with  scrupulous 
fidelity  and  zeal,  and  six  years  later,  by  the  desire  both  of  Philip  II  and  the  same 
holy  pontiff,  he  was  reluctantly  constrained  to  accept  the  dignity  of  archbishop  of 
Valencia.  A  few  months  later,  filled  with  consternation  at  the  languid  faith  and 
relaxed  morals  of  this  province,  which  was  the  great  stronghold  of  the  Moriscos, 
he  wrote  begging  to  be  allowed  to  resign,  but  the  pope  would  not  consent ;  and  for 
forty-two  years,  down  to  his  death  in  161 1,  St  John  struggled  to  support  cheerfully 
a  load  of  responsibility  which  almost  crushed  him.  In  his  old  age  the  burden  was 
increased  by  the  office  of  viceroy  of  the  province  of  Valencia,  which  was  imposed 
upon  him  by  Philip  III. 

The  archbishop  viewed  with  intense  alarm  what  he  regarded  as  the  dangerous 
activities  of  the  Moriscos  and  Jews,  whose  financial  prosperity  was  the  envy  of 
all.  Owing  to  the  universal  ignorance  of  the  principles  of  political  economy  which 
then  prevailed,  the  Moriscos  seemed  to  Ribera  to  be  "  the  sponges  which  sucked 
up  all  the  wealth  of  the  Christians  ".  At  the  same  time,  it  is  only  fair  to  note  that 
this  was  the  view  of  nearly  all  his  Christian  countrymen,  and  that  it  was  shared 
even  by  so  enlightened  a  contemporary  as  Cervantes.  In  any  case,  it  is  beyond 
dispute  that  St  John  de  Ribera  was  one  of  the  advisers  who  were  mainly  responsible 
for  the  edict  of  1609  which  enforced  the  deportation  of  the  Moriscos  from  Valencia. 
We  can  only  bear  in  mind  that  a  decree  of  beatification  pronounces  only  upon  the 
personal  virtues  and  miracles  of  the  servant  of  God  so  honoured,  and  that  it  does 
not  constitute  an  approbation  of  all  his  public  acts  or  of  his  political  views.  The 
archbishop  did  not  long  survive  the  tragedy  of  the  deportation.  He  died,  after  a 
long  illness  most  patiently  borne,  at  the  College  of  Corpus  Christi,  which  he 
himself  had  founded  and  endowed,  on  January  6,  161 1.  Many  miracles  were 
attributed  to  his  intercession.  He  was  beatified  in  1796  and  canonized  in  i960. 

See  V.  Castillo,  Vita  del  B.  Giovanni  de  Ribera  (1796)  ;  M.  Belda,  Vida  del  B.  Juan  de 
Ribera  (1802)  ;   and  P.  Boronat  y  Barrachina,  Los  Moriscos  espanoles  y  su  Expulsion  (1901). 

BD  RAPHAELA  MARY,  Virgin,  Foundress  of  the  Handmaids  of  the 
Sacred  Heart        (a.d.  1925) 

Raphaela  Porras  was  born  in  the  small  Spanish  town  of  Pedro  Abad,  some  way 
from  Cordova,  in  1850.  When  she  was  four  she  lost  her  father,  the  mayor  of 
the  place,  who  died  of  cholera  caught  when  looking  after  the  sick  during  an  epi- 
demic ;  at  nineteen  her  mother  followed,  and  Raphaela  was  left  with  her  elder 
sister,  Dolores,  in  charge  of  the  household,  which  included  several  brothers  and 
sisters.  In  1873  both  announced  that  they  wished  to  become  nuns.  Their 
retiring  way  of  life  had  already  provoked  opposition  from  the  family  ;  but  it 
was  eventually  arranged  for  them  to  be  received  as  novices  by  the  nuns  of 
Marie  Reparatrice  who  had  been  invited  to  Cordova  at  the  suggestion  of  a 
priest  named  Joseph  Antony  Ortiz  Urruela  (he  had  at  one  time  studied  in  England 
under  Bishop  Grant  of  Southwark).  Difficulties,  however,  at  once  arose — 
partly  because  the  nuns  were  "  foreign  ",  partly  because  of  the  high-handed 


BD  RAPHAELA  MARY  [January  6 

behaviour  of  Don  Ortiz  Urruela — and  the  bishop  asked  the  nuns  to  leave. 
Sixteen  novices,  including  the  two  Porras  girls,  were  given  permission  to  remain 
in  Cordova,  and  carry  on  as  best  they  could  under  the  headship  of  Sister  Raphaela 

Early  in  1877,  just  before  Sister  Raphaela  and  five  others  were  to  take  their 
vows,  Bishop  Ceferino  Gonzalez  informed  them  that  he  had  drawn  up  an  entirely 
new  rule  for  the  community.  This  put  the  novices  in  an  awkward  position.  The 
new  rule  was  quite  different  from  that  in  which  they  had  been  trained  ;  on  the  other 
hand,  if  they  refused  it  they  all  would  be  sent  back  to  their  homes.  The  course 
they  decided  on  was  a  surprising  one — no  less  than  flight.  And  they  carried  it 
out.  Leaving  Cordova  by  night,  they  went  to  Andujar,  where  Don  Ortiz  Urruela 
had  arranged  for  them  to  be  sheltered  by  the  nuns  at  the  hospital.  Naturally, 
there  was  great  excitement.  The  civil  authorities  took  a  hand,  and  the  bishop 
declared  Don  Ortiz  Urruela  "  suspended  "  ;  but  that  enterprising  priest  was 
already  in  Madrid,  seeing  what  he  could  do  for  his  protegees  there,  and  the  bishop 
could  really  do  little,  as  the  fugitives  were  not  a  canonically-erected  community. 
Then  Don  Ortiz  Urruela  suddenly  died  ;  but  the  sisters  were  sent  a  new  friend  in 
Father  Cotanilla,  a  Jesuit,  and  they  were  allowed  by  the  ecclesiastical  authorities 
to  settle  in  Madrid.  In  the  summer  of  1877  the  first  two,  Raphaela  and  her  sister 
Dolores,  made  their  profession. 

That  was  the  startling  beginning  of  the  congregation  of  the  Handmaids  of  the 
Sacred  Heart,  whose  work  was  to  be  the  education  of  children  and  helping  with 
retreats.  It  soon  began  to  develop  and  spread,  and  houses  were  opened  at  Jerez, 
Saragossa,  Bilbao  and  Cordova — this  last  with  the  full  approval  of  Bishop  Ceferino. 
To-day  its  sisters  are  found  in  a  dozen  other  countries  besides  Spain,  including 
England  and  the  United  States.  But  troubles  did  not  end  with  the  difficulty  of 
its  birth,  nor  even  with  the  granting  of  approval  b.y  the  Holy  See  in  1877,  when 
Bd  Raphaela  was  elected  mother  general.  Unhappily  her  sister  Dolores,  now 
Mother  Mary-del-Pilar,  did  not  see  eye-to-eye  with  Raphaela  in  matters  of  adminis- 
tration, and  there  were  others  who  supported  Mother  Mary  :  in  1893  the  foundress 
resigned  from  her  office  as  mother  general,  and  Mary-del-Pilar  was  elected  in  her 
place.  For  the  remaining  thirty-two  years  of  her  life  Bd  Raphaela  filled  no  office 
whatever  in  her  congregation,  but  lived  in  obscurity  in  the  Roman  house,  doing 
the  housework. 

It  cannot  be  doubted  that  it  was  in  these  years  that  she  earned  her  halo  of 
holiness.  The  woman  that  inaugurated  a  religious  congregation  in  the  circum- 
stances that  she  did  cannot  have  found  such  self-abnegation  easy.  Attention  has 
several  times  been  drawn  in  these  pages  to  people  who  were  popularly  canonized 
because  they  accepted,  not  formal  martyrdom,  but  simply  an  unjust  death  :  Mother 
Raphaela  is  a  beata  who  lived  nearly  half  her  life  cheerfully  carrying  a  weight  of 
unjust  treatment.  Courage  and  sweetness  shone  out  from  her  face  in  old  age. 
The  surgeon  who  operated  on  her  in  her  last  days  said  it  all  in  a  sentence  :  "  Mother, 
you  are  a  brave  woman  "  ;  but  she  had  said  long  before,  "  I  see  clearly  that  God 
wants  me  to  submit  to  all  that  happens  to  me  as  if  I  saw  Him  there  commanding 
it."  Bd  Raphaela  Mary  died  on  the  Epiphany  in  1925,  and  she  was  beatified  in 

In  English  there  is  a  good  summary  in  pamphlet  form,  In  Search  of  the  Will  of  God  (1950) , 
by  Fr  William  Lawson. 


January  7]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 


ST    LUCIAN    OF    ANTIOCH,  Martyr        (a.d.  312) 

ST  LUCIAN  was  born  at  Samosata,  in  Syria.  He  became  a  great  proficient 
in  rhetoric  and  philosophy,  and  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures  under  one  Macarius  at  Edessa.  Convinced  that  his  duty  as  a 
priest  required  him  to  devote  himself  entirely  to  the  service  of  God  and  the  good 
of  his  neighbour,  he  was  not  content  to  inculcate  the  practice  of  virtue  by  word  and 
example,  but  he  also  undertook  to  purge  the  Old  and  New  Testament  from  the 
faults  that  had  crept  into  them  through  the  inaccuracy  of  transcribers  and  in  other 
ways.  Whether  he  only  revised  the  text  of  the  Old  Testament  by  comparing 
different  editions  of  the  Septuagint,  or  corrected  it  upon  the  Hebrew  text,  being 
well  versed  in  that  language,  it  is  certain  in  any  case  that  St  Lucian's  edition  of  the 
Bible  was  much  esteemed,  and  was  of  great  use  to  St  Jerome. 

St  Alexander,  Bishop  of  Alexandria,  says  that  Lucian  remained  some  years 
separated  from  Catholic  communion  at  Antioch,  under  three  successive  bishops. 
He  may  perhaps  have  favoured  overmuch  the  heretic  Paul  of  Samosata,  con- 
demned at  Antioch  in  the  year  269,  but  it  is  certain,  at  least,  that  Lucian  died  in 
the  communion  of  the  Church.  This  appears  from  a  fragment  of  a  letter  written 
by  him  to  the  church  of  Antioch,  still  extant  in  the  Alexandrian  Chronicle.  Though 
a  priest  of  Antioch,  we  find  him  at  Nicomedia  in  the  year  303,  when  Diocletian  first 
published  his  edicts  against  the  Christians.  He  there  suffered  a  long  imprisonment 
for  the  faith,  for  he  wrote  from  out  of  his  dungeon,  "  All  the  martyrs  salute  you. 
I  inform  you  that  the  Pope  Anthimus  [Bishop  of  Nicomedia]  has  finished  his 
course  by  martyrdom."  This  happened  in  303.  Yet  Eusebius  informs  us  that 
St  Lucian  did  not  arrive  himself  at  the  crown  of  martyrdom  till  after  the  death  of 
St  Peter  of  Alexandria  in  311,  so  that  he  seems  to  have  continued  nine  years  in 

At  length  he  was  brought  before  the  governor,  or  the  emperor  himself,  for  the 
word  which  Eusebius  uses  may  imply  either.  At  his  trial  he  presented  to  the  judge 
an  excellent  apology  for  the  Christian  faith.  Being  remanded  to  prison,  an  order 
was  given  that  no  food  should  be  allowed  him  ;  but  after  fourteen  days,  when 
almost  dead  with  hunger,  meats  that  had  been  offered  to  idols  were  set  before  him, 
which  he  would  not  touch.  It  was  not  in  itself  unlawful  to  eat  of  such  meats,  as 
St  Paul  teaches,  except  where  it  would  give  scandal  to  the  weak,  or  when  it  was 
exacted  as  an  action  of  idolatrous  superstition,  as  was  the  case  here.  Being  brought 
a  second  time  before  the  tribunal,  he  would  to  all  the  questions  put  to  him  give 
no  other  answer  but  this,  "  I  am  a  Christian  ".  He  repeated  the  same  whilst  on 
the  rack,  and  he  finished  his  glorious  course  in  prison,  either  by  starvation,  or, 
according  to  St  Chrysostom,  by  the  sword.  His  acts  relate  many  of  his  miracles, 
with  other  particulars  ;  as  that,  when  bound  and  chained  on  his  back  in  prison, 
he  consecrated  the  divine  mysteries  upon  his  own  breast,  and  communicated  the 
faithful  that  were  present :  this  we  also  read  in  Philostorgius,  the  Arian  historian. 
St  Lucian  suffered  at  Nicomedia  in  Bithynia  on  January  7,  312,  and  was  buried  at 
Drepanum  (Helenopolis). 

We  have  plenty  of  information  concerning  St  Lucian  in  Eusebius  (Hist.  Eccles.,  ix,  6) 
in  a  panegyric  by  St  John  Chrysostom  (Migne,  PC,  vol.  1,  p.  519),  and  in  a  rather  fantastic 
legend  preserved  by  the  Metaphrast  (Migne,  PC,  vol.  cxiv,  p.  397).  See  also  Pio  Franchi 
in  Studi  e  Documenti  (1897),  vol.  xviii,  pp.  24-45.      Father  Delehaye  says  of  St  Lucian  : 


ST  TILLO  [January  7 

"  Nothing  could  be  better  authenticated  than  the  fact  of  his  martyrdom,  nothing  more  firmly 
established  than  his  cuitusy  witnessed  to  by  the  basilica  of  Helenopolis,  as  well  as  by  literary 
documents  "  (Legends  of  the  Saints,  p.  192).  Nevertheless  the  story  of  St  Lucian  has  been 
chosen  by  H.  Usener  (Die  Sintfluthsagen,  1899,  pp.  168-180)  as  a  typical  example  of  the 
evolution  of  Christian  legend  out  of  pagan  myth.  Consult  the  reply  of  Father  Delehaye 
(I.e.  pp.  193-197),  and  see  also  Batiffol  in  Compte-rendu  du  Congres  catholique  (1894),  vol.  ii, 
pp.  1 81-186.  There  is  a  sensitive  and  erudite  study  by  G.  Bardy,  Recherches  sur  St  Lucien 
d'Antioche  (1936). 

ST   VALENTINE,  Bishop        (a.d.  440  ?) 

Very  little  is  known  concerning  this  St  Valentine,  though  a  fairly  long  medieval 
biography  of  him  is  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  ;  but  this,  as  all  are  agreed,  is 
historically  worthless.  From  Eugippius  in  his  Life  of  St  Severinus  we  learn  that 
Valentine  was  first  of  all  an  abbot,  and  then  a  missionary  bishop  in  Rhaetia,  and 
also  that  a  disciple  of  Valentine  who  attached  himself  to  St  Severinus  used  every 
year  on  January  7  to  offer  Mass  in  honour  of  his  earlier  father  in  Christ.  Venantius 
Fortunatus  lets  us  know  that  in  a  journey  he  made  through  the  Tirol  he  came  across 
more  than  one  church  which  was  dedicated  in  honour  of  the  same  St  Valentine. 
From  Arbeo  of  Freising  we  get  the  further  information  that  Valentine  was  first 
buried  at  Mais  in  the  Tirol,  but  that  his  remains  were  translated  to  Trent  about 
the  year  750,  and  thence  in  768  to  Passau.  These  are  all  early  testimonies,  but 
there  is  no  more  evidence  which  can  be  relied  on.  At  a  much  later  date  a  story 
was  invented  that  at  a  subsequent  removal  of  the  relics  of  Valentine  to  a  place  of 
greater  honour  in  Passau  a  leaden  tablet  had  been  found  which  had  engraved  upon 
it  a  summary  of  the  saint's  whole  history.  The  biographer  professes  to  incorporate 
a  copy  of  the  text  of  this  inscription,  but  a  critical  study  of  the  document  leaves  no 
doubt  that  it  is  a  clumsy  forgery. 

See  the  essay  of  A.  Leider,  "  Die  Bleitafel  im  Sarge  des  HI.  Valentin  "  in  Festgabe  Alois 
Knopfler  (1907),  pp.  254-274  ;   and  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  7. 

ST    TILLO        (c.  a.d.  702) 

He  was  by  birth  a  Saxon,  and  being  made  captive,  was  carried  into  the  Low 
Countries,  where  he  was  ransomed  and  baptized  by  St  Eligius.  That  fervent 
apostle  sent  him  to  his  abbey  of  Solignac,  in  the  Limousin.  Tillo  was  called  thence 
by  Eligius,  ordained  priest,  and  employed  by  him  for  some  time  at  Tournai  and 
in  other  parts  of  the  Low  Countries.  The  inhabitants  of  the  country  of  Iseghem, 
near  Courtrai,  regard  him  as  their  apostle.  Some  years  after  the  death  of  St 
Eligius,  St  Tillo  returned  to  Solignac,  and  lived  as  a  recluse  near  that  abbey, 
imitating  in  simplicity,  devotion  and  austerity  the  Antonys  and  Macariuses  of  old. 
He  died  in  his  solitude,  about  the  year  702,  a  nonagenarian,  and  was  honoured 
with  miracles.  Tillo  is  sometimes  called  Theau  in  France,  Tilloine  or  Tilman 
in  Flanders,  Hillonius  in  Germany. 

His  name  is  famous  in  the  French  and  Belgian  calendars,  though  it  does  not  occur  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology.  The  Life  of  St  Eligius  names  Tillo  first  among  the  seven  disciples 
of  that  saint,  who  worked  with  him  at  his  trade  of  goldsmith,  and  imitated  him  in  all  his 
religious  exercises,  before  that  holy  man  was  engaged  in  the  ministry  of  the  Church.  Many 
churches  in  Flanders,  Auvergne,  the  Limousin  and  other  places  are  dedicated  to  God  under 
his  invocation.  The  anonymous  Life  of  St  Tillo,  in  the  Acta  SS,  is  not  altogether  authentic  ; 
the  history  which  Mabillon  gives  of  him  from  the  Breviary  of  Solignac  is  of  more  authority  : 
see  his  AA.  SS.  Benedict.,  vol.  ii,  p.  996. 


January  7]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

ST   ALDRIC,  Bishop  of  Le  Mans        (a.d.  856) 

This  saint  was  born  of  a  noble  family,  parti/  of  Saxon  and  partly  Bavarian  extrac- 
tion, about  the  year  800.  At  twelve  years  of  age  he  was  sent  by  his  father  to  the 
court  of  Charlemagne  where,  in  the  household  of  Louis  the  Pious,  he  gained  the 
esteem  of  the  whole  court.  About  the  year  821  he  retired  from  Aix-la-Chapelle 
to  Metz,  where  he  entered  the  bishop's  school  and  received  clerical  tonsure.  After 
his  ordination  the  Emperor  Louis  called  him  again  to  court,  and  made  him  his 
chaplain  and  confessor.  In  832  St  Aldric  was  chosen  bishop  of  Le  Mans.  He 
employed  his  patrimony  and  his  whole  interest  in  relieving  the  poor,  providing 
public  services,  establishing  churches  and  monasteries,  and  promoting  religion. 
In  the  civil  wars  which  divided  the  empire  his  fidelity  to  Louis  and  to  his  successor, 
Charles  the  Bald,  was  inviolable.  For  almost  a  year  he  was  expelled  by  a  faction 
from  his  see,  Aldric  having  antagonized  the  monks  of  Saint-Calais  by  claiming 
that  they  were  under  his  jurisdiction.  The  claim  was  not  upheld,  though  supported 
by  forged  documents,  for  which  the  bishop  himself  is  not  known  to  have  been 
personally  responsible. 

Some  fragments  have  reached  us  of  the  regulations  which  Aldric  made  for  his 
cathedral,  in  which  he  orders  ten  wax  candles  and  ninety  lamps  to  be  lighted  on 
all  great  festivals.  We  have  three  testaments  of  this  holy  prelate  extant.  The  last 
is  an  edifying  monument  of  his  piety  :  in  the  first  two,  he  bequeaths  lands  and 
possessions  to  many  churches  of  his  diocese,  adding  prudent  advice  and  regulations 
for  maintaining  good  order  and  a  spirit  of  charity.  The  last  two  years  of  St 
Aldric's  life  he  was  paralysed  and  confined  to  bed,  during  which  time  he  redoubled 
his  fervour  and  assiduity  in  prayer.  He  died  January  7,  856,  and  was  buried  in 
the  church  of  St  Vincent,  of  which,  and  of  the  monastery  to  which  it  belonged, 
he  had  been  a  great  benefactor. 

The  medieval  Latin  life  of  St  Aldric  has  been  re-edited  by  Charles  and  Froger,  Gesta 
domini  Aldrici  (1890).  No  scholar  now  regards  it  as  fully  reliable,  but  the  first  forty-four 
chapters  seem  to  be  older  and  more  trustworthy  than  the  rest.  Some  attempts  have  been 
made  to  connect  St  Aldric  with  the  compilation  of  the  Forged  Decretals,  but  this  idea  has 
not  found  much  favour,  though  Paul  Fournier  has  shown  good  reason  for  believing  that  they 
first  took  shape  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Le  Mans  during  his  episcopate.  On  the  other  hand, 
Julien  Havet  has  argued  that  the  first  forty-four  chapters  of  the  Gesta  were  written  as  a  piece 
of  autobiography  by  Aldric  himself.  In  any  case  Havet  seems  to  have  proved  that  in  contrast 
to  the  chapters  in  the  later  portion  of  the  Gesta  and  those  in  the  Actus  pontificum  Ceno- 
mannis  .  .  .,  the  nineteen  documents  incorporated  in  the  first  forty-four  chapters  are  all 
authentic.  See  J.  Havet,  CEuvres,  vol.  i,  pp.  287-292,  317  seq.y  and  Anal 'e eta  Bollandiana 
(1895),  vol.  xiv,  p.  446  ;  cf.  also  Duchesne,  Fastes  fipiscopaux,  vol.  ii,  pp.  313-317,  327-328, 
342-343  ;  M.  Besson  in  DHG.,  vol.  ii,  cc.  68-69. 

ST    REINOLD        (a.d.  960  ?) 

Very  little  is  known  of  St  Reinold,  monk  and  martyr,  identified  with  the  youngest 
of  the  "  four  sons  of  Aymon  ".  Tradition  connects  him  with  the  family  of 
Charlemagne.  Apparently  he  made  his  way  to  Cologne  and  entered  the  monastery 
of  St  Pantaleon.  He  was  put  in  charge  of  certain  building  operations,  and  owing 
to  his  over-strenuous  diligence,  incurred  the  hostility  of  the  stonemasons.  The 
result  was  that  they  attacked  him,  killed  him  with  blows  of  their  hammers,  and 
flung  his  body  into  a  pool  near  the  Rhine.  For  a  long  time  his  brothers  in  religion 
searched  in  vain  for  any  trace  of  him.      His  body  was  at  last  discovered  through  a 


BD  EDWARD  WATERSON  [January  7 

revelation  made  to  a  poor  sick  woman,  and  it  was  brought  back  to  the  monastery 
with  honour.  Later  on,  in  the  eleventh  century,  it  was  translated  by  St  Anno, 
Archbishop  of  Cologne,  to  Dortmund  in  Westphalia.  St  Reinold  was  in  some 
places  honoured  as  the  patron  of  stonemasons. 

The  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  7  prints  a  short  life,  but  it  is  impossible  to  say  how  much 
of  this  is  purely  mythical,  and  how  much  may  be  based  on  some  kernel  of  fact.  A  local 
chronicle  of  Cologne  states  that  St  Reinold  died  in  697,  and  a  rhythmical  life  of  the  same, 
printed  by  Floss,  assigns  his  "  martyrdom  "  to  the  episcopate  of  St  Agilulf,  Bishop  of  Cologne, 
who  is  supposed  to  have  died  in  750.  In  either  case  Reinold  could  have  had  nothing  to  do 
with  Charlemagne.  See  Jordan  in  Romanische  Forschungen  (1907),  vol.  xx,  pp.  1-198,  and 
Caxton's  Romance  of  the  Foure  Sonnes  of  Aymon,  re-edited  for  the  Early  English  Text  Society. 

ST   CANUTE    LAVARD,  Martyr        (a.d.  1131) 

Knud  Lavard,  "  the  Lord  ",  as  he  is  called  by  his  countrymen,  was  the  second 
son  of  Eric  the  Good,  King  of  Denmark.  When  he  had  come  to  man's  estate, 
his  uncle,  King  Niels,  made  him  duke  over  southern  Jutland  with  the  task  of 
defending  it  against  the  Wends  ;  and,  from  his  centre  at  Schleswig,  Canute  set 
himself  to  make  justice  and  peace  reign  in  his  territory.  Unfortunately  the 
plundering  Vikings  could  not  be  induced  to  co-operate  in  this  worthy  object.  One 
day,  when  he  had  condemned  several  of  them  to  be  hanged  for  their  piracies,  one 
cried  out  that  he  was  of  blood  royal  and  related  to  Canute.  The  duke  answered 
that  if  such  was  the  case  he  should  in  recognition  of  his  noble  birth  be  hanged  from 
the  masthead  of  his  ship,  which  was  done. 

Canute  had  spent  part  of  his  youth  at  the  Saxon  court,  and  in  1 129  the  Emperor 
Lothair  III  recognized  his  rule  over  the  western  Wends,  with  the  title  of  king. 
This  excited  the  anger  of  King  Niels  of  Denmark,  and  on  January  7,  1131,  Canute 
was  treacherously  slain  in  the  forest  of  Haraldsted,  near  Ringsted,  by  his  cousins 
Magnus  Nielssen  and  Henry  Skadelaar.  Canute,  who  had  supported  the  mis- 
sionary activities  of  St  Vicelin,  was  canonized  by  Pope  Alexander  III  in  1169 
at  the  request  of  his  son,  Valdemar  I  of  Denmark,  and  of  Eskil,  Archbishop  of 
Lund.  The  Roman  Martyrology,  following  the  cultus  which  Canute  received  in 
Denmark,  calls  him  a  martyr,  but  he  seems  to  have  been  a  dynastic  hero  rather 
than  a  martyr. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  7  ;  C.  Gertz,  Vitae  sanctorum  Danorum  (1908-1912)  ; 
Schubert,  Kirchengeschichte  von  Schleswig-Holstein  (1907),  vol.  i  ;  and  DHG.,  vol.  xi, 
cc.  815-817.  For  the  canonization,  see  E.  W.  Kemp,  Canonization  and  Authority  .  .  . 
(1948),  pp.  79,  86. 

BD    EDWARD    WATERSON,  Martyr        (a.d.  1593) 

Edward  Waterson  is  unique  among  the  English  martyrs  in  having  had  the  oppor- 
tunity to  turn  Mohammedan  and  marry  a  Turkish  girl.  He  was  a  Protestant 
Londoner  by  birth,  and  when  a  young  man  made  a  voyage  to  Turkey.  While  there 
he  attracted  the  favourable  notice  of  a  wealthy  Turk,  who  offered  him  his  daughter 
in  marriage  on  condition  that  he  should  embrace  Islam.  Waterson  rejected  the 
suggestion  ;  but  on  his  way  homewards,  tarrying  at  Rome,  he  had  the  oppor- 
tunity for  conversion  of  another  sort,  and  he  was  reconciled  with  the  Catholic 
Church  by  Dr  Richard  Smith  at  the  English  College.  This  was  in  1588.  He 
then  went  on  to  the  college  at  Rheims,  where  he  was  ordained  priest  four  years 


January  8]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

In  June  following  he  was  sent  back  to  England,  declaring  he  would  rather  go 
there  than  own  all  France  for  a  twelvemonth  ;  but  he  ministered  for  only  a  few 
months  before  being  arrested  and  condemned  for  his  priesthood  at  Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne.  Archdeacon  Trollope,  from  whose  letters  to  Douay  Challoner  got 
several  items  of  information,  declared  that,  when  Mr  Waterson  was  tied  to  the 
hurdle  to  be  drawn  to  the  place  of  execution,  the  horses  refused  to  budge  ;  so  he 
had  to  be  taken  to  the  scaffold  on  foot,  the  bystanders  saying,  "  It  would  be  a  vote 
to  the  papists  which  had  happened  that  day  "  ;  or,  in  modern  idiom,  "  That's  one 
up  to  the  R.C.'s  ".  Again,  when  he  came  to  mount  the  scaffold  the  ladder  is  said 
to  have  jerked  about  without  human  agency,  and  to  have  stayed  still  only  when  he 
made  the  sign  of  the  cross  over  it.  Then  he  was  turned  off,  disembowelled  and 

See  MMP.,  pp.  187-188  ;  Morris,  Troubles  of  our  Catholic  Forefathers  (series  III)  ; 
Catholic  Record  Society  publications,  vol.  v  ;    and  Burton  and  Pollen,  LEM. 


ST   APOLLINARIS,  Bishop  of  Hierapolis        (c.  a.d.  179) 

CLAUDIUS  APOLLINARIS,  Bishop  of  Hierapolis  in  Phrygia,  called  "  the 
Apologist  ",  was  a  famous  Christian  teacher  in  the  second  century.  Not- 
withstanding the  encomiums  bestowed  on  him  by  Eusebius,  St  Jerome, 
Theodoret  and  others,  we  know  but  little  of  his  life,  and  his  writings,  which  then 
were  held  in  great  esteem,  seem  now  to  be  all  lost.  Photius,  who  had  read  them 
and  who  was  a  very  good  judge,  commends  them  both  for  their  style  and  matter. 
He  wrote  against  the  Encratites  and  other  heretics,  and  pointed  out,  as  St  Jerome 
testifies,  from  what  philosophical  sect  each  heresy  derived  its  errors.  His  last 
work  was  directed  against  the  Montanists  and  their  pretended  prophets,  who  began 
to  appear  in  Phrygia  about  the  year  171.  But  nothing  rendered  his  name  so 
illustrious  as  his  apology  for  the  Christian  religion,  which  he  addressed  to  the 
Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius  soon  after  the  victory  that  prince  had  obtained  over  the 
Quadi  by  the  prayers,  it  is  alleged,  of  the  Christians,  of  which  the  saint  made 

Marcus  Aurelius  having  long  attempted  without  success  to  subdue  the  Germans 
by  his  generals,  resolved  in  a.d.  174  to  take  the  field  against  them  himself.  He  was 
beyond  the  Danube  when  the  Quadi,  a  people  inhabiting  that  territory  later  called 
Moravia,  surrounded  him  in  a  very  disadvantageous  situation  :  so  that  there  was 
no  possibility  that  either  he  or  his  army  could  escape  out  of  their  hands  or  maintain 
themselves  long  where  they  were  for  want  of  water.  The  twelfth  legion  was  chiefly 
composed  of  Christians.  When  the  army  was  drawn  up,  exhausted  with  thirst, 
the  Christians  fell  upon  their  knees,  "  as  we  are  accustomed  to  do  at  prayer  ",  says 
Eusebius,  and  earnestly  besought  God's  aid.  Then  on  a  sudden  the  sky  was 
darkened  with  clouds,  and  a  heavy  rain  poured  down  just  as  the  barbarians  began 
their  attack.  The  Romans  fought  and  drank  at  the  same  time,  catching  the  rain 
as  it  fell  in  their  helmets,  and  often  swallowing  it  mingled  with  blood.  Their 
assailants  would  still  have  been  too  strong  for  them,  but  that  the  storm  being  driven 
by  a  violent  wind  into  their  faces,  and  accompanied  with  flashes  of  lightning  and 
loud  thunder,  the  Germans,  unable  to  see,  were  terrified  to  such  a  degree  that  they 
took  to  flight.     Both  heathen  and  Christian  writers  give  this  account  of  the  victory. 


ST  LUCIAN  OF  BEAUVAIS  [January  8 

The  heathens  ascribed  it,  some  to  the  power  of  magic,  others  to  their  gods,  but 
the  Christians  accounted  it  a  miracle  obtained  by  the  prayers  of  this  legion.  St 
Apollinaris  apparently  referred  to  it  in  his  apology  to  this  very  emperor,  and  added 
that  as  an  acknowledgement  the  emperor  gave  it  the  name  of  the  "  Thunder- 
ing Legion  ".  From  him  it  is  so  called  by  Eusebius,  Tertullian,  St  Jerome  and 
St  Gregory  of  Nyssa. 

The  Quadi  surrendered  the  prisoners  whom  they  had  taken,  and  begged  for 
peace  on  whatever  conditions  it  should  please  the  emperor  to  grant  it  them.  Marcus 
Aurelius  hereupon,  out  of  gratitude  to  his  Christian  soldiers,  published  an  edict, 
in  which  he  confessed  himself  indebted  for  his  delivery  "  to  the  shower  obtained, 
perhaps,  by  the  prayers  of  the  Christians  ".  In  it  he  forbade,  under  pain  of  death, 
anyone  to  accuse  a  Christian  on  account  of  his  religion  ;  yet  by  a  strange  incon- 
sistency, being  overawed  by  the  opposition  of  the  senate,  he  had  not  the  courage  to 
abolish  the  laws  already  in  force  against  Christians.  Hence,  even  after  this,  in  the 
same  reign,  many  suffered  martyrdom,  though  their  accusers,  it  is  asserted,  were 
also  put  to  death. 

The  deliverance  of  the  emperor  is  represented  on  the  Columna  Antoniniana  in 
Rome  by  the  figure  of  a  Jupiter  Pluvius,  being  that  of  an  old  man  flying  in  the  air 
with  his  arms  extended,  and  a  long  beard  which  seems  to  waste  away  in  rain.  The 
soldiers  are  there  represented  as  relieved  by  this  sudden  tempest,  and  in  a  posture 
partly  drinking  of  the  rain  water  and  partly  fighting  against  the  enemy,  who,  on 
the  contrary,  are  represented  as  stretched  out  on  the  ground  with  their  horses,  and 
the  dreadful  part  of  the  storm  descending  upon  them  only.  The  credibility  of  the 
story,  which  Eusebius  apparently  derived  from  the  Apology  of  St  Apollinaris,  still 
remains  a  matter  of  discussion.  On  the  one  hand,  it  is  certain  that  the  "  Thunder- 
ing Legion  "  (legio  fulminatd)  did  not  obtain  this  title  from  Marcus  Aurelius,  for  it 
belonged  to  them  from  the  time  of  Augustus  ;  on  the  other,  there  is  nothing 
violently  incredible  in  the  facts  themselves.  Contemporary  Christians  might  easily 
attribute  such  a  surprising  victory  to  the  prayers  of  their  fellow  believers.  There 
is  no  confirmation  among  pagan  authorities  for  the  text  of  the  supposed  edict  of 
toleration.  Those  scholars  who  defend  the  general  accuracy  of  the  facts  believe 
it  to  be  at  least  interpolated. 

St  Apollinaris  may  have  penned  his  apology  to  the  emperor  about  the  year 
175  to  remind  him  of  the  benefit  he  had  received  from  God  by  the  prayers 
of  the  Christians,  and  to  implore  his  protection.  We  have  no  account  of  the 
time  of  this  holy  man's  death,  which  probably  happened  before  that  of  Marcus 

For  the  "  Thundering  Legion  "  see  Tertullian,  Apologeticum,  cap.  5,  and  Ad  Scapulam, 
cap.  4  ;  Eusebius,  Hist,  eccl.,  bk  v,  cap.  5  ;  J.  B.  Lightfoot,  St  Ignatius,  vol.  i  (1889),  pp. 
469  seq.  ;  Mommsen  in  Hermes,  1895,  pp.  90—106  ;  Allard,  Histoire  des  persecutions,  vol.  i 
(1903),  pp.  394-396.  For  St  Apollinaris,  see  Acta  Sanctorum,  February,  vol.  ii,  pp.  4-8. 
His  name  was  added  to  the  Roman  Martyrology  by  Baronius,  but  there  is  no  evidence  of  any 
early  cultus  in  either  the  East  or  West. 

ST   LUCIAN    OF    BEAUVAIS,  Martyr        (a.d.  290  ?) 

It  is  said  that  this  Lucian  preached  the  gospel  in  Gaul  in  the  third  century  and 
came  from  Rome  ;  he  was  possibly  one  of  the  companions  of  St  Dionysius  of  Paris, 
or  at  least  of  St  Quentin.     He  sealed  his  mission  with  his  blood  at  Beauvais,  under 


January  8]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

Julian,  vicar  or  successor  to  the  persecutor  Rictiovarus  in  the  government  of  Gaul, 
about  the  year  290.  Maximian,  called  by  the  common  people  Messien,  and  Julian, 
the  companions  of  his  labours,  were  crowned  with  martyrdom  at  the  same  place 
a  little  before  him.  His  relics,  with  those  of  his  two  colleagues,  were  discovered 
in  the  seventh  century,  as  St  Ouen  informs  us  in  his  life  of  St  Eligius.  They  were 
shown  in  three  gilt  shrines  in  an  abbey  which  bore  his  name,  founded  in  the  eighth 
century.  Rabanus  Maurus  says  that  these  relics  were  famous  for  miracles  when 
he  wrote,  a  hundred  years  later. 

St  Lucian  is  styled  only  martyr  in  most  calendars  down  to  the  sixteenth  century, 
and  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  ;  but  a  calendar  compiled  in  the  reign  of  Louis  the 
Pious  calls  him  bishop,  and  he  is  honoured  in  that  quality  at  Beauvais. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  8,  p.  640,  though  the  two  lives  of  this  saint  there 
printed  are  of  little  or  no  authority.  Duchesne  in  his  Fastes  Episcopaux,  vol.  iii,  pp.  119 
and  141-152,  discusses  the  case  of  St  Lucian  at  some  length,  and  shows  good  reason  for 
believing  that  the  whole  story  is  mythical.  He  strongly  inclines  to  the  belief  that  Rictiovarus 
never  existed.  See  H.  Moretus,  Les  Passions  de  S.  Lucien  et  leurs  derives  cephalophoriques 

ST    SEVERINUS    OF    NORICUM        (c.  ad.  480) 

We  know  nothing  of  the  birth  or  country  of  this  saint.  From  the  purity  of  his 
Latin  he  was  generally  supposed  to  be  a  Roman,  and  his  care  to  conceal  what  rank 
he  had  held  in  the  world  was  taken  for  a  proof  of  his  humility  and  a  presumption 
that  he  was  a  person  of  birth.  He  spent  the  first  part  of  his  life  in  the  deserts  of  the 
East,  but  left  his  retreat  to  preach  the  gospel  in  Noricum  (Austria).  At  first  he 
came  to  Astura,  now  Stockerau  ;  but  finding  the  people  hardened  in  vice,  he  fore- 
told the  punishment  God  had  prepared  for  them,  and  repaired  to  Comagene 
(Hamburg,  on  the  Danube).  It  was  not  long  ere  his  prophecy  was  veri- 
fied, for  Astura  was  laid  waste,  and  the  inhabitants  destroyed  by  the  Huns.  By  the 
fulfilment  of  this  prophecy,  and  by  several  miracles  which  he  wrought,  the  name 
of  the  saint  became  famous.  Faviana,  a  city  on  the  Danube,  distressed  by  a  terrible 
famine,  implored  his  assistance.  St  Severinus  preached  penance  among  them  with 
great  fruit,  and  he  so  effectually  threatened  a  certain  rich  woman  who  had  hoarded 
up  a  great  quantity  of  provisions,  that  she  distributed  all  her  stores  amongst 
the  poor.  Soon  after  his  arrival,  the  ice  of  the  Danube  and  the  Inn  breaking, 
the  country  was  abundantly  supplied  by  barges  up  the  rivers.  Another  time 
by  his  prayers  he  chased  away  the  swarms  of  locusts  which  were  then  threatening 
the  whole  produce  of  the  year.  He  wrought  many  miracles,  yet  never  healed 
the  sore  eyes  of  Bonosus,  the  dearest  to  him  of  his  disciples,  who  spent  forty 
years  without  any  abatement  of  his  religious  fervour.  Severinus  himself  never 
ceased  to  exhort  all  to  repentance  and  piety  ;  he  redeemed  captives,  relieved 
the  oppressed,  was  a  father  to  the  poor,  cured  the  sick,  mitigated  or  averted 
public  calamities,  and  brought  a  blessing  wherever  he  came.  Many  cities 
desired  him  for  their  bishop,  but  he  withstood  their  importunities  by  urging 
that  it  was  sufficient  he  had  relinquished  his  dear  solitude  for  their  instruction 
and  comfort. 

He  established  several  monasteries,  of  which  the  most  considerable  was  one  on 
the  banks  of  the  Danube  near  Vienna  ;  but  he  made  none  of  them  the  place  of  his 
constant  abode,  often  shutting  himself  up  in  a  hermitage  where  he  wholly  devoted 


ST  ERHARD  [January  8 

himself  to  contemplation.  He  never  ate  till  after  sunset,  unless  on  great  festivals, 
and  he  always  walked  barefoot,  even  when  the  Danube  was  frozen.  Kings  and 
princes  of  the  barbarians  came  to  visit  him,  and  among  them  Odoacer  on  his  march 
for  Italy.  The  saint's  cell  was  so  low  that  Odoacer  could  not  stand  upright  in  it. 
St  Severinus  told  him  that  the  kingdom  he  was  going  to  conquer  would  shortly  be 
his,  and  Odoacer  finding  himself  soon  after  master  of  the  country,  wrote  to  the 
saint,  promising  him  all  he  was  pleased  to  ask  ;  but  Severinus  only  desired  of  him 
the  restoration  of  a  certain  banished  man.  Having  foretold  his  death  long  before 
it  happened,  he  fell  ill  on  January  5,  and  on  the  fourth  day  of  his  illness,  repeating 
that  verse  of  the  psalmist,  "  Let  every  spirit  praise  the  Lord  ",  he  closed  his  eyes 
in  death.  This  happened  between  476  and  482.  Some  years  later  his  disciples, 
driven  out  by  the  inroads  of  barbarians,  retired  with  his  relics  into  Italy,  and 
deposited  them  at  Luculanum,  near  Naples,  where  a  monastery  was  built,  of  which 
Eugippius,  his  disciple  and  biographer,  was  soon  after  made  abbot.  In  the  year 
910  they  were  translated  to  Naples,  where  they  were  honoured  in  a  Benedictine 
abbey  which  bore  his  name. 

The  one  supreme  authority  for  the  life  of  St  Severinus  is  the  biography  by  his  disciple 
Eugippius,  the  best  text  of  which  is  to  be  found  in  the  edition  of  T.  Mommsen  (1898),  or 
in  that  of  the  Vienna  Corpus  scriptorum  ecclesiasticorum  latinorum,  edited  by  Pius  Knoell 
(1886).  See  also  A.  Baudrillart,  St  Severin  (1908)  ;  and  T.  Sommerlad,  Wirtschafts- 
geschichtliche  Untersuchungen,  part  ii  (1903).  Sommerlad  shows  some  reason  for  thinking 
that  St  Severinus  belonged  to  a  distinguished  family  in  Africa,  and  that  in  his  own  country 
he  had  been  consecrated  bishop  before  he  sought  refuge  in  the  East  and  led  the  life  of 
a  hermit  or  monk. 

ST    SEVERINUS,  Bishop  of  Septempeda        (a.d.  550?) 

The  ancient  town  of  Septempeda  in  the  Marches  of  Ancona  is  now  called  San 
Severino,  deriving  its  name  from  a  St  Severinus  who  is  believed  to  have  been  bishop 
there  in  the  middle  of  the  sixth  century.  He  was  the  brother  of  St  Victorinus, 
whom  Ado  in  his  martyrology  identifies  with  a  martyr  of  that  name.  The  con- 
fusion seems  to  have  arisen  from  the  fact  that  the  relics  of  St  Severinus  of  Noricum 
were  transferred  to  Naples,  whence  Ado  was  led  to  identify  him  with  the  Italian 
St  Severinus.  The  confusion  is  perpetuated  in  the  present  Roman  Martyrology, 
for  there  is  no  reason  to  believe  that  Severinus  of  Septempeda  ever  had  anything 
to  do  with  Naples. 

See  the  legend  of  SS.  Severinus  and  Victorinus  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  8  ;  and 
cf.  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xxvii  (1908),  p.  466. 

ST    ERHARD,  Bishop        (a.d.  686  ?) 

There  is  better  evidence  for  the  existence  of  St  Erhard,  described  as  bishop  of 
Ratisbon  (he  was,  however,  possibly  only  a  chorepiscopus,  a  sort  of  bishop  auxiliary), 
than  there  is  for  his  supposed  brother  Albert.  A  strong  local  tradition  evidenced 
by  place  names — e.g.  "  Erhardsbrunnen  ",  "  Erhardicrypta  ",  etc. — as  well  as  by 
entries  in  calendars  and  other  early  documents,  seems  to  imply  a  considerable 
cultus  dating  back  to  the  eighth  century  and  possibly  earlier.  What  purports  to 
be  his  episcopal  staff  of  black  buffalo-horn  is  still  preserved,  as  well  as  part  of  his 
skull.  He  may  be  identical  with  an  abbot  of  Ebersheimmunster  whose  name 
appears  in  a  Merovingian  charter  of  the  year  684.     He  is  stated  to  have  baptized 


January  8]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

St  Odilia,  who,  though  born  blind,  recovered  her  sight  on  receiving  the  sacrament. 
Two  or  three  lives  of  him  have  been  printed  by  the  Bollandists,  but  they  are  all 
overlaid  by  fabulous  or  legendary  matter.  He  is  in  some  accounts  described  as  an 
Irishman,  or  at  least  of  Irish  descent  but  no  great  reliance  can  be  placed  upon  this 

The  most  trustworthy  information  which  is  available  concerning  St  Erhard  has  been 
collected  by  W.  Levison  in  his  preface  to  the  Latin  texts  printed  in  MGH.,  Scriptores  Merov., 
vol.  vi,  pp.  1-23. 

ST    GUDULA,  Virgin        (a.d.  712  ?) 

St  Amalberga,  mother  of  this  saint,  was  niece  to  Bd  Pepin  of  Landen.  Gudula 
was  educated  at  Nivelles,  under  the  care  of  St  Gertrude,  her  cousin  and  godmother, 
after  whose  death  in  664  she  returned  to  the  house  of  Count  Witger,  her  father  ; 
having  by  vow  consecrated  herself  to  God,  she  led  a  most  austere  life  in  watching, 
fasting  and  prayer.  By  her  profuse  alms  she  was  truly  the  mother  of  all  the  dis- 
tressed. Though  her  father's  castle  was  two  miles  from  the  church  at  Morzelle, 
she  went  thither  early  every  morning,  with  a  maid  to  carry  a  lantern  before  her  ; 
and  the  wax  taper  being  once  put  out,  is  said  to  have  miraculously  lighted  again  at 
her  prayers,  whence  she  is  usually  represented  in  pictures  with  a  lantern.  She 
died  on  January  8,  perhaps  in  712,  and  was  buried  at  Hamme,  near  Brussels.  In 
the  reign  of  Charlemagne,  her  body  was  removed  to  the  church  of  Saint-Sauveur 
at  Morzelle,  and  placed  behind  the  high  altar.  This  emperor,  out  of  veneration 
for  her  memory,  often  resorted  thither  to  pray,  and  founded  a  nunnery,  which  soon 
after  changed  its  name  of  St  Saviour  for  that  of  St  Goule.  This  house  was 
destroyed  in  the  irruptions  of  the  Normans.  The  relics  of  St  Gudula,  by  the  care 
of  Charles,  Duke  of  Lorraine  (in  which  Brabant  was  then  comprised),  were  trans- 
lated to  Brussels  in  978,  where  they  were  first  deposited  in  the  church  of  St  Gery, 
but  in  1047  removed  into  the  great  collegiate  church  of  St  Michael,  since  called 
from  her  St  Gudule's.  This  saint  was  called  colloquially  Goule  or  Ergoule  in 
Brabant,  and  Goelen  in  Flanders. 

See  her  life  written  by  Hubert  of  Brabant  in  the  eleventh  century,  soon  after  this  trans- 
lation of  her  relics  to  St  Michael's,  who  assures  us  that  he  took  the  whole  relation  from  an 
ancient  life  of  the  saint,  having  only  changed  the  order  and  style.  But  even  if  we  could  trust 
this  statement,  some  of  the  miracles  found  in  this  and  one  or  two  other  slightly  differing 
accounts  are  very  extravagant — e.g.  that  a  pair  of  gloves  given  her  by  a  friend,  which  she 
refused  to  use,  remained  suspended  in  the  air  for  an  hour  ;  or  that  a  tall  poplar-tree  grew  up 
beside  her  grave  in  a  night.  See  for  the1  texts  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  8,  and  cf.  Des- 
tombes,  Saints  de  Cambrai,  vol.  i,  pp.  51-56.  Visitors  to  Brussels  often  take  the  great 
church  of  Sainte-Gudule  for  a  cathedral,  but  Brussels  has  never  been  an  episcopal  see. 

ST    PEGA,  Virgin        (c.  a.d.  719) 

Pega  was  sister  to  St  Guthlac  and  she  lived  a  retired  life  not  far  from  her  brother's 
hermitage  at  Croyland,  just  across  the  border  of  what  is  now  Northamptonshire, 
on  the  western  edge  of  the  great  Peterborough  Fen.  The  place  is  now  called 
Peakirk,  i.e.  Pega's  church.  She  attended  her  brother's  funeral,  making  the 
journey  by  water  down  the  Welland,  and  is  reputed  on  that  occasion  to  have  cured 
a  blind  man  from  Wisbech.  She  is  said  to  have  then  gone  on  pilgrimage  to  Rome, 
where  she  slept  in  the  Lord  about  the  year  719.     Order icus  Vitalis  says  her  relics 


ST  THORFINN  [January  8 

were  honoured  with  miracles,  and  kept  in  a  church  which  bore  her  name  at  Rome, 
but  this  church  is  not  now  known. 

The  Bollandists  have  brought  together  scattered  allusions  from  the  Life  of  St  Guthlac 
and  elsewhere  (Acta  Sanctorum,  January  8).  See  also  DCB.,  vol.  iv,  pp.  280-281,  and  the 
forthcoming  Life  of  Guthlac  by  Bertram  Colgrave. 

ST    WULSIN,  Bishop  of  Sherborne        (a.d.  1005) 

In  a  charter  which  purports  to  emanate  from  King  Ethelred  in  the  year  998,  Wulsin 
is  described  as  a  loyal  and  trusty  monk  whom  St  Dunstan  "  loved  like  a  son  with 
pure  affection  ".  It  is  a  little  difficult  to  be  sure  of  the  dates,  but  it  would  seem 
that  when  Dunstan  was  bishop  of  London  he  obtained  a  grant  of  land  from  King 
Edgar  and  restored  the  abbey  of  Westminster,  making  Wulsin  superior  of  the  dozen 
monks  he  placed  there.  In  980  Wulsin  was  consecrated  abbot,  and  thirteen  years 
afterwards  he  was  appointed  to  the  see  of  Sherborne.  He  seems  to  have  died  on 
January  8,  1005.  He  was  evidently  much  beloved,  and  is  called  Saint  by  Malmes- 
bury,  Capgrave,  Flete  and  others,  but  his  name  apparently  is  not  found  in  the 
medieval  English  calendars. 

See  John  Flete,  History  of  Westminster  Abbey  (ed.  Armitage  Robinson,  1909),  pp.  79-80  ; 
Stubbs,  Memorials  of  St  Dunstan,  pp.  304,  406-408  ;    Stanton,  Menology,  p.  10. 

ST    THORFINN,  Bishop  of  Hamar        (a.d.  1285) 

In  the  year  1285  there  died  in  the  Cistercian  monastery  at  Ter  Doest,  near  Bruges, 
a  Norwegian  bishop  named  Thorfinn.  He  had  never  attracted  particular  attention 
and  was  soon  forgotten.  But  over  fifty  years  later,  in  the  course  of  some  building 
operations,  his  tomb  in  the  church  was  opened  and  it  was  reported  that  the  remains 
gave  out  a  strong  and  pleasing  smell.  The  abbot  made  enquiries  and  found  that 
one  of  his  monks,  an  aged  man  named  Walter  de  Muda,  remembered  Bishop 
Thorfinn  staying  in  the  monastery  and  the  impression  he  had  made  of  gentle 
goodness  combined  with  strength.  Father  Walter  had  in  fact  written  a  poem  about 
him  after  his  death  and  hung  it  up  over  his  tomb.  It  was  then  found  that  the 
parchment  was  still  there,  none  the  worse  for  the  passage  of  time.  This  was  taken 
as  a  direction  from  on  high  that  the  bishop's  memory  was  to  be  perpetuated,  and 
Father  Walter  was  instructed  to  write  down  his  recollections  of  him. 

For  all  that,  there  is  little  enough  known  about  St  Thorfinn.  He  was  a 
Trondhjem  man  and  perhaps  was  a  canon  of  the  cathedral  of  Nidaros,  since  there 
was  such  a  one  named  Thorfinn  among  those  who  witnessed  the  Agreement  of 
Tonsberg  in  1277.  This  was  an  agreement  between  King  Magnus  VI  and  the 
Archbishop  of  Nidaros  confirming  certain  privileges  of  the  clergy,  the  freedom  of 
episcopal  elections  and  similar  matters.  Some  years  later  King  Eric*  repudiated 
this  agreement,  and  a  fierce  dispute  between  church  and  state  ensued.  Eventually 
the  king  outlawed  the  archbishop,  John,  and  his  two  chief  supporters,  Bishop 
Andrew  of  Oslo  and  Bishop  Thorfinn  of  Hamar. 

The  last-named,  after  many  hardships,  including  shipwreck,  made  his  way  to 
the  abbey  of  Ter  Doest  in  Flanders,  which  had  a  number  of  contacts  with  the 
Norwegian  church.  It  is  possible  that  he  had  been  there  before,  and  there  is  some 
reason  to  suppose  he  was  himself  a  Cistercian  of  the  abbey  of  Tautra,  near  Nidaros. 

*  He  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  King  Alexander  III  of  Scotland.  Their  daughter 
was  "  The  Maid  of  Norway  ",  who  has  a  paragraph  in  English  and  Scottish  history. 


January  9]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

After  a  visit  to  Rome  he  went  back  to  Ter  Doest,  in  bad  health.  Indeed,  though 
probably  still  a  youngish  man,  he  saw  death  approaching  and  so  made  his  will ; 
he  had  little  to  leave,  but  what  there  was  he  divided  between  his  mother,  his  brothers 
and  sisters,  and  certain  monasteries,  churches  and  charities  in  his  diocese.  He  died 
shortly  after,  on  January  8,  1285. 

After  his  recall  to  the  memory  of  man  as  mentioned  in  the  opening  paragraph 
of  this  notice,  miracles  were  reported  at  his  tomb,  and  St  Thorfinn  was  venerated 
by  the  Cistercians  and  around  Bruges.  In  our  own  day  his  memory  has  been 
revived  among  the  few  Catholics  of  Norway,  and  his  feast  is  observed  in  his  episcopal 
city  of  Hamar.  The  tradition  of  Thorfinn's  holiness  ultimately  rests  on  the  poem 
of  Walter  de  Muda,  wherein  he  appears  as  a  kind,  patient,  generous  man,  whose 
mild  exterior  covered  a  firm  will  against  whatever  he  esteemed  to  be  evil  and 

The  text  of  Walter  de  Muda's  poem  and  other  pieces  were  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum , 
January  8.  St  Thorfinn  is  shown  in  his  historical  setting  by  Mrs  Undset  in  Saga  of  Saints 
(1934).      See  also  De  Visch's  Bibliotheca  scriptorum  ordinis  Cisterciensis. 

9  l  ST    MARCIANA,  Virgin  and  Martyr        (c.  a.d.  303) 

SHE  was  a  native  of  Rusuccur,  a  place  in  Mauritania,  and,  courageously 
despising  all  worldly  advantages  to  secure  the  possession  of  heavenly  grace, 
she  bid  defiance  to  the  pagan  idolaters  in  the  persecution  of  Diocletian. 
Marciana  was  beaten  with  clubs,  and  her  chastity  exposed  to  the  rude  attempts  of 
gladiators,  in  which  danger  God  miraculously  preserved  her,  and  she  became  the 
happy  instrument  of  the  conversion  of  one  of  them  to  the  faith.  At  length  she 
was  torn  in  pieces  by  a  wild  bull  and  a  leopard  in  the  amphitheatre  at  Caesarea  in 
Mauritania,  about  100  miles  west  of  the  modern  city  of  Algiers. 

She  is  probably  also  commemorated  on  July  12  in  the  ancient  breviary  of  Toledo,  and 
in  the  Roman  and  some  other  martyrologies  both  on  July  12  and  January  9.  See  a  beautiful 
ancient  hymn  in  her  praise  in  the  Mozarabic  breviary,  and  her  acts  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum^ 
though  their  authority  is  more  than  questionable.  She  was  especially  honoured  in  Spain, 
where  she  is  patron  of  Tortosa,  unless,  indeed,  there  is  really  another  martyr,  likewise  called 
Marciana,  who,  according  to  the  Roman  Martyrology,  suffered  at  Toledo  on  July  12  (BHL., 
n.  780). 

SS.  JULIAN  AND  BASILISSA,  and  Companions,  Martyrs  (a.d.  304  ?) 

According  to  their  "  acts  "  and  the  ancient  martyrologies,  Julian  and  Basilissa, 
though  engaged  in  the  married  state,  lived  by  mutual  consent  in  perpetual  chastity, 
sanctified  themselves  by  the  exercises  of  an  ascetic  life,  and  employed  their  revenues 
in  relieving  the  poor  and  the  sick.  For  this  purpose  they  converted  their  house 
into  a  kind  of  hospital,  in  which,  if  we  may  credit  their  acts,  they  sometimes 
entertained  a  thousand  indigent  persons  :  Basilissa  attended  those  of  her  sex  ; 
Julian,  on  his  part,  ministered  to  the  men  with  such  charity  that  he  was  later  on 
confused  with  St  Julian  the  Hospitaller.  Egypt,  where  they  lived,  had  then  begun 
to  abound  with  examples  of  persons  who,  either  in  the  cities  or  in  the  deserts, 
devoted  themselves  to  charity,  penance  and  contemplation.  Basilissa,  after  having 
endured  severe  persecution,  died  in  peace  ;    Julian  survived  her  many  years,  and 


ST  PETER  OF  SEBASTEA  [January  9 

received  the  crown  of  a  glorious  martyrdom,  together  with  Celsus  a  youth,  Antony 
a  priest,  Anastasius  and  Marcianilla,  the  mother  of  Celsus. 

What  purport  to  be  the  acts  of  these  saints  are  mere  romances  abounding  in  contradictions. 
See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  9.  The  historical  existence  of  any  such  couple  is  more 
than  doubtful.  One  of  the  versions  of  the  legend  of  St  Alexis  (July  17)  seems  to  be  simply 
a  transcription  of  the  first  paragraphs  of  their  long  passio. 

ST   PETER,  Bishop  of  Sebastea        (a.d.  391) 

The  family  to  which  St  Peter  belonged  was  ancient  and  illustrious,  but  the  names 
of  his  ancestors  are  long  since  buried  in  oblivion,  whilst  those  of  the  saints  whom 
his  parents  gave  to  the  Church  are  immortal  in  the  records  of  our  Christian  faith. 
In  this  family  three  brothers  were  at  the  same  time  eminently  holy  bishops,  St 
Basil,  St  Gregory  of  Nyssa  and  St  Peter  of  Sebastea  ;  their  eldest  sister,  St  Macrina, 
was  the  spiritual  mother  of  many  saints  and  excellent  doctors  ;  and  their  father  and 
mother,  St  Basil  the  Elder  and  St  Emmelia,  were  banished  for  their  faith  in  the 
reign  of  the  Emperor  Galerius  Maximian,  and  fled  into  the  deserts  of  Pontus. 
Finally,  the  grandmother  was  the  celebrated  St  Macrina  the  Elder,  who  was 
instructed  in  the  science  of  salvation  by  St  Gregory  Thaumaturgus.  Peter  of 
Sebastea  was  the  youngest  of  ten  children  and  lost  his  father  in  his  cradle,  so  that 
his  eldest  sister,  Macrina,  took  charge  of  his  education.  In  this  duty  her  only  aim 
was  to  instruct  him  in  religion  :  profane  studies  she  thought  of  little  use  to  one 
whose  thoughts  were  set  upon  the  world  to  come.  Neither  did  he  resent  these 
restrictions,  confining  his  aspirations  to  the  monastic  state.  His  mother  had 
founded  two  monasteries,  one  for  men,  the  other  for  women  ;  the  former  she  put 
under  the  direction  of  her  son  Basil,  the  latter  under  that  of  Macrina.  Peter  joined 
the  house  governed  by  his  brother,  situated  on  the  bank  of  the  River  Iris.  When 
St  Basil  was  obliged  to  surrender  that  charge  in  362  he  appointed  St  Peter  his 
successor,  who  discharged  this  office  for  many  years  with  great  prudence  and  virtue. 
When  the  provinces  of  Pontus  and  Cappadocia  were  visited  by  severe  famine,  he 
gave  proof  of  his  charity.  Human  prudence  would  have  advised  him  to  be  frugal 
in  the  relief  of  others  till  his  own  community  were  secured  against  that  calamity  ; 
but  Peter  had  studied  the  principles  of  Christian  charity  in  another  school,  and 
liberally  disposed  of  all  that  belonged  to  the  monastery  to  supply  with  necessaries 
the  destitute  people  who  daily  resorted  to  him  in  that  time  of  distress.  WThen  St 
Basil  was  made  bishop  of  Caesarea  in  Cappadocia  in  370  he  promoted  Peter  to  the 
priesthood.  Basil  died  on  January  1  in  379,  and  Macrina  in  the  November  of  the 
same  year.  Eustathius,  Bishop  of  Sebastea  in  Armenia,  an  Arian  and  a  persecutor 
of  St  Basil,  seems  to  have  died  shortly  after  them  ;  for  Peter  was  consecrated  bishop 
of  Sebastea  in  380  to  root  out  the  Arian  heresy  in  that  diocese.  The  evil  had  taken 
such  deep  root  that  the  zeal  of  a  saint  was  necessary  to  deal  with  it.  A  letter  which 
St  Peter  wrote,  and  which  is  prefixed  to  St  Gregory  of  Nyssa's  books  against 
Eunomius,  has  entitled  him  to  a  place  among  the  ecclesiastical  writers  ;  and  it  is  a 
standing  proof  that  though  he  had  confined  himself  to  sacred  studies,  yet  by  good 
conversation  and  reading,  and  by  his  own  natural  gifts,  he  was  inferior  to  none  but 
his  incomparable  brother  Basil  and  his  colleague  Gregory  Nazianzen  in  solid 
eloquence.  In  381  St  Peter  attended  the  general  council  held  at  Constantinople. 
Not  only  his  brother  St  Gregory  of  Nyssa  but  also  Theodoret,  and  all  antiquity, 
bear  testimony  to  his  sanctity,  prudence  and  zeal.       His  death  occurred  in  summer 


January  9]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

about  the  year  391,  and  his  brother  of  Nyssa  mentions  that  his  memory  was  hon- 
oured at  Sebastea  (probably  the  very  year  after  his  death)  by  a  solemn  celebration, 
together  with  that  of  some  other  martyrs  of  the  same  city.  His  name  occurs  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology  on  January  9. 

It  is  a  wonderful  thing  to  meet  with  a  whole  family  of  saints.  This  prodigy 
of  grace,  under  God,  was  owing  to  the  example,  prayers  and  exhortations  of  the 
elder  St  Macrina.  From  her  they  learned  to  imbibe  the  true  spirit  of  self-denial 
and  humility  which  all  Christians  confess  to  be  the  fundamental  maxim  of  the 
gospel.  Unfortunately  it  generally  happens  that  the  principle  is  accepted  as  a 
matter  of  speculation  only,  whereas  it  is  in  the  heart  that  this  foundation  is  to  be  laid. 

We  have  little  information  about  St  Peter  of  Sebastea  beyond  the  casual  allusions  contained 
in  St  Gregory  of  Nyssa's  Life  of  Macrina  (in  Migne,  PC,  vol.  xlvi,  pp.  960  seq.).  His  letter 
addressed  to  his  brother  Gregory  of  Nyssa,  entreating  him  to  complete  his  treatise  against 
Eunomius,  is  printed  in  PG.,  vol.  xlv,  pp.  241  seq.  See  also  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  9  ; 
DCB.,  vol.  iv,  pp.  345-346  ;    and  Bardenhewer,  Patrology  (Eng.  trans.),  pp.  295-297. 

ST   WANINGUS,  or  VANENG        (c.  a.d.  683) 

From  various  Merovingian  sources  it  appears  that  Vaneng  was  made  by  Clotaire  III 
governor  of  that  part  of  Neustria,  or  Normandy,  which  is  called  Pays  de  Caux,  at 
which  time  he  took  great  pleasure  in  hunting.  Nevertheless,  he  was  particularly 
devout  to  St  Eulalia  of  Barcelona,  called  in  Guienne  St  Aulaire.  One  night  he 
seemed  in  a  dream  to  hear  that  holy  virgin  and  martyr  repeat  to  him  those  words 
of  our  Redeemer  in  the  Gospel,  that  it  is  easier  for  a  camel  to  pass  through  the 
eye  of  a  needle  than  for  a  rich  man  to  be  saved  ".  This  was  the  turning  point  in 
his  life.  He  was  entirely  converted  to  God.  He  assisted  St  Wandrille  in  founding 
the  abbey  at  Fontenelle,  and  founded  in  the  valley  of  Fecamp  a  church  in  honour 
of  the  Holy  Trinity,  with  a  great  nunnery  adjoining,  under  the  direction  of  St  Ouen 
and  St  Wandrille.  Hildemarca,  a  very  virtuous  nun,  was  called  from  Bordeaux 
and  appointed  the  first  abbess.  Under  her  three  hundred  and  sixty  nuns  served 
God  in  this  house,  and  were  divided  into  as  many  choirs  as  were  sufficient,  in  relays, 
to  continue  the  divine  office  night  and  day  without  interruption. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  9  ;  and  also  Vacandard,  Vie  de  Saint  Ouen.  The  Vie 
de  Saint  Vaneng,  by  C.  Labbe,  was  re-edited  by  Michael  Hardy  in  1873  (cf.  BHL.,  n.  1272). 

ST    ADRIAN,  Abbot  of  Canterbury        (a.d.  710) 

Adrian  was  an  African  by  birth,  and  was  abbot  of  Nerida,  not  far  from  Naples, 
when  Pope  St  Vitalian,  upon  the  death  of  St  Deusdedit,  the  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury, judged  him  for  his  learning  and  virtue  to  be  the  most  suitable  person  to  be 
the  teacher  of  a  nation  still  young  in  the  faith.  The  humble  servant  of  God  found 
means  to  decline  that  dignity  by  recommending  St  Theodore  in  his  place,  but  was 
willing  to  share  in  the  more  laborious  part  of  the  ministry.  The  pope  therefore 
enjoined  him  to  be  the  assistant  and  adviser  of  the  archbishop,  to  which  Adrian 
readily  agreed. 

St  Theodore  made  him  abbot  of  the  monastery  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  afterwards 
called  St  Augustine's,  at  Canterbury,  where  he  taught  Greek  and  Latin,  the  learning 
of  the  fathers,  and,  above  all,  virtue.  Under  Adrian  and  Theodore  this  monastic 
school  at  Canterbury  had  a  far-reaching  influence — St  Aldhelm  came  there  from 
Wessex,  Oftfor  from  Whitby,  and  even  students  from  Ireland.     Roman  law  could 


BD  ALIX  LE  CLERCQ  [January  9 

be  studied  as  well  as  the  ecclesiastical  sciences  ;  and  Bede  says  that  there  were 
pupils  of  St  Adrian  who  had  a  good  knowledge  of  Greek  and  spoke  Latin  as  well 
as  they  did  English.  St  Adrian  had  illuminated  this  island  by  his  doctrine  and 
the  example  of  his  holy  life,  for  the  space  of  thirty-nine  years,  when  he  departed 
to  our  Lord  on  January  9  in  the  year  710. 

Goscelin  of  Canterbury  has  left  an  extremely  interesting  account  of  the  discovery  of  St 
Adrian's  body,  incorrupt  and  fragrant,  in  1091  (see  Migne,  PL.,  vol.  civ,  cc.  36-38).  The 
account  is  at  least  indirectly  confirmed  by  later  excavations  ;  see  Archaeologia  Cantiana 
(191 7),  vol.  xxxii,  p.  18.  His  tomb  was  famed  for  miracles,  as  we  are  assured  by  Goscelin, 
quoted  by  William  of  Malmesbury  and  Capgrave  ;  and  his  name  was  inserted  in  English 
calendars.  See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  9,  where  passages  from  Bede  and  Capgrave 
are  reproduced  ;   and  BHL.,  n.  558. 

ST    BERHTWALD,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury        (a.d.  731) 

The  claim  of  Berhtwald  (whose  name  is  variously  spelt  Berctuald,  Brithwald,  etc.) 
to  be  counted  as  a  saint  is  somewhat  questionable,  and  there  is  next  to  no  evidence 
of  cultus.  He  was  certainly  abbot  of  Reculver  in  Kent,  and  was  elected  archbishop 
in  692,  but  only  consecrated  a  year  later,  in  Gaul  by  the  archbishop  of  Lyons  ;  he 
probably  then  went  on  to  Rome  for  the  pallium.  Berhtwald  was  tactful  and 
energetic  during  the  course  of  his  long  episcopate — thirty-seven  years — and  we 
find  him  in  friendly  relations  with  St  Aldhelm,  St  Boniface  and  other  prominent 
and  holy  ecclesiastics  ;  but  his  attitude  towards  St  Wilfrid  was  not  sympathetic. 
He  died  in  January  731.  A  letter  written  to  Berhtwald  by  Waldhere,  Bishop  of 
London,  is  the  first  extant  letter  from  one  Englishman  to  another. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  9  ;  DNB.,  vol.  vi,  p.  343  ;  and  Plummer's  Bede,  vol.  ii, 
p.  283. 

BD  ALIX  LE  CLERCQ*  Virgin,  Co-Foundress  of  the  Augustinian 
Canonesses  Regular  of  the  Congregation  of  Our  Lady  (a.d. 

One  of  the  outstanding  achievements  of  the  Counter-Reformation — like  some  of 
its  others,  long  overdue — was  the  beginning  of  proper  provision  for  the  schooling 
and  education  of  girls.  In  1535  St  Angela  Merici  had  founded  the  Ursulines  for 
this  work  ;  the  teaching  Religious  of  Notre  Dame  were  begun  by  St  Joan  de 
Lestonnac  in  1606  ;  in  1609  Mary  Ward  opened  her  first  school  for  poor  children  ; 
and  to  these  must  be  added  the  establishment  by  St  Peter  Fourier  of  the  Augus- 
tinian Canonesses  of  the  Congregation  of  Our  Lady,  an  undertaking  in  which  Alix 
Le  Clercq  came  to  be  associated  as  co-foundress. 

She  was  born  at  Remiremont  in  the  duchy  of  Lorraine  in  1576.  Her  family 
was  a  solid  one,  of  good  position,  but  little  is  known  about  her  life  until  she  was 
nearly  seventeen.  By  that  time  she  was  a  tall,  good-looking  girl,  fair  in  colouring, 
of  a  somewhat  delicate  constitution,  attractive  and  intelligent :  in  a  word  Alix  was, 
as  Mgr  Francis  Gonne  remarks,  what  the  French  call  spirituelle.  Another  account, 
written  by  herself,  tells  us  that  she  revelled  in  such  pleasures  as  music  and  dancing, 
and  being  very  popular  was  subjected  to  a  good  deal  of  flattery.  The  implication 
is  that  she  "  revelled  "  too  much  :  perhaps  she  did  ;  but  it  should  be  remembered 
that,  when  once  people  have  become  convinced  that  they  have  any  faults  at  all, 
they  are  apt  to  exaggerate  them.     And  there  is  good  evidence,  her  own,  that  even 


January  9]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

at  this  time  Alix  Le  Clercq  was  not  devoid  of  "  seriousness  "  :  "  amid  all  the  gaiety 
her  heart  was  sad  ",  and  gradually  her  harmless  pleasures  seemed  to  her  to  be  no 
more  than  frivolity. 

Then,  when  she  was  nineteen,  she  had  the  first  of  the  striking  dreams  that 
became  so  marked  a  feature  in  her  life.  In  this  dream  she  was  in  church  and 
approaching  the  altar,  when  beside  it  she  saw  our  Lady,  dressed  in  a  strange 
religious  habit,  who  beckoned  her,  saying,  "  Come,  daughter,  and  I  will  welcome 
you  ".  Soon  after,  the  Le  Clercq  family  moved  to  Hymont,  and  Alix  first  met  St 
Peter  Fourier,  who  was  parish  priest  of  Mattaincourt,  near  by.  It  was  in  the  church 
of  this  village,  at  Mass  on  three  Sundays  running,  that  she  seemed  to  hear  the 
seductive  music  of  a  dance-drum,  and  then  seemed  to  see  its  player,  an  evil  spirit, 
followed  by  a  crowd  of  young  people,  "  full  of  sprightly  merriment  ".  There  and 
then  her  conversion  to  a  different  sort  of  life  was  complete  :  "I  resolved  on  the 
spot  that  I  would  not  belong  to  such  a  company  ". 

Alix  straightway  cast  aside  her  fine  clothes  and  wore  a  simple  peasant  dress  ; 
she  hardly  left  her  home  ;  and,  under  the  careful  direction  of  Father  Fourier,  she 
set  herself  to  discover — not  without  much  spiritual  suffering — what  it  was  that 
God  required  of  her.  Both  her  father  and  the  priest  proposed  that  she  should  go 
into  a  convent :  but  she  said  "  No  "  to  this,  for  from  another  dream  she  had 
learned  that  it  was  in  no  existing  order  that  her  vocation  lay.  She  told  St  Peter 
Fourier  that  she  was  obsessed  by  the  idea  of  a  new,  "  active  ",  foundation.  He  was 
very  properly  sceptical  about  this,  but  at  length  told  her  to  see  if  she  could  find 
other  girls  of  like  mind — unlikely  enough  in  a  remote  village  of  the  Vosges.  But 
sure  enough  Alix  found  them. 

And  so  at  the  midnight  Mass  of  Christmas  1597  AlixLe  Clercq,  Ganthe  Andre, 
and  Isabel  and  Joan  de  Louvroir  were  allowed  publicly  to  dedicate  themselves 
wholly  to  God.  Four  weeks  later  it  was  made  clear  to  St  Peter  Fourier  that  these 
neophytes  were  to  found  a  community  under  his  direction.  But  meanwhile  they 
were  the  subject  of  adverse  criticism.  "  The  unassuming  behaviour  of  these  girls 
was  called  singularity  ;  their  zeal,  religiosity  ;  their  simple  dress,  hypocritical 
affectation  ;  and  their  humble  bearing,  silliness."  This  gossip  naturally  upset 
Mr  Le  Clercq  ;  but  he  lacked  imagination,  and  could  think  of  nothing  better  than 
to  order  his  daughter  to  go  as  a  boarder  to  a  convent  of  Tertiaries  of  St  Elizabeth 
at  Ormes.  She  obeyed  ;  and  found  this  relaxed  convent  to  be  something  like 
what  we  should  call  a  women's  residential  club.  But  her  father  would  not  let  her 
come  home. 

A  way  out  of  the  impasse  was  opened  from  an  unexpected  quarter.  Three  miles 
from  Mattaincourt,  at  the  village  of  Poussay,  there  was  an  abbey  of  secular  canon- 
esses,  aristocratic  and  wealthy  ladies  who  led  a  form  of  the  conventual  life  mercifully 
no  longer  existing  in  the  Church.  One  of  these  good  ladies,  Madame  Judith 
d'Apremont,  made  up  her  mind  to  sponsor  Alix  Le  Clercq  and  her  three  com- 
panions and  to  lodge  them  in  a  small  house  on  her  estate.  Accordingly  they  took 
up  their  quarters  there  on  the  eve  of  Corpus  Christi  1598  ;  and  after  a  retreat  they 
unanimously  and  independently  declared  to  Father  Fourier  that  they  believed 
themselves  called  to  begin  a  new  congregation,  that  for  them  this  was  what  would 
be  most  pleasing  to  God.  It  was  decided  that  their  work  should  be  education, 
"  to  teach  children  to  read  and  write  and  sew,  and  especially  to  love  and  serve 
God  "  ;  that  they  should  never  give  up  this  work  ;  and  that  it  should  be  done, 
whether  for  rich  or  poor,  without  charge,  "  as  that  is  more  pleasing  to  God  ". 


BD  ALIX  LE  CLERCQ  [January  9 

The  life  of  the  embryonic  congregation  was  notable  in  these  early  days  for  a 
measure  of  physical  austerity  that  was  later  to  be  found  incompatible  with  the  hard 
discipline  of  teaching  the  young.  But  the  spectacle  of  such  devotion  at  their  very 
door  inspired  some  of  the  younger  canonesses  of  the  abbey  to  ask  to  be  transferred 
to  the  new  foundation — they  wanted  to  stop  having  "  all  the  privileges  of  the 
conventual  life  with  none  of  its  hardships  ".  Their  lady  abbess,  Madame  d'Amon- 
court,  was  alarmed — many  monasteries  in  France  had  learned  nothing  from  the 
impact  of  the  Reformation  on  monasticism  in  other  lands — fearing  that  her  own 
community  might  be  broken  up  ;  and  for  some  weeks  there  was  a  rather  critical 
situation.  But  again  Madame  d'Apremont  solved  the  difficulty,  by  providing 
another  house,  this  time  at  Mattaincourt.  It  was  to  be  the  first  proper  convent  of 
the  new  congregation. 

But  as  yet  the  sisters  were  not  formally  religious,  and  their  anomalous  position 
upset  Mr  Le  Clercq,  who  again  interfered  with  his  daughter,  telling  her  that  she 
was  to  withdraw  to  the  Poor  Clare  house  at  Verdun.  St  Peter  Fourier  told  Alix 
she  must  obey,  and  in  great  anguish  of  spirit  she  got  ready.  But  her  father,  moved 
as  he  said  by  some  power  beyond  his  understanding,  withdrew  his  order  and  ceased 
to  interfere.  There  then  occurred  a  determined  attempt  on  the  part  of  a  Franciscan 
Recollect  friar,  Father  Fleurant  Boulengier,  to  "  capture  "  the  community  for  the 
Poor  Clares.  Peter  Fourier's  belief  in  the  divine  acceptance  of  his  foundation 
wavered  :  he  recommended,  with  a  force  only  short  of  a  direct  command,  that  they 
should  regularize  their  position  by  joining  the  Clares — Alix  and  her  companions 
refused.  "  We  have  banded  together  ",  they  said,  "  to  look  after  neglected  children: 
why  should  we  be  dragged  away  from  this  and  sent  to  a  convent  that  God  does  not 
want  us  to  go  to  ?  " 

Father  Fourier,  in  equal  good  faith,  interpreted  the  will  of  God  in  the  opposite 
sense.  It  is  an  old  dilemma.  Or  was  he  just  trying  them  ?  In  any  case,  after 
months  of  uncertainty,  he  accepted  the  sisters'  decision,  and  so  did  Father  Fleurant. 

In  1 601  St  Peter  Fourier  and  Bd  Alix  made  their  second  foundation,  at  Saint- 
Mihiel ;  Nancy,  Pont-a-Mousson,  Saint-Nicolas  de  Port,  Verdun  and  Chalons 
followed,  the  last,  in  161 3,  being  the  first  outside  Lorraine.  All  this  time  there 
was  no  sign  from  Rome  of  official  approval  for  the  new  congregation.  The  novel 
request  that  day-pupils  should  be  taken,  and  therefore  admitted  into  the  enclosure, 
roused  hostility  ("  The  Church  is  going  to  the  dogs,  sir  !  ")  ;  and  the  delay  in 
approbation  lent  an  edge  to  wagging  tongues  and  endangered  the  existence  of  the 
convents.  Fourier  sent  Bd  Alix  and  another  sister  to  the  Ursulines  in  Paris  to 
learn  more  about  monastic  life  and  teaching  methods  and  again  they  were  invited 
to  give  up  a  separate  existence.  This  time  Alix  seriously  considered  if  it  were  not 
the  best  thing  to  do.  Father  (afterwards  cardinal)  de  Berulle  settled  it.  "I  don't 
believe  ",  he  declared  to  her  bluntly,  "  that  God  is  asking  for  this  fusion.  Dismiss 
it  from  your  mind." 

It  was  not  till  161 6  that  in  two  bulls  the  Holy  See  signified  its  first  approval  of 
the  Augustinian  Canonesses  of  the  Congregation  of  Our  Lady.*  Subsequently 
the  Bishop  of  Toul  approved  their  constitutions  ;  and  St  Peter  Fourier  then 
proceeded  to  clothe  thirteen  of  them  with  the  habit,  designed  in  accordance  with 
what  Bd  Alix  had  seen  our  Lady  wearing  in  the  dream  recorded  above  ;  and  then 
they  all  had  to  begin  a  twelve  months'  novitiate,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  some  of 

*  Their  style  as  "  canonesses  "  was  confirmed  in  1628  ;  it  carried  with  it  of  course  the 
obligation  and  privilege  of  reciting  the  Divine  Office  in  choir. 


January  9]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

them  had  been  leading  a  conventual  life  for  twenty  years.  But  all  was  not  well. 
The  papal  bulls  of  approbation  had  not  mentioned  the  congregation  as  a  whole, 
but  only  its  convent  at  Nancy.  Now  there  was  already  a  certain  "  feeling  " 
between  this  house  and  the  others,  for  Nancy  was  under  the  protection  of  Cardinal 
Charles  of  Lorraine,  and  the  primate  of  Lorraine,  Antony  de  Lenoncourt,  had 
practically  taken  its  direction  out  of  Father  Fourier's  hands  into  his  own.  The 
apparent  partiality  of  the  bulls  aggravated  this  spirit  of  dissension,  and  a  very 
unhappy  state  of  affairs  resulted.  In  the  upshot  Bd  Alix  had  to  yield  her  rightful 
place  as  superioress  in  the  congregation  to  Mother  Ganthe  Andre,  "  without 
whom  ",  in  the  words  of  Father  Fourier,  "  our  order  would  never  have  been 
established  ",  though  she  and  Alix  were  far  from  being  in  agreement  about  its 

That  sort  of  trial  heroic  sanctity  seems  to  take  in  its  stride.  But  that  was  not 
all.  Bd  Alix  was  subjected  to  personal  attack  and  the  venom  of  slanderous  rumour. 
At  the  same  time  she  had  to  face  spiritual  dryness,  temptations  and  a  "  dark  night  " 
of  great  severity.  And  as,  in  the  words  of  one  of  her  nuns,  "  she  entered  into  the 
sufferings  of  others  so  feelingly  that  she  made  them  her  own  ",  her  burden  was 
indeed  heavy  :  she  had  plenty  of  opportunity  to  put  into  practice  her  own  axiom — 
common  to  all  saints  and  mystics — "  I  value  one  act  of  humility  more  than  a 
hundred  ecstasies  ".  Further  opportunities  were  provided  by  St  Peter  Fourier 
himself.  Bd  Alix  is  now  recognized  as  the  co -foundress  of  the  Augustinian 
Canonesses  of  Our  Lady  ;  but  it  was  not  so  while  she  lived,  and  Father  Fourier 
did  not  allow  it  to  appear  so.  He  consistently  and  openly  "  kept  her  in  her  place  ". 
It  is  possible  that  he  was,  in  a  sense,  a  little  afraid  of  her,  for  in  contrast  with  his 
own  solid,  cautious  temperament,  Alix  Le  Clercq  must  often  have  seemed  to  him 
alarmingly  "  imaginative  ". 

In  December  1621  she  was  allowed  to  resign  the  office  of  local  superioress  at 
Nancy,  and  she  entered  upon  a  few  weeks  of  radiant  peace,  which  was  in  fact  a 
prelude  to  death  a  month  later.  She  had  been  seriously  ill  for  a  long  time,  and  now 
when  it  was  known  the  doctors  had  given  up  hope  all  Nancy  was  grieved,  from  the 
duke  and  duchess  of  Lorraine  to  the  school-girls  and  the  beggar-women.  St  Peter 
Fourier  hurried  to  Nancy,  but  he  would  not  enter  the  conventual  enclosure  till  the 
bishop  ordered  him  to  do  so.  Then  he  heard  Alix's  confession  and  prepared  her 
for  the  passage  "  from  death  to  life  ".  On  the  Epiphany  she  took  a  solemn  farewell 
of  her  community,  exhorting  them  to  love  and  unity,  and  on  January  9,  after  a 
searching  agony,  the  end  came.     Bd  Alix  was  not  quite  forty-six. 

High  and  low  acclaimed  her  as  a  saint,  and  steps  were  taken  to  collect  evidence 
for  the  prosecution  of  her  cause.  But  nothing  was  done  more  definitely,  war 
pushed  it  out  of  sight,  and  it  was  not  till  1947  that  Alix  Le  Clercq  was  beatified. 
Her  body  was  buried  in  the  crypt  under  the  convent  chapel  at  Nancy.  During 
the  Revolution  this  convent  was  sacked  ;  it  is  said  that  Bd  Alix's  body  was  hastily 
buried  in  the  garden  for  safety,  but  all  efforts  to  find  it  have  failed.  That  would 
have  pleased  her  humility,  she  whose  deeds  of  love  and  spiritual  insights  and  visions 
were  so  far  as  possible  concealed.  She  was  completely  at  ease  only  when  she  could 
be  humble  and  obedient,  teaching  the  ABC  and  simple  addition  to  half-a-dozen 
little  children  at  Poussay  or  Mattaincourt,  for  instance.  But  in  the  long  disagree- 
ments and  uncertainties  about  the  organization  of  the  congregation,  in  such  matters 
she  was  mistress  of  herself  and  of  the  policies  she  believed  right ;  and  she  was 
always  an  excellent  superior.      But  a  Protestant  historian,  Professor  Pfister,  has 


ST  JOHN  THE  GOOD  [January  10 

acutely  remarked  that,  "When  she  was  appointed  to  direct  the  Nancy  house,  she  had 
only  one  ambition  ;  and  that  was  again  to  be  a  simple  sister,  teaching  their  letters  to 
the  four  and  five-year-olds  in  the  bottom  class  ".  The  last  word  about  Bd  Alix  Le 
Clercq  is  with  Mother  Angelique  Milly — "  she  was  the  child  of  deep  silence  ". 

In  1666  the  Nancy  convent  published  what  purported  to  be  a  life  of  Alix  le  Clercq  but 
was  in  fact  an  extremely  valuable  collection  of  documents  bearing  on  that  life.  It  was  due 
to  a  copy  of  this  book  coming  into  the  hands  of  the  young  Count  Gandelet  that  the  cause  of 
her  beatification  was  begun  by  the  Bishop  of  Saint-Die"  in  1885.  The  first  biography  proper 
to  be  published  appeared  at  Nancy  in  1773  (one  of  1766  remains  in  manuscript),  and  then 
not  another  till  1858,  after  which  there  were  several.  La  Mere  Alix  Le  Clercq  (1935),  by 
Canon  Edmond  Renard,  is  the  standard  modern  work,  full,  critical  and  well  written.  In 
English  there  is  a  short  but  very  good  biography  by  Margaret  St  L.  West  (1947).  Reference 
can  also  be  made  to  the  standard  lives  of  St  Peter  Fourier  by  Father  Bedel  (1645),  Dom 
Vuillemin  (1897),  and  Father  Rogie,  of  which  the  last  is  the  best.  The  writer  of  the  preface 
to  the  English  life  of  Bd  Alix  speaks  of  the  excellent  methods  used  in  the  schools  conducted 
by  her  congregation.  Fourier  himself  used  to  instruct  his  canonesses  in  pedagogy,  and  brief 
reference  to  some  of  his  enlightened  educational  ideas  is  made  in  the  notice  accorded  to  him 
herein  on  December  9.     The  feast  of  Bd  Alix  is  now  kept  on  October  22. 


ST    MARCIAN        (a.d.  471) 

MARCIAN  was  born,  and  spent  his  life,  in  Constantinople,  of  a  Roman 
family  related  to  the  imperial  house  of  Theodositis.  From  his  childhood 
he  served  God,  and  he  secretly  gave  away  great  sums  to  the  poor.  About 
the  year  455  the  Patriarch  Anatolius,  disregarding  the  saint's  protests  of  unworthi- 
ness,  ordained  him  priest.  In  this  new  state  Marcian  saw  himself  under  a  stricter 
obligation  than  before  of  labouring  to  reach  the  summit  of  Christian  perfection  ; 
and  whilst  he  made  the  instruction  of  the  poor  his  favourite  employment,  he 
redoubled  his  earnestness  in  providing  for  their  bodily  needs,  and  was  careful  to 
relax  no  part  of  his  own  austerities.  The  severity  of  his  morals  was  made  a  handle, 
by  those  who  resented  the  tacit  censure  of  such  an  example,  to  fasten  upon  him  a 
suspicion  of  Novatianism,  but  his  meekness  at  length  triumphed  over  the  slander. 
This  persecution  served  more  and  more  to  purify  his  soul.  His  virtue  only  shone 
forth  with  greater  lustre  than  ever  when  the  cloud  was  dispersed,  and  the  Patriarch 
Gennadius,  with  the  great  applause  of  the  whole  body  of  the  clergy  and  people, 
conferred  on  him  the  dignity  of  Oikonomos,  which  was  the  second  in  that  church. 
St  Marcian  built  or  restored  a  number  of  churches  in  Constantinople,  notably  that 
known  as  the  Anastasis,  and  was  famous  for  miracles  both  before  and  after  his 
death,  which  probably  occurred  in  471.  He  has  been  regarded  by  some  as  a  writer 
of  liturgical  hymns. 

He  is  honoured  both  in  the  Greek  Menaion  and  Roman  Martyrology.  See  his  ancient 
anonymous  life  in  Surius  and  in  the  Acta  Sunctorum,  January  10.  Cf.  also  DCB.,  vol.  iii, 
p.  185  ;   and  K.  Krumbacher,  Geschichte  der  By zantinis chert  Literatur,  p.  663. 

ST   JOHN   THE    GOOD,  Bishop  of  Milan        (a.d.  660) 

The  see  of  the  leading  bishopric  of  Liguria  had  been  transferred  in  the  earlier  part 
of  the  seventh  century  from  Milan  to  Genoa.  In  the  pontificate  of  St  John 
Camillus  Bonus  it  was  again  restored  to  Milan.  We  are  told  that  he  was  a  strenuous 
defender  of  orthodoxy  against  the  monothelites,  and  that  he  took  part  in  the  Council 


January  10]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

of  the  Lateran  in  649.  Beyond  this  we  know  very  little  of  the  saint  who  is  com- 
memorated in  the  Roman  Martyrology  on  this  day.  There  is  not  much  indication 
of  cultus  until  after  Archbishop  Aribert  in  the  eleventh  century  discovered  the  body 
of  St  John.  A  second  translation  was  carried  out  by  St  Charles  Borromeo  in  1582. 
St  John  is  said  to  have  died  on  January  3,  660. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  10  ;  and  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xv  (1896),  p.  357. 
Cf.  P.  Olcese,  Biografia  di  S.  Giovanni  Bono  (1894). 

ST    AGATHO,  Pope        (a.d.  681) 

Agatho,  a  Sicilian  Greek  by  birth,  was  remarkable  for  his  benevolence  and  an 
engaging  sweetness  of  temper.  He  had  been  married  and  engaged  in  secular 
pursuits  for  twenty  years  before  he  became  a  monk  at  Palermo  ;  and  was  treasurer 
of  the  Church  at  Rome  when  he  succeeded  Donus  in  the  pontificate  in  678.  He 
presided  by  his  three  legates  at  the  sixth  general  council  (the  third  of  Constantin- 
ople) in  680  against  the  monothelite  heresy,  which  he  confuted  in  a  learned  letter 
by  the  tradition  of  the  apostolic  church  of  Rome  :  "  acknowledged  ",  says  he,  "  by 
the  whole  Catholic  Church  to  be  the  mother  and  mistress  of  all  churches,  and  to 
derive  her  superior  authority  from  St  Peter,  the  prince  of  the  apostles,  to  whom 
Christ  committed  His  whole  flock,  with  a  promise  that  his  faith  should  never  fail  ". 
This  epistle  was  approved  as  a  rule  of  faith  by  the  same  council,  which  declared 
that  "  Peter  spoke  by  Agatho  ".  This  pope  restored  St  Wilfrid  to  the  see  of  York, 
and  granted  privileges  to  several  English  monasteries.  A  terrible  plague  which 
devastated  Rome  at  this  period  may  have  been  at  least  the  indirect  cause  of  his  own 
death,  which  occurred  in  681. 

St  Agatho  lived  in  troubled  times.  The  reason  he  alleges  in  excusing  the  bad 
Greek  of  the  legates  whom  he  sent  to  Constantinople  was  that  the  graces  of  speech 
could  not  be  cultivated  amidst  the  incursions  of  barbarians,  whilst  with  much 
difficulty  they  earned  their  daily  subsistence  by  manual  labour  ;  "  but  we  preserve", 
said  he  with  simplicity  of  heart,  "  the  faith  which  our  fathers  have  handed  down 
to  us  ".  The  bishops,  his  legates,  say  the  same  thing  :  "  Our  countries  are 
harassed  by  the  fury  of  barbarous  nations.  We  live  in  the  midst  of  battles,  raids 
and  devastations  :  our  lives  pass  in  continual  alarms,  and  we  subsist  by  the  labour 
of  our  hands."  Pope  Agatho  himself  had  died  before  the  council  concluded  its 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  10,  and  especially  Duchesne,  Liber  Pontificalis, 
vol.  i,  pp.  350-358  ;   cf.  Mann,  Lives  of  the  Popes,  vol.  ii,  pp.  23-48. 

ST    PETER    ORSEOLO         (a.d.  987) 

The  vocation  of  St  Peter  Orseolo  (Urseolus)  must  count  among  the  strangest  of 
those  recorded  in  ecclesiastical  history.  Born  in  928  of  a  distinguished  Venetian 
family,  he  seems  already  at  the  age  of  twenty  to  have  been  appointed  to  the  command 
of  the  fleet  of  the  city  of  the  lagoons,  in  which  office  he  conducted  a  successful 
campaign  against  the  Dalmatian  pirates  who  infested  the  Adriatic.  How  far  he 
was  personally  involved  in  the  popular  outbreak  of  976,  which  ended  in  the  violent 
death  of  the  Doge  Peter  Candiani  IV,  and  in  the  destruction  by  fire  of  a  large  part 
of  the  city,  cannot  be  clearly  determined.  The  testimony  of  St  Peter  Damian 
which  attributes  the  responsibility  to  Orseolo  can  only  be  accepted  with  reserve. 


ST  WILLIAM  OF  BOURGES  [January  10 

It  was,  however,  Orseolo  who  was  chosen  doge  in  place  of  the  murdered  Candiani, 
and  the  best  modern  authorities  pay  a  high  tribute  to  his  energy  and  tact  during 
his  brief  administration.  "  He  was  ",  we  are  told,  "  a  man  of  saintly  character, 
but  like  all  his  race  possessing  higher  qualities  of  statesmanship  than  were  to  be 
found  in  his  predecessors  in  the  ducal  chair.  His  first  care  was  to  repair  the  damage 
wrought  by  the  fire.  He  began  the  building  of  a  new  palace  and  church.  He 
renewed  the  treaty  with  Istria.  But  his  great  service  to  the  state  lay  in  this,  that 
he  met  and  settled,  to  the  nominal  satisfaction  of  Otto  II,  the  claims  of  the  widowed 
dogaressa  Gualdrada.  .  .  .  On  these  terms  Gualdrada  signed  a  quittance  of  all 
claims  against  the  State  of  Venice."  The  grievances  of  Gualdrada  had  created  a 
great  political  crisis,  but  this  was  now  safely  tided  over. 

Then  an  astounding  thing  happened.  On  the  night  of  September  i,  978, 
Peter  Orseolo  secretly  left  Venice  and  took  refuge  in  the  Benedictine  abbey  of  Cuxa, 
in  Roussillon  on  the  borders  of  France  and  Spain.  His  wife,  to  whom  he  had  been 
married  for  thirty-two  years,  and  his  only  son,  who  was  himself  destined  to  become 
one  of  the  greatest  of  the  Venetian  doges,  were  apparently  for  a  long  time  in  entire 
ignorance  of  the  place  of  his  retreat.  Still,  Peter's  apparently  sudden  resolution 
may  not  have  been  so  entirely  unpremeditated  as  it  seems.  There  is  early  evidence 
for  the  belief  that  he  and  his  wife  had  lived  as  brother  and  sister  ever  since  the  birth 
of  their  only  child,  and  it  has  also  been  suggested  that  a  letter  of  Ratherius,  addressed 
to  him  possibly  as  early  as  968,  shows  that  Peter  had  already  entertained  the  idea 
of  becoming  a  monk.  There  is  in  any  case  no  doubt  that  at  Cuxa  Orseolo  led  for 
a  while  a  life  of  the  strictest  asceticism  and  self-effacement  under  the  holy  Abbot 
Guarinus  ;  and  then,  desirous  of  still  greater  solitude,  he  built  a  hermitage  for 
himself,  probably  at  the  urging  of  St  Romuald,  whom  he  met  at  Cuxa,  and  who 
was  the  great  propagator  of  this  particular  development  of  the  Benedictine  vocation. 
St  Peter  died  in  987,  and  many  miracles  were  said  to  have  taken  place  at  his  tomb. 

See  Mabillon,  vol.  v,  pp.  851  seq.  ;  Tolra,  Saint  Pierre  Orseolo  (1897)  ;  Analecta  Bollan- 
diana,  vol.  xvii  (1898),  p.  252  ;  BHL.,  n.  986.  And  cf.  H.  F.  Brown  in  the  Cambridge 
Mediaeval  History,  vol.  iv,  p.  403  (quoted  above). 

ST   WILLIAM,  Archbishop  of  Bourges        (a.d.  1209) 

William  de  Donjeon,  belonging  to  an  illustrious  family  of  Nevers,  was  educated 
by  his  uncle,  Peter,  Archdeacon  of  Soissons,  and  he  was  early  made  canon,  first  of 
Soissons  and  afterwards  of  Paris  ;  but  he  soon  took  the  resolution  of  abandoning 
the  world  altogether,  and  retired  into  the  solitude  of  Grandmont  Abbey,  where  he 
lived  with  great  regularity  in  that  austere  order,  till,  seeing  its  peace  disturbed  by  a 
contest  which  arose  between  the  choir  monks  and  lay-brothers,  he  passed  into  the 
Cistercians,  then  in  wonderful  repute  for  sanctity.  He  took  the  habit  in  the  abbey 
of  Pontigny,  and  was  after  some  time  chosen  abbot,  first  of  Fontaine- Jean,  in  the 
diocese  of  Sens,  and  secondly  in  1 187  of  Chalis,  near  Senlis,  a  much  more  numerous 
monastery,  also  a  filiation  of  Pontigny,  built  by  Louis  the  Fat  in  1 136,  a  little  before 
his  death.  St  William  always  reputed  himself  the  last  among  his  brethren  ;  and 
the  sweetness  of  his  expression  testified  to  the  joy  and  peace  that  overflowed  his 
soul,  and  made  virtue  appear  engaging  even  in  the  midst  of  formidable  austerities. 
On  the  death  of  Henry  de  Sully,  Archbishop  of  Bourges,  the  clergy  of  that 
church  requested  his  brother  Eudo,  Bishop  of  Paris,  to  assist  them  in  the  election 
of  a  pastor.      Desirous  to  choose  some  abbot  of  the  Cistercian  Order,  they  put  on 


January  10]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

the  altar  the  names  of  three,  written  on  as  many  slips  of  parchment.  This  manner 
of  election  by  lot  would  have  been  superstitious  had  it  been  done  relying  on  a 
miracle  without  the  warrant  of  divine  inspiration.  But  it  did  not  deserve  this 
censure,  when  all  the  persons  proposed  seemed  equally  worthy  and  fit,  as  the  choice 
was  only  recommended  to  God,  and  left  to  this  issue  by  following  the  rules  of  His 
ordinary  providence  and  imploring  His  light.  Eudo  accordingly,  having  made 
his  prayer,  drew  first  the  name  of  the  abbot  William,  to  whom  also  the  majority  of 
the  votes  of  the  clergy  had  been  already  given.  It  was  on  November  23,  1200. 
This  news  overwhelmed  William.  He  never  would  have  acquiesced  had  he  not 
received  a  double  command  in  virtue  of  obedience,  one  from  Pope  Innocent  III, 
the  other  from  his  superior,  the  Abbot  of  Citeaux.  He  left  his  solitude  with  tears, 
and  soon  after  was  consecrated. 

In  this  new  dignity  St  William's  first  care  was  to  bring  both  his  exterior  and 
interior  life  up  to  the  highest  possible  standard,  being  very  sensible  that  a  man's 
first  task  is  to  honour  God  in  his  own  soul.  He  redoubled  his  austerities,  saying 
it  was  now  incumbent  on  him  to  do  penance  for  others  as  well  as  for  himself.  He 
always  wore  a  hair-shirt  under  his  religious  habit,  and  never  added  or  diminished 
anything  in  his  clothing  whatever  the  season  of  the  year  ;  and  he  never  ate  any 
rlesh-meat,  though  he  had  it  at  his  table  for  guests.  The  attention  he  paid  to  his 
flock  was  no  less  remarkable,  especially  in  assisting  the  poor  both  spiritually  and 
corporally,  saying  that  he  was  chiefly  sent  for  them.  He  was  most  gentle  in  dealing 
with  penitent  sinners,  but  inflexible  towards  the  impenitent,  though  he  refused  to 
have  recourse  to  the  civil  power  against  them,  the  usual  remedy  of  that  age.  Many 
such  he  at  last  reclaimed  by  his  sweetness  and  charity.  Certain  great  men  abusing 
his  leniency,  usurped  the  rights  of  his  church  ;  but  William  strenuously  defended 
them  even  against  the  king  himself,  notwithstanding  his  threats  to  confiscate  his 
lands.  By  humility  and  patience  he  overcame,  on  more  than  one  occasion,  the 
opposition  of  his  chapter  and  other  clergy.  He  converted  many  Albigensian 
heretics,  and  was  preparing  for  a  mission  among  them  at  the  time  he  was  seized 
with  his  last  illness.  He  persisted,  nevertheless,  in  preaching  a  farewell  sermon 
to  his  people,  which  increased  his  fever  to  such  a  degree  that  he  was  obliged  to 
postpone  his  journey  and  take  to  his  bed.  The  night  following,  perceiving  his  last 
hour  was  at  hand,  he  desired  to  anticipate  the  Nocturns,  which  are  said  at  midnight  ; 
but  having  made  the  sign  of  the  cross  on  his  lips  and  breast,  he  was  unable  to 
pronounce  more  than  the  first  two  words.  Then,  at  a  sign  which  he  made,  he  was 
laid  on  ashes,  and  thus  St  William  died,  a  little  past  midnight,  on  the  morning  of 
January  10,  1209.  His  body  was  interred  in  his  cathedral,  and  being  honoured  by 
many  miracles  it  was  enshrined  in  12 17,  and  in  the  year  following  he  was  canonized 
by  Pope  Honorius  III. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  10,  and  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  iii  (1884), 
pp.  271-361  ;    BHL.,  nn.  1283-1284. 

BD    GREGORY    X,  Pope        (ad.  1276) 

Theobald  Visconti  belonged  to  an  illustrious  Italian  family  and  was  born  at 
Piacenza  in  12 10.  In  his  youth  he  was  distinguished  for  his  virtue  and  his  success 
as  a  student.  He  devoted  himself  especially  to  canon  law,  which  he  began  in  Italy 
and  pursued  at  Paris  and  Liege.  He  was  acting  as  archdeacon  of  this  last  church 
when  he  received  an  order  from  Pope  Clement  IV  to  preach  the  crusade  for  the 


ST  HYGINUS  [January  n 

recovery  of  the  Holy  Land.  A  tender  compassion  for  the  distressed  situation  of 
the  servants  of  Christ  in  those  parts  moved  the  holy  archdeacon  to  undertake  a 
dangerous  pilgrimage  to  Palestine,  where  Prince  Edward  of  England  then  was. 
At  this  time  the  see  of  Rome  had  been  vacant  almost  three  years,  from  the  death 
of  Clement  IV  in  November  1268,  since  the  cardinals  who  were  assembled  at 
Viterbo  could  not  come  to  an  agreement  in  the  choice  of  a  pope.  At  last,  by  com- 
mon consent,  they  referred  the  election  to  a  committee  of  six  amongst  them,  who 
on  September  1,  1271  nominated  Theobald  Visconti. 

Arriving  in  Rome  in  March,  he  was  first  ordained  priest,  then  consecrated 
bishop,  and  crowned  on  the  27th  of  the  same  month,  in  1272.  He  took  the  name 
of  Gregory  X,  and  to  procure  the  most  effectual  succour  for  the  Holy  Land  he 
called  a  general  council  to  meet  at  Lyons.  This  fourteenth  general  council,  the 
second  of  Lyons,  was  opened  in  May  1274.  Among  those  assembled  were  St 
Albert  the  Great  and  St  Philip  Benizi  ;  St  Thomas  Aquinas  died  on  his  way 
thither,  and  St  Bonaventure  died  at  the  council.  In  the  fourth  session  the  Greek 
legates  on  behalf  of  the  Eastern  emperor  and  patriarch  restored  communion  between 
the  Byzantine  church  and  the  Holy  See.  Pope  Gregory,  we  are  told,  shed  tears 
whilst  the  Te  Deum  was  sung.     Unhappily  the  reconciliation  was  short-lived. 

After  the  council,  Bd  Gregory  devoted  all  his  energies  to  concerting  measures 
for  carrying  its  decrees  into  execution,  particularly  those  relating  to  the  crusade 
in  the  East,  which,  however,  never  set  out.  This  unwearied  application  to  business, 
and  the  fatigues  of  his  journey  across  the  Alps  on  his  return  to  Rome  brought  on 
a  serious  illness,  of  which  he  died  at  Arezzo  on  January  10,  1276.  The  name  of 
Gregory  X  was  added  to  the  Roman  Martyrology  by  Pope  Benedict  XIV ;  his 
holiness  was  always  recognized,  and  had  he  lived  longer  he  would  doubtless  have 
left  a  deeper  mark  on  the  Church. 

The  account  of  his  life  and  miracles  in  the  archives  of  the  tribunal  of  the  Rota  may  be 
found  in  Benedict  XIV,  De  canoniz.,  bk  ii,  appendix  8.  See  likewise  his  life,  copied  from 
the  MS.  history  of  several  popes  by  Bernard  Guidonis,  published  by  Muratori,  Scriptor. 
Ital.y  vol.  iii,  p.  597,  and  another  life,  written  before  1297,  in  which  mention  is  made  of 
miraculous  cures  performed  by  him  {ibid.,  pp.  599,  604).  There  is  also,  of  course,  a  copious 
modern  literature  regarding  Bd  Gregory  X,  dealing  more  especially  with  his  relation  to 
politics  and  his  share  in  the  election  of  the  Emperor  Rudolf  of  Hapsburg.  It  may  be  suffi- 
cient to  mention  the  works  of  Zisteier,  Otto  and  Redlich.  The  Regesta  of  Gregory  X  have 
been  edited  by  Jean  Guiraud. 


ST   HYGINUS,  Pope        (c.  a.d.  142) 

IN  the  Roman  Martyrology  St  Hyginus  is  described  as  a  martyr,  but  there  is 
no  early  evidence  of  this.  We  are  told  in  the  Liber  Pontificate  that  he  was  a 
Greek  by  birth,  but  the  further  statement  that  he  had  been  a  philosopher  is 
probably  due  to  some  confusion  with  another  Hyginus.  Eusebius  lets  us  know 
that  his  predecessor  died  during  the  first  year  cf  the  Emperor  Antoninus  Pius,  so 
that  it  is  likely  that  the  pontificate  of  Hyginus  lasted  from  138  to  142.  From  St 
Irenaeus  we  learn  that  at  this  time  two  Gnostic  heresiarchs,  Valentinus  and  Cerdo, 
were  present  in  Rome  and  caused  trouble  in  the  Church,  but  how  far  the  trouble 
had  progressed  before  Hyginus  himself  was  summoned  to  his  reward  is  not  certain. 

See  Duchesne,  Liber  Pontificate,  vol.  i,  p.  131  ;   Acta  Sanctorum,  January  11. 


January   n]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 


St  Theodosius  was  born  at  Garissus,  incorrectly,  it  seems,  called  Mogarissus,  in 
Cappadocia  in  423.  He  was  ordained  reader,  but  being  moved  by  Abraham's 
example  in  quitting  his  country  and  friends,  he  resolved  to  do  likewise.  He 
accordingly  started  for  Jerusalem,  but  went  out  of  his  road  to  visit  the  famous  St 
Simeon  Stylites  on  his  pillar,  who  foretold  many  circumstances  of  his  future  life, 
»nd  gave  him  advice  regarding  them.  Having  satisfied  his  devotion  in  visiting 
the  holv  places  in  Jerusalem,  he  began  to  consider  in  what  manner  he  should 
dedicate  himself  to  God.  The  dangers  of  living  without  a  guide  made  him  prefer 
a  monastery  to  a  hermitage  ;  and  he  therefore  put  himself  under  the  direction 
of  a  holy  man  named  Longinus,  who  soon  conceived  a  warm  affection  for  his 
disciple.  A  lady  having  built  a  church  on  the  high  road  to  Bethlehem,  Longinus 
could  not  well  refuse  her  request  that  his  pupil  should  undertake  the  charge  of 
it ;  but  Theodosius  could  not  easily  be  induced  to  consent :  absolute  commands 
were  necessary  before  he  would  undertake  the  charge.  Nor  did  he  govern  long  ; 
instead  he  retired  to  a  cave  at  the  top  of  a  neighbouring  mountain. 

When  many  sought  to  serve  God  under  his  direction  Theodosius  at  first  deter- 
mined only  to  admit  six  or  seven,  but  was  soon  obliged  to  receive  a  greater  number, 
and  at  length  came  to  a  resolution  never  to  reject  any  that  presented  themselves 
with  dispositions  that  seemed  sincere.  The  first  lesson  which  he  taught  his  monks 
was  by  means  of  a  great  grave  he  had  dug,  which  might  serve  for  the  common 
burial-place  of  the  community,  that  by  the  presence  of  this  reminder  they  might 
more  perfectly  learn  to  die  daily.  The  burial-place  being  made,  the  abbot  one  day 
said,  "  The  grave  is  made  ;  who  will  first  occupy  it  ?  "  Basil,  a  priest,  falling  on 
his  knees,  said  to  St  Theodosius,  "  Let  me  be  the  first,  if  only  you  will  give  me  your 
blessing."  The  abbot  ordered  the  prayers  of  the  Church  for  the  dead  to  be  offered 
up  for  him,  and  on  the  fortieth  day  Basil  departed  to  the  Lord  in  peace,  without 
any  apparent  sickness. 

When  the  holy  company  of  disciples  was  twelve  in  number,  it  happened  that 
at  Easter  they  had  nothing  to  eat— they  had  not  even  bread  for  the  sacrifice.  Some 
murmured,  but  the  saint  bade  them  trust  in  God  and  He  would  provide  :  which 
was  soon  remarkably  verified  by  the  arrival  of  a  train  of  mules  loaded  with  provi- 
sions. The  sanctity  and  miracles  of  St  Theodosius  attracting  numbers  who 
desired  to  serve  God  under  his  direction,  the  available  space  proved  too  small  for 
their  reception.  Accordingly  he  built  a  spacious  monastery  at  a  place  called 
Cathismus,  not  far  from  Bethlehem,  and  it  was  soon  filled  with  monks.  To  this 
monastery  were  annexed  three  infirmaries  :  one  for  the  sick  ;  another  for  the  aged 
and  feeble  ;  the  third  for  such  as  had  lost  their  reason,  a  condition  then  commonly 
ascribed  to  diabolical  possession,  but  due,  it  would  seem,  in  many  cases,  to  rash 
and  extravagant  practices  of  asceticism.  All  succours,  spiritual  and  temporal,  were 
afforded  in  these  infirmaries,  with  admirable  order  and  benevolence.  There  were 
other  buildings  for  the  reception  of  strangers,  in  which  Theodosius  exercised  an 
unbounded  hospitality.  We  are  told,  indeed,  that  there  were  one  day  above  a 
hundred  tables  served  ;  and  that  food,  when  insufficient  for  the  number  of  guests, 
was  more  than  once  miraculously  multiplied  by  his  prayers. 

The  monastery  itself  was  like  a  city  of  saints  in  the  midst  of  a  desert,  and  in  it 
reigned  regularity,  silence,  charity  and  peace.  There  were  four  churches  belonging 
to  it,  one  for  each  of  the  three  several  nations  of  which  his  community  was  chiefly 



composed,  each  speaking  a  different  language  ;  the  fourth  was  for  the  use  of  such 
as  were  in  a  state  of  penance,  including  those  recovering  from  their  lunatic  or 
possessed  condition  before-mentioned.  The  nations  into  which  his  community 
was  divided  were  the  Greeks,  who  were  by  far  the  most  numerous,  and  consisted 
of  all  those  that  came  from  any  province  of  the  empire  ;  the  Armenians,  with  whom 
were  joined  the  Arabians  and  Persians  ;  and,  thirdly,  the  Bessi,  who  comprehended 
all  the  northern  nations  below  Thrace,  or  all  who  used  the  Slavonic  tongue.  Each 
nation  sang  the  first  part  of  the  Eucharistic  Liturgy  to  the  end  of  the  gospel  in  their 
own  church,  but  after  the  gospel  all  met  in  the  church  of  the  Greeks,  where  they 
celebrated  the  essential  part  of  the  liturgy  in  Greek,  and  communicated  all  together. 
The  monks  passed  a  considerable  part  of  the  day  and  night  in  the  church,  and  at 
the  times  not  set  apart  for  public  prayer  and  necessary  rest  everyone  was  obliged 
to  apply  himself  to  some  trade  or  manual  labour  not  incompatible  with  recollection, 
in  order  that  the  house  might  be  supplied  with  conveniences.  Sallust,  Patriarch 
of  Jerusalem,  appointed  St  Sabas  head  of  all  the  hermits,  and  our  saint  of 
the  cenobites,  or  men  living  in  community,  throughout  Palestine,  whence  he  was 
styled  "  the  Cenobiarch  ".  These  two  great  servants  of  God  lived  in  close 
friendship,  and  it  was  not  long  before  they  were  also  united  in  their  sufferings  for 
the  Church. 

The  Emperor  Anastasius  patronized  the  Eutychian  heresy,  and  used  all  possible 
means  to  win  our  saint  over  to  his  own  views.  In  513  he  deposed  Elias,  Patriarch 
of  Jerusalem,  just  as  he  had  previously  banished  Flavian  II  of  Antioch,  and  intruded 
Severus  into  that  see.  Theodosius  and  Sabas  maintained  boldly  the  rights  of  Elias, 
and  of  John  his  successor  ;  whereupon  the  imperial  officers  thought  it  advisable 
to  connive  at  their  proceedings,  considering  the  great  authority  they  had  acquired 
by  their  sanctity.  Soon  after,  the  emperor  sent  Theodosius  a  considerable  sum  of 
money,  for  charitable  uses  in  appearance,  but  in  reality  to  engage  him  in  his  interest. 
The  saint  accepted  it,  and  distributed  it  all  among  the  poor.  Anastasius,  now 
persuading  himself  that  Theodosius  was  as  good  as  gained  over  to  his  cause,  sent 
him  a  heretical  profession  of  faith,  in  which  the  divine  and  human  natures  in  Christ 
were  confounded  into  one,  and  desired  him  to  sign  it.  The  saint  wrote  him  an 
answer  full  of  apostolic  spirit,  and  for  a  time  the  emperor  was  more  peaceable. 
But  he  soon  renewed  his  persecuting  edicts  against  the  orthodox,  despatching 
troops  everywhere  to  have  them  put  into  execution.  On  intelligence  of  this, 
Theodosius  travelled  through  Palestine,  exhorting  all  to  stand  firm  in  the  faith  of 
the  four  general  councils.  At  Jerusalem  he  cried  out  from  the  pulpit,  "  If  anyone 
receives  not  the  four  general  councils  as  the  four  gospels,  let  him  be  anathema.' y 
So  bold  an  action  put  courage  into  those  whom  the  edicts  had  terrified.  His 
discourses  had  a  wonderful  effect  on  the  people,  and  God  gave  a  sanction  to  his 
zeal  by  some  striking  miracles.  One  of  these  was,  that  on  his  going  out  of  the 
church  at  Jerusalem,  a  woman  was  healed  of  a  cancer  by  touching  his  garments. 
The  emperor  sent  an  order  for  his  banishment,  which  was  executed  ;  but  dying 
soon  after,  Theodosius  was  recalled  by  his  successor,  Justin. 

During  the  last  year  of  his  life  St  Theodosius  was  afflicted  with  a  painful 
infirmity,  in  which  he  gave  proof  of  heroic  patience  and  submission  to  the  will  of 
God  ;  for  being  advised  by  a  witness  of  his  sufferings  to  pray  that  God  would  grant 
him  some  ease,  he  would  give  no  ear  to  the  suggestion,  alleging  that  such  ideas 
implied  a  lack  of  patience.  Perceiving  that  his  end  was  close  at  hand,  he  addressed 
a  last  exhortation  to  his  disciples,  and  foretold  many  things  which  came  to  pass  after 


January   12]  THE   LIVES  OE  THE   SAINTS 

his  death.  He  went  to  his  reward  in  529,  in  the  one  hundred  and  fifth  year  of  his 
age.  Peter,  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  and  the  whole  country  were  present  at  his 
funeral,  which  was  honoured  by  miracles.  He  was  buried  in  his  first  cell,  called 
the  cave  of  the  Magi,  because  the  wise  men  who  came  to  find  Christ  soon  after  his 
birth  were  said  to  have  lodged  in  it.  A  military  commander,  on  his  march 
against  the  Persians,  begged  to  have  the  hair-shirt  which  the  saint  used  to  wear,  and 
believed  that  he  owed  the  victory  which  he  obtained  over  them  to  the  prayers  of 
St  Theodosius. 

There  are  two  main  sources  for  the  history  of  St  Theodosius,  one  the  biography  written 
by  his  disciple  Theodore,  Bishop  of  Petra,  the  other  a  shorter  abstract  by  Cyril  of  Skythopolis. 
The  Greek  text  of  both  of  these  was  printed  for  the  first  time  by  H.  Usener  :  see  his  book 
Der  heilige  Theodosios  (1890).  To  the  critical  material  thus  provided,  K.  Krumbacher 
has  made  important  additions  in  the  Sitzungsbcrichte  of  the  Munich  Academy  for  1892, 
pp.  220-379.  Cf.  also  the  Byzantinische  Zeitschrift  (1897),  vol.  vi,  pp.  357  seq.  ;  Acta  Sanc- 
torum, January  11  ;  and  E.  Schwartz,  Kyrillos  von  Skythopolis  (1939),  for  text  of  the 
shorter  life. 

ST   SALVIUS,  or  SAUVE,  Bishop  of  Amiens        (c.  a.d.  625) 

Famous  for  miracles,  Salvius  succeeded  Ado  in  the  see  of  Amiens  and  flourished 
in  the  reign  of  Theodoric  II.  His  relics  formerly  were  venerated  at  Montreuil  in 
Picardy,  in  the  Benedictine  abbey  which  bore  his  name,  whither  they  were  translated 
from  the  cathedral  of  Amiens  several  years  after  his  death,  as  is  related  in  his 
anonymous  life,  a  worthless  compilation,  largely  borrowed,  as  Duchesne  points  out, 
from  the  account  given  of  another  St  Salvius,  of  Albi,  by  Gregory  of  Tours.  A 
relic  of  Salvius  was  formerly  kept  in  the  cathedral  of  Canterbury.  This  saint  must 
not  be  confounded  with  St  Salvius  of  Albi,  nor  with  the  martyr  of  this  name  in 
Africa,  on  whose  festival  St  Augustine  delivered  a  sermon.  St  Salvius  is  styled 
martyr  in  the  Roman  Marty ro logy,  but  for  this,  as  Father  Bollandus  himself  noted 
nearly  three  centuries  ago,  there  is  no  foundation. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  n  ;  Duchesne,  Fastes  Episcopaux  ;  Corblet, 
Hagiographie  dy  Amiens,  vol.  iii,  pp.  463  seq. 


ST   ARCADIUS,  Martyr        (a.d.  304  ?) 

THE  time  of  this  saint's  martyrdom  is  not  mentioned  in  his  acts  ;  some  place 
it  under  Valerian,  others  under  Diocletian  ;  he  seems  to  have  suffered  in 
some  city  of  Mauritania,  probably  the  capital,  Caesarea.  The  fury  of  the 
persecutors  was  at  its  height.  Upon  the  least  suspicion  they  broke  into  houses, 
and  if  they  found  a  Christian  they  treated  him  upon  the  spot  with  the  greatest 
cruelty,  their  impatience  not  suffering  them  to  wait  for  his  formal  indictment. 
Every  day  new  sacrileges  were  committed  ;  the  faithful  were  compelled  to  assist 
at  superstitious  sacrifices,  to  lead  victims  crowned  with  flowers  through  the  streets, 
to  burn  incense  before  idols.  Arcadius,  seeing  the  terrible  conditions  prevailing, 
withdrew  to  a  solitary  place  in  the  country,  but  his  flight  could  not  be  long  a  secret  ; 
for  his  non-appearance  at  the  public  sacrifices  made  the  governor  send  soldiers  to 
his  house,  who,  finding  one  o£  his  relations  there,  seized  him,  and  the  governor 
ordered  him  to  be  kept  in  custody  till  Arcadius  should  be  taken. 


SS.  TIGRIUS  AND  EUTROPIUS  [January   12 

The  martyr,  informed  of  his  friend's  danger,  went  into  the  city,  and  presenting 
himself  to  the  judge,  said,  "  If  on  my  account  you  detain  my  innocent  kinsman  in 
chains,  release  him  ;  I,  Arcadius,  am  come  in  person  to  give  an  account  of  myself, 
and  to  declare  to  you  that  he  knew  not  where  I  was."  "  I  am  willing  ",  answered 
the  judge,  "  to  pardon  not  only  him,  but  you  also,  on  condition  that  you  will 
sacrifice  to  the  gods."  Arcadius  refused  firmly  ;  whereupon  the  judge  said  to  the 
executioners,  "  Take  him,  and  let  him  desire  death  without  being  able  to  obtain  it. 
Cut  of!  his  limbs  joint  by  joint,  but  do  this  so  slowly  that  the  wretch  may  know  what 
it  is  to  abandon  the  gods  of  his  ancestors  for  an  unknown  deity  ".  The  executioners 
dragged  Arcadius  to  the  place  where  many  other  victims  of  Christ  had  already 
suffered  ;  and  he  stretched  out  his  neck,  expecting  to  be  decapitated  ;  but  the 
executioner  bid  him  hold  out  his  hand,  and,  joint  after  joint,  chopped  off  his  fingers, 
arms  and  shoulders.  In  the  same  barbarous  manner  were  cut  off  his  toes,  feet, 
legs  and  thighs.  The  martyr  held  out  his  limbs  one  after  another  with  invincible 
courage,  repeating,  "  Lord,  teach  me  thy  wisdom  "  :  for  the  tormentors  had 
forgotten  to  cut  out  his  tongue.  After  so  many  martyrdoms,  his  body  lay  a  mere 
trunk.  But  Arcadius  surveying  his  scattered  limbs  all  around  him,  and  offering 
them  to  God,  said,  "  Happy  members,  you  at  last  truly  belong  to  God,  being  all 
made  a  sacrifice  to  Him  !  "  Then  to  the  people  he  said,  "  You  who  have  been 
present  at  this  bloody  tragedy,  learn  that  all  torments  seem  as  nothing  to  one  who 
has  an  everlasting  crown  before  his  eyes.  Your  gods  are  not  gods  ;  renounce  their 
worship.  He  alone  for  whom  I  suffer  and  die  is  the  true  God.  To  die  for  Him 
is  to  live."  Discoursing  in  this  manner  to  those  about  him,  he  died,  the  pagans 
being  struck  with  astonishment  at  such  a  miracle  of  patience.  The  Christians 
gathered  together  his  scattered  limbs  and  laid  them  in  one  tomb. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  12,  where  the  passio  is  printed,  as  well  as  a  panegyric 
preached  by  St  Zeno  of  Verona.  In  spite  of  the  fact  that*  the  passio  is  included  by  Ruinart 
in  his  Acta  sincera,  the  document  belongs  rather  to  the  category  of  historical  romances.  Cf. 
Delehaye,  Origines  du  culte  des  martyrs  (1933),  p.  391. 

SS.    TIGRIUS    AND    EUTROPIUS,  Martyrs        (a.d.  404) 

Lengthy  eulogium  may  be  found  on  this  day  in  the  latest  edition  of  the  Roman 
Martyrology  in  the  following  terms  :  "  At  Constantinople,  of  SS.  Tigrius  a  priest 
and  Eutropius  a  reader,  who,  in  the  time  of  the  Emperor  Arcadius,  having  been 
falsely  accused  of  causing  the  conflagration  by  which  the  cathedral  church  and  the 
senate-hall  were  burnt  down,  as  an  act  of  reprisal,  it  was  said,  for  the  banishment 
of  St  John  Chrysostom,  suffered  under  the  city-prefect  Optatus,  who  was  addicted 
to  the  superstitious  worship  of  the  false  gods  and  was  a  bitter  enemy  to  the  Christian 
religion."  This  seems  to  imply  that  both  Tigrius  and  Eutropius  were  put  to 
death,  but  though  Eutropius,  who  is  described  as  a  youth  of  great  personal  beauty 
and  irreproachable  life,  undoubtedly  perished  under  the  severity  of  the  torture 
to  which  they  were  both  subjected,  the  priest  Tigrius  appears  to  have  survived. 
We  read  in  the  Dialogue  usually  attributed  to  Palladius  that  he  was  afterwards  ban- 
ished to  Mesopotamia.  Tigrius  was  a  eunuch  and  an  enfranchised  slave,  and 
was  very  dear  to  St  John  Chrysostom  for  his  gentleness  and  charity.  The  ob- 
ject of  the  torture,  during  which  not  only  scourging  and  racking  were  employed, 
but  burning  torches  were  applied  to  the  most  sensitive  parts  of  the  bodies  of 
the  victims,  was  to  elicit  information  which  might  lead  to  the  discovery  of  the 

January  12]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

perpetrators  of  the  outrage,  but  no  compromising  word  was  spoken  by  either  of 
the  sufferers. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  12,  where  the  accounts  of  Sozomen  and  Nicephorus 
Callistus  are  quoted  at  length  ;  cf.  also  DCB.,  vol.  ii,  pp.  11,  402,  and  iv,  1027.  The  eulogium 
in  earlier  editions  of  the  Roman  Martyrology,  including  the  editio  typica  published  in  191 3, 
is  much  shorter. 

ST    CAESARIA,  Virgin        (c.  a.d.  529) 

St  Caesarius,  Bishop  of  Aries,  founded  about  the  year  512  a  great  nunnery  for 
virgins  and  widows,  and  appointed  his  sister,  Caesaria,  as  its  first  abbess.  She 
soon  had  under  her  rule  a  community  of  200  members,  who  seem  to  have  devoted 
themselves  to  every  kind  of  good  work,  more  especially  the  protection  and  in- 
struction of  the  young,  the  relieving  of  the  poor  and  the  care  of  the  sick.  The 
nuns  made  their  own  clothes,  and  were  generally  employed  in  weaving  and  needle- 
work ;  they  were  allowed  to  embroider  and  to  wash  and  mend  clothes  for  persons 
that  lived  out  of  the  convent.  The  ornaments  of  their  church  were  only  of  woollen 
or  linen  cloth,  and  plain.  Some  of  them  worked  at  transcribing  books.  They  all 
studied  two  hours  every  day,  and  one  of  them  read  to  the  rest  during  part  of  the 
time  they  were  at  work.  Flesh-meat  was  forbidden,  except  to  the  sick,  and  the 
rule  enjoined  the  use  of  baths,  but  pointing  out  that  they  were  for  health,  not  for 
enjoyment :  nor  were  they  to  be  indulged  in  during  Lent.  Only  the  abbess  and 
her  assistant  were  exempt  from  helping  in  the  housework  ;  and  enclosure  was 
permanent  and  complete.  St  Gregory  of  Tours  describes  the  abbess  herself  as 
"  blessed  and  holy  ",  and  Venantius  Fortunatus  more  than  once  refers  to  her  in 
his  verse  in  glowing  terms.  St  Caesaria  must  have  died  about  the  year  529, 
probably  on  January  12. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  12,  where  the  rule  is  printed  which  St  Caesarius 
drew  up  for  the  nuns  ;  critical  edition  by  G.  Morin  in  Florilegium  patristicum  (1933).  Cf. 
his  article  in  Revue  benedictine,  vol.  xliv  (1932),  pp.  5-20.  Caesarius  himself  by  his  will  left 
nearly  all  his  property  to  this  nunnery. 

ST   VICTORIAN,  Abbot        (a.d.  558) 

If  anyone  had  been  disposed  to  doubt  the  historic  existence  of  St  Victorian,  the 
matter  was  set  at  rest  by  an  inscription  published  by  Hiibner  in  1900.  It  is  certain 
that  Victorian,  who  was  apparently  born  in  Italy  and  then  lived  for  some  time  in 
France,  became  abbot  of  Asan  in  Aragon,  where  he  ruled  for  many  years  a  vigorous 
and  devout  community.  Venantius  Fortunatus,  within  thirty  or  forty  years  of  his 
death,  wrote  a  very  laudatory  epitaph  eulogizing  his  virtues,  his  miracles  and  his 
great  reputation  as  a  teacher  of  monastic  observance.  A  Latin  life  of  him  is  extant, 
which  probably  dates  from  the  eighth  century  or  a  little  later.  It  is  also  now 
established  that  he  died  in  558. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  12  ;  Venantius  Fortunatus,  Carmina  (iv,  11),  and  especially 
Fita  in  Boletin  de  la  real  Academia  de  la  Historia  (1900),  vol.  xxxvii,  pp.  491  seq. 

ST  BENEDICT,  or  BENET,  BISCOP,  Abbot  of  Wearmouth  and 
Jarrow        (a.d.  690) 

Benedict  Biscop,  a  man  of  noble  birth  at  the  court  of  Oswy,  king  of  the  Northum- 
brians, at  the  age  of  twenty-five  bade  adieu  to  the  world,  made  a  journey  of  devotion 


ST  BENEDICT,  OR  BENET,  BISCOP  [January  12 

to  Rome,  and  at  his  return  devoted  himself  wholly  to  the  study  of  the  Bible  and 
other  holy  exercises.  Some  time  after  he  travelled  thither  a  second  time,  burning 
with  the  desire  of  fuller  knowledge  of  divine  things.  From  Rome  he  went  to  the 
great  monastery  of  Lerins,  renowned  for  its  regular  discipline  ;  there  he  took  the 
monastic  habit,  and  spent  two  years  in  exact  observance  of  the  rule.  After  this  he 
returned  to  Rome,  where  he  received  an  order  from  Pope  St  Vitalian  to  accompany 
St  Theodore,  the  new  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  St  Adrian,  to  England. 
When  he  arrived  at  Canterbury,  St  Theodore  committed  to  Benedict  the  care  of 
the  monastery  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul  at  that  city.  He  stayed  two  years  in  Kent, 
giving  himself  up  to  study  and  prayer  under  the  discipline  of  those  two  excellent 
masters.  Then  he  took  a  fourth  journey  to  Rome,  with  the  view  of  perfecting 
himself  in  the  rules  and  practice  of  a  monastic  life.  For  this  purpose  he  made  a 
considerable  stay  in  Rome  and  other  places,  and  he  brought  home  with  him  a  choice 
library,  with  relics  and  sacred  pictures.  When  he  returned  to  Northumberland, 
King  Egfrid  bestowed  on  him  seventy  hides  of  land  for  building  a  monastery  :  this 
the  saint  founded  in  674  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Wear,  whence  it  was  called 
Wearmouth.  St  Benedict  went  over  to  France,  and  brought  back  with  him  skilful 
masons,  who  built  the  church  for  this  monastery  of  stone,  and  after  the  Roman 
fashion  ;  till  that  time  stone  buildings  were  rare  in  north  England  :  even  the  church 
of  Lindisfarne  was  of  wood,  covered  with  a  thatch  of  straw  and  reeds,  till  Bishop 
Edbert  had  both  the  roof  and  the  walls  covered  with  sheets  of  lead,  as  Bede  men- 
tions. St  Benedict  also  brought  over  glaziers  from  France,  for  the  art  of  making 
glass  was  then  unknown  here. 

His  first  monastery  of  Wearmouth  was  dedicated  in  honour  of  St  Peter  ;  and 
such  was  the  edification  which  it  gave  that  the  king  added  a  second  donation  of 
land,  on  which  Biscop  built  another  monastery  in  685,  at  Jarrow  on  the  Tyne,  six 
miles  distant  from  the  former,  this  latter  being  called  St  Paul's.  These  two 
monasteries  were  almost  looked  upon  as  one,  and  St  Benedict  governed  them  both, 
though  he  placed  in  each  a  superior,  who  continued  subject  to  him,  his  long  journeys 
to  Rome  and  other  absences  making  this  substitution  necessary.  In  the  church  of 
St  Peter  at  Wearmouth  he  set  up  pictures  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  the  Twelve  Apostles, 
the  history  of  the  Gospel  and  the  visions  in  the  Revelation  of  St  John.  That  of  St 
Paul's  at  Jarrow  he  adorned  with  other  pictures,  disposed  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
represent  the  harmony  between  the  Old  and  the  New  Testament,  and  the  con- 
formity of  the  types  in  the  one  to  the  reality  in  the  other.  Thus  Isaac  carrying 
the  wood  which  was  to  be  employed  in  the  sacrifice  of  himself,  was  explained  by 
Jesus  Christ  carrying  His  cross,  on  which  He  was  to  finish  His  sacrifice  ;  and  the 
brazen  serpent  was  illustrated  by  our  Saviour's  crucifixion.  Not  content  with 
these  pictures,  books  and  relics,  St  Benedict  on  his  last  voyage  brought  back  with 
him  from  Rome  the  abbot  of  St  Martin's,  who  was  the  precentor  of  St  Peter's. 
This  abbot,  John  by  name,  was  expert  in  music,  and  our  saint  persuaded  Pope 
St  Agatho  to  send  him  in  order  that  he  might  instruct  the  English  monks  in  the 
Gregorian  chant  and  in  the  Roman  ceremonial  for  singing  the  divine  office.  These 
two  monasteries  thus  became  the  best-equipped  in  England,  and  St  Benedict's 
purchase  of  books  was  of  special  significance,  for  it  made  possible  the  work  of  the 
Venerable  Bede. 

About  the  year  686  St  Benedict  was  stricken  with  paralysis  in  his  lower  limbs. 
He  lay  three  years  crippled  and  suffering,  and  for  a  considerable  time  was  entirely 
confined  to  his  bed.     During  this  long  illness,  not  being  able  to  raise  his  voice  or 


January  13]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

make  much  effort,  at  every  canonical  hour  some  of  his  monks  came  to  him,  and 
whilst  they  sang  the  psalms  appointed,  he  endeavoured  as  well  as  he  could  to  join 
not  only  his  heart  but  also  his  voice  with  theirs.  In  his  realization  of  the  presence 
of  God  he  seemed  never  to  relax,  and  he  frequently  and  earnestly  exhorted  his 
monks  to  observe  faithfully  the  rule  he  had  given  them.  "  You  must  not  think  ", 
he  said,  "  that  the  constitutions  which  you  have  received  from  me  were  of  my  own 
devising  ;  for  having  in  my  frequent  journeys  visited  seventeen  well-ordered 
monasteries,  I  acquainted  myself  with  their  rules,  and  chose  the  best  to  leave  you 
as  my  legacy."  He  died  on  January  12,  690.  According  to  William  of  Malmes- 
bury  his  relics  were  translated  to  Thorney  Abbey  in  970,  but  the  monks  of  Glaston- 
bury thought  themselves  possessed  of  at  least  part  of  them.  St  Benet  Biscop's 
feast  is  kept  by  the  Benedictines  of  the  English  congregation  and  in  the  dioceses 
of  Liverpool  and  Hexham  (February  13),  with  a  commemoration  in  Southwark. 

The  true  name  of  this  saint  was  Biscop  Baducing,  as  we  learn  from  Eddius  in  his  life 
of  St  Wilfrid.  He  is  mentioned  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  on  this  day.  Practically  all 
our  information  about  him  is  derived  from  Bede,  who  was  entrusted  to  his  care  at  the  age 
of  seven.  Bede  wrote  of  his  venerated  abbot  in  his  Historia  Abbatum,  as  well  as  in  his 
Ecclesiastical  History,  and  there  is  also  a  sermon  in  natale  S.  Benedicti  {Biscop)  which  is 
attributed  to  Bede  and  which  Dr  Plummer  believes  to  be  authentically  his.  It  is  to  be 
noted,  however,  that  Bede's  Historia  Abbatum  is  founded  upon  an  earlier  Historia  Abbatum 
Gyrvensium,  the  author  of  which  is  not  known.  See  Plummer 's  edition  of  the  Ecclesiastical 
History,  with  its  preface  and  notes  ;  and  T.  Allison  in  Church  Quarterly  Review,  vol.  cvii 
(1928),  pp.  57-79- 



ST   AGRECIUS,  Bishop  of  Trier        (a.d.  329  ?) 

THE  story  of  St  Agrecius  (Agritius)  has  of  late  years  acquired  a  certain 
adventitious  interest  owing  to  the  discussions  regarding  the  authenticity 
of  the  "  Holy  Coat  of  Trier  ".  According  to  the  life  of  the  saint,  a  docu- 
ment which  is  certainly  not  older  than  the  eleventh  century,  and  which  modern 
scholars  pronounce  to  be  entirely  fabulous,  Agrecius  was  first  of  all  patriarch  of 
Antioch,  and  was  then,  at  the  instance  of  the  Empress  St  Helen,  the  mother  of 
Constantine,  appointed  bishop  of  Trier  by  Pope  St  Silvester.  He  found  that  that 
part  of  Germany,  though  evangelized  more  than  two  centuries  before,  had  almost 
fallen  back  into  paganism,  and  he  set  to  work  to  build  churches  and  to  establish 
closer  relations  with  the  centre  of  Christendom.  In  this  task  he  was  encouraged 
by  his  patroness  St  Helen,  who  in  particular  obtained  for  him  a  share  of  the  precious 
relics  which  she  had  been  instrumental  in  recovering  from  the  Holy  Land.  Those 
sent  to  Trier  included  one  of  the  nails  of  the  cross,  the  knife  used  at  the  Last  Supper, 
the  bodies  of  SS.  Lazarus  and  Martha,  etc.,  and  also  apparently  our  Lord's  seam- 
less robe.  The  historically  worthless  character  of  the  life  discredits  this  story, 
and  the  ivory  plaque  of  Byzantine  origin  which  is  appealed  to  as  a  representation 
of  SS.  Silvester  and  Agrecius  in  a  chariot  bringing  the  casket  of  relics  to  Trier  is 
more  probably  to  be  explained  as  referring  to  another  quite  different  translation 
of  relics  to  Constantinople  under  the  Emperor  Leo  I  (457-474).  St  Silvester  is 
also  stated  to  have  conceded  to  Trier  in  the  person  of  Agrecius  a  primacy  over  all 
the  bishops  of  Gaul  and  Germany.  Setting  aside  these  fictions,  the  only  facts 
known  to  us  regarding  St  Agrecius  are  that  he  assisted  as  bishop  of  Trier  at  the 
Council  of  Aries  in  3 14,  and  that  he  was  succeeded  in  the  same  see  by  St  Maximinus. 



See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  13  ;  V.  Sauerland,  Trierer  Geschichtsquellcn  des  xi  Jahr- 
hunderts  (1889),  pp.  55-212  ;  S.  Beissel,  Geschichte  der  Trierer  Kirchen  (1887),  vol.  i,  pp. 
71  seq.  ;  E.  Winheller,  Die  Lebensbeschreibungen  der  vorkarol.  Bischofe  von  Trier  (1935), 
pp.  121-145  ;  and  DHG.,  vol.  i,  c.  1014.  For  the  plaque,  see  Kraus,  Geschichte  der  christ- 
lichen  Kunst,  vol.  i,  p.  502,  and  the  references  there  given  in  note  4.  Kraus  claims  G.  B. 
de  Rossi  as  supporting  his  interpretation  of  the  plaque.  By  Kraus  this  ivory  carving  is  said 
to  be  a  work  of  the  fifth  century  ;  A.  Maskell,  Ivories,  p.  419,  dates  it  seventh  to  ninth  century. 
Both  are  agreed  that  the  work  is  Byzantine. 

ST    BERNO,  Abbot  of  Cluny        (a.d.  927) 

Considering  the  immense  influence  exercised  by  Cluny  in  the  development  of  the 
monasticism,  and  indeed  of  the  whole  religious  life,  of  western  Europe  from  the 
tenth  to  the  twelfth  centuries,  we  know  strangely  little  of  the  personality  of  its  first 
abbot.  Berno  seems  to  have  been  a  man  of  good  family  and  some  wealth.  He 
was  himself  the  founder  of  the  abbey  of  Gigny,  in  which  he  became  abbot,  having 
already  been  the  reforming  superior  of  Baume-les-Messieurs,  and  finally  he  was 
pitched  upon  by  Duke  William  of  Aquitaine  to  rule  the  monastery  which  he 
planned.  The  site  chosen  by  St  Berno  was  at  Cluny,  not  far  from  Macon  in  the 
centre  of  France.  The  abbey  of  Cluny  was  immediately  subject  to  the  Holy  See, 
and  in  the  foundations  subsequently  made  the  principle  of  centralization  became 
dominant ;  but  in  Berno's  day  there  was  no  machinery  for  the  central  control  of 
the  houses  with  whose  reform  he  was  entrusted.  Berno  ruled  from  910  to  927, 
and  perhaps  the  highest  tribute  to  his  personal  worth  was  the  devotion  always  paid 
to  him  by  St  Odo,  who  had  joined  him  as  a  novice  at  Baume  and  who,  after  Berno's 
death  in  927,  was  to  succeed  him  at  Cluny  as  abbot,  perhaps  the  most  famous  and 
energetic  of  all  its  rulers. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  13  ;  E.  Sackur,  Die  Cluniacenser,  vol.  i,  pp.  36  seq  ;  Berliere 
in  Revue  Benedictine,  vol.  ix,  p.  498  ;  and  P.  Schmitz,  Histoire  de  Vordre  de  St  Benoit,  vol.  i 
(1942),  pp.  130-132- 

BD    GODFREY    OF    KAPPENBERG        (a.d.  1127) 

Godfrey,  who  died  at  the  age  of  thirty,  belongs  to  the  category  of  those  youthful 
saints  who  spent  the  few  years  of  their  life  on  earth  in  making  preparation  for 
Heaven.  He  was  count  of  Kappenberg  and  lord  of  a  great  Westphalian  estate  in 
the  diocese  of  Munster.  He  was  married  to  a  young  wife  of  a  family  as  distin- 
guished as  his  own.  Coming,  however,  under  the  influence  of  St  Norbert,  the 
founder  of  the  Premonstratensian  canons,  he  determined  to  surrender  his  castle 
of  Kappenberg  to  be  converted  into  a  monastery  of  that  order  ;  and  he  followed 
this  up  by  persuading  his  wife  and  brother  to  renounce  the  world  like  himself 
and  to  become  religious  under  St  Norbert's  direction.  His  purpose  encountered 
the  most  violent  opposition  from  his  father-in-law,  who  even  threatened  to 
take  his  life.  Godfrey,  however,  persisted  in  making  over  all  his  possessions 
to  the  Premonstratensians.  He  built  a  convent  near  Kappenberg,  where  his 
wife  and  two  of  his  own  sisters  took  the  veil ;  he  also  founded  hospitals  and  other 
charitable  institutions,  and  himself  became  a  canonical  novice,  performing 
the  most  menial  duties  and  washing  the  feet  of  the  patients  and  the  pilgrims 
to  whom  his  hospital  gave  shelter.  Though  he  had  received  minor  orders,  he 
did  not  live  long  enough  to  reach  the  priesthood.  On  January  13,  11 27  he 
died  in  great  joy  of  spirit,  declaring  that  not  for  all  the  world  would  he  wish  his 


January   13]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

life  to  be  prolonged.  His  feast  is  kept  in  the  Premonstratensian  Order  on 
January  16. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  13,  where  two  Latin  lives  are  printed  ;  also  Kirkfieet' 
History  of  St  Norbert  (1916),  pp.  140-151  ;  Spilbeeck,  Le  B.  Godefroid  (1892)  ;  BHL.' 
n-  533- 

BD    JUTTA    OF   HUY,  Widow        (ad.  1228) 

Jutta  (Juetta)  was  one  of  the  mystics  who  seem  to  have  been  influenced  by  that 
remarkable  ascetic  revival  in  the  Low  Countries  which  preceded  by  a  few  years 
the  preaching  of  St  Dominic  and  St  Francis  in  southern  Europe.  She  was  born 
of  a  well-to-do  family  at  Huy,  near  Liege,  in  11 58.  While  still  only  a  child  she 
was  forced  by  her  father,  very  much  against  her  inclination,  to  marry.  After  five 
years  of  wedded  life,  and  after  bearing  her  husband  three  children,  she  was  left  a 
widow  at  the  age  of  eighteen.  Then,  after  an  interval,  during  which  her  good  looks, 
to  her  great  distress,  attracted  a  number  of  suitors  who  pestered  her  with  their 
attentions,  she  devoted  herself  for  ten  years  to  nursing  in  the  lazar-house  ;  but 
even  this  life  did  not  seem  to  her  sufficiently  austere,  and  she  wished  to  exchange 
the  role  of  Martha  for  that  of  Mary.  She  accordingly  had  herself  walled  up  in  a 
room  close  beside  her  lepers,  and  lived  there  as  an  anchoress  from  1182  until  her 
death,  January  13,  1228.  Her  mystical  experiences,  which  are  set  down  in  some 
detail  in  a  contemporary  Latin  biography,  are  of  great  interest.  By  her  prayers 
she  converted  her  father  and  one  of  her  two  surviving  sons,  who  had  taken  to  evil 
courses  ;  the  other  had  joined  the  Cistercians  and  became  abbot  of  Orval.  She 
had,  as  we  find  in  the  case  of  so  many  saintly  mystics,  an  extraordinary  power  of 
reading  the  thoughts  of  others,  and  apparently  a  knowledge  of  distant  events  ;  she 
also  displayed  the  greatest  charity  in  directing  and  helping  the  many  souls  who 
came  to  consult  her  in  her  anchorage. 

See  the  life  by  Hugh  of  Floreffe,  a  Premonstratensian,  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum 
for  January  13. 

BD    VERONICA    OF    BINASCO,  Virgin        (ad.  1497) 

All  states  of  life  furnish  abundant  means  for  attaining  holiness,  and  it  is  only 
owing  to  our  sloth  and  tepidity  that  we  neglect  to  make  use  of  them.  Bd  Veronica 
could  boast  of  no  worldly  advantages  either  of  birth  or  fortune.  Her  parents 
maintained  their  family  by  hard  work  in  a  village  near  Milan,  and  her  father  never 
sold  a  horse,  or  anything  else  that  he  dealt  in,  without  being  more  careful  to  acquaint 
the  purchaser  with  all  that  was  faulty  in  it  than  to  recommend  its  good  qualities. 
His  consequent  poverty  prevented  his  giving  his  daughter  any  schooling,  so  that 
she  never  even  learned  to  read  ;  but  his  own  and  his  wife's  example  and  simple 
instructions  filled  her  heart  with  love  of  God,  and  the  holy  mysteries  of  religion 
engrossed  her  entirely.  She  was,  notwithstanding,  a  good  worker,  and  so  obedient, 
humble  and  submissive  that  she  seemed  to  have  no  will  of  her  own.  When  she 
was  weeding,  reaping  or  at  any  other  labour  in  the  fields  she  strove  to  work  at  a 
distance  from  her  companions,  to  entertain  herself  the  more  freely  with  her  heavenly 
thoughts.  The  rest  admired  her  love  of  solitude,  and  on  coming  to  her,  often  found 
her  countenance  bathed  in  tears,  which  they  sometimes  perceived  to  flow  in  great 
abundance,  though  they  did  not  know  the  source  to  be  devotion,  so  carefully  did 
Veronica  conceal  what  passed  between  her  and  God. 


ST  HILARY  OF  POITIERS  [January   14 

Veronica  conceived  a  great  desire  to  become  a  nun  in  the  poor  and  austere 
convent  of  St  Martha,  of  the  Order  of  St  Augustine,  in  Milan.  To  qualify  herself 
for  this  she  sat  up  at  night  to  learn  to  read  and  write.  One  day,  being  in  great 
trouble  about  her  little  progress,  the  Mother  of  God  bade  her  banish  that  anxiety, 
for  it  was  enough  if  she  knew  three  letters  :  The  first,  purity  of  the  affections,  by 
setting  her  whole  heart  on  God  ;  the  second,  never  to  murmur  or  grow  impatient 
at  the  sins  or  misbehaviour  of  others,  but  to  bear  them  with  patience,  and  humbly 
to  pray  for  them  ;  the  third,  to  set  apart  some  time  every  day  to  meditate  on  the 
passion  of  Christ.  After  three  years  preparation,  Veronica  was  admitted  to  the 
religious  habit  in  St  Martha's,  where  her  life  was  no  other  than  a  living  copy  of  her 
rule,  which  consisted  in  the  practice  of  evangelical  perfection  reduced  to  certain 
holy  exercises.  Every  moment  of  her  life  she  studied  to  accomplish  it  in  the 
minutest  detail,  and  was  no  less  exact  in  obeying  any  indication  of  the  will  of  a 

She  for  three  years  suffered  from  a  lingering  illness,  but  she  would  never  be 
exempted  from  any  part  of  her  work,  or  make  use  of  the  least  indulgence.  Though 
she  had  leave,  her  answer  always  was,  "  I  must  work  whilst  I  can,  whilst  I  have 
time  ".  It  was  her  delight  to  help  and  serve  everyone  ;  and  her  silence  was  a  sign 
of  her  recollection  and  continual  prayer,  of  which  her  extraordinary  gift  of  tears 
was  the  outward  manifestation.  Her  biographer  declares  that  after  she  had  been 
praying  long  in  any  place  the  floor  looked  as  if  a  jug  of  water  had  been  upset  there. 
When  she  was  in  ecstasy  they  sometimes  held  a  dish  beneath  her  face  and  the  tears 
that  flowed  into  it,  so  it  is  stated,  amounted  to  nearly  a  quart  (  !  !).  She  always 
spoke  of  her  own  sinful  life,  as  she  called  it,  though,  indeed,  it  was  most  innocent, 
with  feelings  of  intense  compunction.  Veronica  was  favoured  by  God  with  many 
extraordinary  visions  and  consolations.  A  detailed  account  is  preserved  of  the 
principal  incidents  of  our  Lord's  life  as  they  were  revealed  to  her  in  her  ecstasies. 
By  her  moving  exhortations  she  softened  and  converted  several  obdurate  sinners. 
She  died  at  the  hour  which  she  had  foretold,  in  the  year  1497,  at  the  age  of  fifty-two, 
and  her  sanctity  was  confirmed  by  miracles.  Pope  Leo  X  in  15 17  permitted  her 
to  be  honoured  in  her  monastery  in  the  same  manner  as  if  she  had  been  beatified 
according  to  the  usual  forms,  and  the  name  of  Bd  Veronica  of  Binasco  is  inserted 
on  this  day  in  the  Roman  Martyrology,  an  unusual  distinction  in  the  case  of  a 
servant  of  God  who  has  not  been  formally  canonized. 

See  the  life  by  Father  Isidore  de  Isolanis,  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  13. 
This  contains  a  relatively  full  account  of  Bd  Veronica's  revelations,  revelations  which,  as 
Father  Bollandus  warns  his  readers,  must  be  read  with  caution,  as  they  include  many 
extravagant  statements.  Leo  X's  bull  may  be  read  in  the  same  place.  Cf.  also  P.  Moiraghi, 
La  B.  Veronica  da  Binasco  (1897). 

14  •  ST    HILARY,  Bishop  of  Poitiers,   Doctor  of  the  Church        (c. 
a.d.  368) 

ST  AUGUSTINE,  who  often  urges  the  authority  of  St  Hilary  against  the 
Pelagians,  styles  him  "  the  illustrious  doctor  of  the  churches  ".  St  Jerome 
says  that  he  was  a  "  most  eloquent  man,  and  the  trumpet  of  the  Latins  against 
the  Arians  "  ;  and  in  another  place,  that  "  in  St  Cyprian  and  St  Hilary,  God  had 
transplanted  two  fair  cedars  out  of  the  world  into  His  Church  ". 


January  14]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

St  Hilary  was  born  at  Poitiers,  and  his  family  was  illustrious  in  Gaul.  He 
himself  testifies  that  he  was  brought  up  in  idolatry,  and  gives  us  a  detailed  account 
of  the  steps  by  which  God  conducted  him  to  a  knowledge  of  the  faith.  He  con- 
sidered, by  the  light  of  reason,  that  man,  a  moral  and  free  agent,  is  placed  in  this 
world  for  the  exercise  of  patience,  temperance,  and  other  virtues,  which  he  saw 
must  receive  a  recompense  after  this  life.  He  ardently  set  about  learning  what 
God  is,  and  quickly  discovered  the  absurdity  of  polytheism,  or  a  plurality  of  gods  : 
he  was  convinced  that  there  can  be  only  one  God,  and  that  He  must  be  eternal, 
unchangeable,  all-powerful,  the  first  cause  and  author  of  all  things.  Full  of  these 
reflections,  he  met  with  the  Christian  scriptures,  and  was  deeply  impressed  by  that 
sublime  description  Moses  gives  of  God  in  those  words,  so  expressive  of  His 
self-existence,  I  am  who  am  :  and  was  no  less  struck  with  the  idea  of  His  supreme 
dominion,  illustrated  by  the  inspired  language  of  the  prophets.  The  reading  of 
the  New  Testament  completed  his  inquiries  ;  and  he  learned  from  the  first  chapter 
of  St  John  that  the  Divine  Word,  God  the  Son,  is  coeternal  and  consubstantial 
with  the  Father.  Being  thus  brought  to  the  knowledge  of  the  faith,  he  received 
baptism  when  somewhat  advanced  in  years. 

Hilary  had  been  married  before  his  conversion,  and  his  wife,  by  whom  he  had 
a  daughter  named  Apra,  was  yet  living  when  he  was  chosen  bishop  of  Poitiers, 
about  the  year  350.  He  did  all  in  his  power  to  escape  this  promotion  ;  but  his 
humility  only  made  the  people  more  earnest  in  their  choice  ;  and,  indeed,  their 
expectations  were  not  disappointed,  for  his  eminent  qualities  shone  forth  so 
brilliantly  as  to  attract  the  attention  not  only  of  Gaul,  but  of  the  whole  Church. 
Soon  after  he  was  raised  to  the  episcopal  dignity  he  composed,  before  his  exile,  a 
commentary  on  the  Gospel  of  St  Matthew,  which  is  still  extant.  That  on  the 
psalms  he  compiled  after  his  banishment.  From  that  time  the  Arian  controversy 
chiefly  employed  his  pen.  He  was  an  orator  and  poet.  His  style  is  lofty  and  noble, 
with  much  rhetorical  ornament,  somewhat  studied  ;  and  the  length  of  his  periods 
renders  him  sometimes  obscure  :  St  Jerome  complains  of  his  long  and  involved 
sentences  and  tragic  manner — the  old  rhetorical  tradition  was  not  yet  dead.  St 
Hilary  solemnly  appeals  to  God  that  he  accounted  it  the  great  work  of  his  life  to 
employ  all  his  faculties  to  announce  Him  to  the  world,  and  to  excite  all  men  to  the 
love  of  Him.  He  earnestly  recommends  beginning  every  action  and  discourse  by 
prayer.  He  breathes  a  sincere  and  ardent  desire  of  martyrdom,  and  discovers  a 
soul  fearless  of  death.  He  had  the  greatest  veneration  for  truth,  sparing  no  pains 
in  its  pursuit  and  dreading  no  dangers  in  its  defence. 

The  Emperor  Constantius  and  a  synod  at  Milan  in  355  required  all  bishops  to 
sign  the  condemnation  of  St  Athanasius.  Such  as  refused  to  comply  were  banished, 
among  whom  were  St  Eusebius  of  Vercelli,  Lucifer  of  Cagliari  and  St  Dionysius  of 
Milan.  St  Hilary  wrote  on  that  occasion  his  "  First  Book  to  Constantius  ",  in 
which  he  entreated  him  to  restore  peace  to  the  Church.  He  separated  himself 
from  the  three  Arian  bishops  in  the  West,  Ursacius,  Valens  and  Saturninus,  and 
the  emperor  sent  an  order  to  Julian,  surnamed  afterwards  the  Apostate,  who  at  that 
time  commanded  in  Gaul,  to  enforce  St  Hilary's  immediate  banishment  into 
Phrygia.  St  Hilary  went  into  exile  about  the  middle  of  the  year  356,  as  cheerfully 
as  another  would  take  a  pleasure  trip,  and  recked  nothing  of  hardships,  dangers  or 
enemies,  having  a  soul  above  the  smiles  and  frowns  of  the  world  and  his  thoughts 
fixed  only  on  God.  He  remained  in  exile  for  some  three  years,  which  time  he 
employed  in  composing  several  learned  works.     The  principal  and  most  esteemed 


ST  HILARY  OF  POITIERS  [January  14 

of  these  is  that  On  the  Trinity.  The  earliest  Latin  hymn -writing  is  associated 
with  the  name  of  Hilary  of  Poitiers. 

The  emperor,  again  interfering  in  the  affairs  of  the  Church,  assembled  a  council 
of  Arians,  at  Seleucia  in  Isauria,  to  neutralize  the  decrees  of  the  Council  of  Nicaea. 
St  Hilary,  who  had  then  passed  three  years  in  Phrygia,  was  invited  thither  by  the 
semi-Arians,  who  hoped  that  he  would  be  useful  to  their  party  in  crushing  those 
who  adhered  strictly  to  the  doctrine  of  Arius.  But  no  human  considerations  could 
daunt  his  courage.  He  boldly  defended  the  decrees  of  Nicaea,  till  at  last,  tired  out 
with  controversy,  he  withdrew  to  Constantinople  and  presented  to  the  emperor  a 
request,  called  his  "  Second  Book  to  Constantius  ",  begging  permission  to  hold  a 
public  disputation  about  religion  with  Saturninus,  the  author  of  his  banishment. 
The  issue  of  this  challenge  was  that  the  Arians,  dreading  such  a  trial,  persuaded  the 
emperor  to  rid  the  East  of  a  man  who  never  ceased  to  disturb  its  peace.  Constan- 
tius accordingly  sent  him  back  into  Gaul  in  360. 

St  Hilary  returned  through  Illyricum  and  Italy  to  confirm  the  weak.  He  was 
received  at  Poitiers  with  great  demonstrations  of  joy,  and  there  his  old  disciple, 
St  Martin,  ere  long  rejoined  him.  A  synod  in  Gaul,  convoked  at  the  instance  of 
Hilary,  condemned  that  of  Rimini  in  359  ;  and  Saturninus,  proving  obstinate,  was 
excommunicated  and  desposed.  Scandals  were  removed,  discipline,  peace  and 
purity  of  faith  were  restored.  The  death  of  Constantius  in  361  put  an  end  to  the 
Arian  persecution.  St  Hilary  was  by  nature  the  gentlest  of  men,  full  of  courtesy 
and  friendliness  to  all  :  yet  seeing  this  behaviour  ineffectual,  he  composed  an 
invective  against  Constantius  in  which  he  employed  the  severest  language,  probably 
for  good  reasons  not  now  known  to  us.  This  piece  was  not  circulated  till  after  the 
death  of  the  emperor.  Hilary  undertook  a  journey  to  Milan  in  364  to  confute 
Auxentius,  the  Arian  usurper  of  that  see,  and  in  a  public  disputation  obliged  him 
to  confess  Christ  to  be  the  true  God,  of  the  same  substance  and  divinity  with  the 
Father.  St  Hilary,  indeed,  saw  through  his  hypocrisy  ;  but  Auxentius  so  far 
imposed  on  the  Emperor  Valentinian  as  to  pass  for  orthodox.  Hilary  died  at 
Poitiers,  probably  in  the  year  368,  but  neither  the  year  nor  the  day  of  the  month 
can  be  determined  with  certainty.  The  Roman  Martyrology  names  his  feast  on 
January  14.  St  Hilary  was  proclaimed  a  doctor  of  the  Church  by  Pope  Pius  IX 
in  1851. 

A  great  deal  has  been  written  about  St  Hilary  in  recent  years,  but  nothing  has  come  to 
light  which  would  gainsay  the  substantial  accuracy  of  Alban  Butler's  account,  given  above 
in  a  shortened  form.  The  most  important  discovery,  now  generally  accepted,  is  that  of 
A.  Wilmart  {Revue  Benedictine,  vol.  xxiv  (1908),  pp.  159  seq.  and  293  seq.).  He  shows  that 
the  text  printed  in  "  The  First  Book  to  Constantius  "  is  miscalled  and  incomplete.  It 
consists  in  reality,  partly  of  a  section  of  the  letter  addressed  to  the  emperors  by  the  Council 
of  Sardica,  partly  of  extracts  from  Hilary's  work  written  in  356,  just  before  his  exile,  under 
the  title  of  "  A  First  Book  against  Valens  and  Ursacius  "  (the  Arian  bishops).  It  also  seems 
clear  that  a  work  of  Hilary's,  Liber  or  Tractatus  Mysteriorum,  supposed  to  be  lost,  has  not 
completely  perished.  A  large  part  of  it  was  found,  along  with  some  poems  or  hymns  of  the 
saint,  in  a  manuscript  at  Arezzo  in  1887.  This  Tractatus  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  liturgy, 
as  was  previously  conjectured,  but  is  identical  with  a  supposed  Liber  Officiorum  otherwise 
attributed  to  him  (see  Wilmart  in  Revue  Benedictine,  vol.  xxvii  (1910),  pp.  12  seq.).  A  full 
statement  and  bibliography  of  these  new  developments  will  be  found  in  Fr  Le  Bachelet's 
article  on  St  Hilary  in  DTC,  vol.  vi,  cc.  2388  seq.  Other  valuable  contributions  to  the 
subject  have  been  made  by  A.  Feder  in  the  Sitzungsberichte  of  the  Vienna  Academy,  Phil.- 
Histor.  Kl.,  clxii,  no.  4,  and  in  the  texts  he  edited  for  the  Corpus  Scrip.  Eccles.  Lat.  So 
far  as  regards  the  life  of  St  Hilary  we  have  a  biography  and  collection  of  miracles  by  Venantius 
Fortunatus  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  13  (cf.  BHL.,  nn.  580-582)  ;   see  also 


January  14]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

E.  Watson,  The  Life  and  Writings  of  St  Hilary  of  Poitiers  (1899).  As  regards  the  hymns 
the  reader  may  be  conveniently  referred  to  the  supplement  to  Julian's  Dictiotiary  of  Hymno- 
logy,  to  Walpole,  Early  Latin  Hymns  (1922),  and  especially  to  Feder  in  the  fourth  volume 
which  he  contributed  to  the  Vienna  Corpus.  In  England  a  judicial  sitting  and  a  university 
term  are  named  from  Hilary's  feast-day,  which  also  figures  in  the  calendar  of  the  Book  of 
Common  Prayer. 

ST    FELIX    OF    NOLA         {c.  ad.  260) 

It  must  be  remembered  that  St  Paulinus  of  Nola,  who  is  our  ultimate  authority 
for  the  life  of  St  Felix,  lived  more  than  a  century  after  his  time,  and  that  it  is 
probable  that  legendary  accretions  had  already  attached  themselves  to  the  tradition 
handed  down.     The  story  told  by  St  Paulinus  runs  as  follows  : 

St  Felix  was  a  native  of  Nola,  a  Roman  colony  in  Campania,  fourteen  miles 
from  Naples,  where  his  father  Hermias,  who  was  by  birth  a  Syrian  and  had  served 
in  the  army,  had  purchased  an  estate  and  settled  down.  He  had  two  sons,  Felix 
and  Hermias,  to  whom  at  his  death  he  left  his  patrimony.  The  younger  sought 
preferment  in  the  world  by  following  the  profession  of  arms.  Felix,  to  become 
in  effect  what  his  name  in  Latin  imported,  that  is  "  happy  ",  resolved  to  follow 
no  other  standard  than  that  of  the  King  of  kings,  Jesus  Christ.  For  this  purpose 
he  distributed  most  of  his  possessions  among  the  poor,  and  was  ordained  priest 
by  St  Maximus,  Bishop  of  Nola,  who,  charmed  with  his  virtue  and  prudence,  made 
him  his  right  hand  in  those  times  of  trouble,  and  looked  upon  him  as  his  destined 

In  the  year  250  the  Emperor  Decius  began  a  cruel  persecution  against  the 
Church.  Maximus,  seeing  himself  marked  out  as  a  victim,  retired  into  the  desert, 
not  through  the  fear  of  death  but  rather  to  preserve  himself  for  the  service  of  his 
flock.  The  persecutors,  not  finding  him,  seized  on  Felix,  who  in  his  absence  was 
very  zealous  in  the  discharge  of  pastoral  duties.  The  governor  caused  him  to  be 
scourged,  then  loaded  with  chains  and  cast  into  a  dungeon,  in  which,  as  Prudentius 
informs  us,  the  floor  was  spread  all  over  with  potsherds  and  pieces  of  broken  glass, 
so  that  there  was  no  place  free  from  them  on  which  the  saint  could  either  stand  or 
lie.  One  night  an  angel  appearing  filled  the  prison  with  a  bright  light,  and  bade 
St  Felix  go  to  the  aid  of  his  bishop,  who  was  in  great  distress.  The  confessor, 
seeing  his  chains  fall  off  and  the  doors  open,  followed  his  guide,  and  was  conducted 
to  the  place  where  Maximus  lay  in  hunger  and  cold,  speechless  and  unconscious  : 
for,  through  anxiety  for  his  flock  and  the  hardships  of  his  solitary  retreat,  he  had 
suffered  more  than  a  martyrdom.  Felix,  not  being  able  to  bring  him  to  himself, 
had  recourse  to  prayer  ;  and  discovering  thereupon  a  bunch  of  grapes  within  reach, 
he  squeezed  some  of  the  juice  into  his  mouth,  which  had  the  desired  effect.  The 
good  bishop,  as  soon  as  he  beheld  his  friend  Felix,  begged  to  be  conveyed  back  to 
his  church.  The  saint,  taking  him  on  his  shoulders,  carried  him  to  his  home  in 
the  city  before  day  appeared,  where  a  devoted  old  woman  took  care  of  him. 

Felix  kept  himself  concealed,  praying  for  the  Church  without  ceasing,  till  the 
death  of  Decius  in  the  year  251.  He  no  sooner  appeared  again  in  public  than  his 
zeal  so  exasperated  the  pagans  that  they  came  to  apprehend  him  ;  but  though  they 
met  him,  they  did  not  recognize  him.  They  even  asked  him  where  Felix  was,  a 
question  to  which  he  returned  an  evasive  answer.  The  persecutors,  going  a  little 
further,  perceived  their  mistake,  and  returned  ;  but  Felix  in  the  meantime  had 
stepped  a  little  out  of  the  way,  and  crept  through  a  hole  in  a  ruinous  wall,  which 


ST  FELIX  OF  NOLA  [January  14 

was  instantly  closed  up  by  spiders'  webs.  His  enemies,  never  imagining  anything 
could  have  lately  passed  where  they  saw  so  dense  a  web,  after  a  fruitless  search 
elsewhere  returned  without  their  prey.  Felix,  finding  among  the  ruins,  between 
two  houses,  an  old  well  half  dry,  hid  himself  there  for  six  months,  and  obtained 
during  that  time  wherewithal  to  subsist  by  means  of  a  devout  Christian  woman. 
Peace  being  restored  to  the  Church,  he  quitted  his  retreat,  and  was  received  in  the 
city  with  joy. 

St  Maximus  died  soon  after,  and  all  were  unanimous  in  electing  Felix  bishop  ; 
but  he  persuaded  the  people  to  make  choice  of  Quintus,  his  senior  in  the  priesthood. 
The  remainder  of  the  saint's  estate  having  been  confiscated  in  the  persecution,  he 
was  advised  to  press  his  legal  claim,  as  others  had  done,  who  thereby  recovered 
what  had  been  taken  from  them.  His  answer  was  that  in  poverty  he  should  be  the 
more  secure  of  possessing  Christ.  He  could  not  even  be  prevailed  upon  to  accept 
what  the  rich  offered  him.  He  rented  a  little  spot  of  land,  not  exceeding  three 
acres,  which  he  tilled  with  his  own  hands  to  supply  his  own  needs  and  to  have 
something  left  for  alms.  Whatever  was  bestowed  on  him  he  gave  immediately  to 
the  poor.  If  he  had  two  coats  he  was  sure  to  give  them  the  better,  and  often 
exchanged  his  only  one  for  the  rags  of  some  beggar.  He  died  in  a  good  old  age, 
on  January  14,  on  which  day  he  is  commemorated  in  the  martyrologies. 

More  than  a  century  had  elapsed  after  the  death  of  Felix  when  Paulinus,  a 
distinguished  Roman  senator,  settled  in  Nola  and  was  elected  bishop  there.  He 
testifies  that  crowds  of  pilgrims  came  from  Rome  and  more  distant  places  to  visit 
the  shrine  of  the  saint  on  his  festival.  He  adds  that  all  brought  some  present  or 
other  to  his  church,  such  as  candles  to  burn  at  his  tomb  and  the  like  ;  but  that  for 
his  own  part  he  offered  him  the  homage  of  his  tongue  and  himself,  though  an 
unworthy  gift.  He  expresses  his  devotion  in  the  warmest  terms,  and  believes  that 
all  the  graces  he  received  from  Heaven  were  conferred  on  him  through  the  inter- 
cession of  St  Felix.  He  describes  at  large  the  pictures  of  the  whole  history  of  the 
Old  Testament  in  the  church  of  St  Felix,  which  were  as  so  many  books  that 
instructed  the  ignorant.  The  holy  bishop's  enthusiasm  is  reflected  in  his  verses. 
He  relates  a  number  of  miracles  which  were  wrought  at  the  tomb,  as  of  persons 
cured  of  diseases  and  delivered  from  dangers  by  the  saint's  intercession,  in  several 
of  which  cases  he  was  an  eye-witness.  He  testifies  that  he  himself  by  having 
recourse  to  Felix  had  been  speedily  succoured.  St  Augustine  also  has  given  an 
account  of  miracles  performed  at  the  shrine.  It  was  not  formerly  allowed  to  bury 
any  corpse  within  the  walls  of  cities,  and  as  the  church  of  St  Felix  stood  outside 
the  walls  of  Nola  many  Christians  sought  to  be  buried  in  it,  that  their  faith  and 
devotion  might  recommend  them  after  death  to  the  patronage  of  this  holy  confessor. 
On  this  matter  St  Paulinus  consulted  St  Augustine,  who  answered  him  by  his  book 
On  the  Care  for  the  Dead,  in  which  he  shows  that  the  faith  and  devotion  of  such 
persons  would  serve  them  well  after  death,  as  the  suffrages  and  good  works  of  the 
living  in  behalf  of  the  faithful  departed  are  profitable  to  the  latter. 

As  already  stated,  the  poems  of  St  Paulinus  constitute  our  main  authority  for  the  life  of 
St  Felix.  Of  these  poems  Bede  wrote  a  summary  in  prose,  which  is  printed,  with  other 
documents,  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  14.  In  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xvi 
(1897),  pp.  22  seq.}  may  be  found  a  curious  illustration  of  the  confusion  introduced  by  the 
martyrologist  Ado,  and  other  hagiographers,  through  their  invention  of  a  "  St  Felix  in 
Pincis  ".  This  confusion  was  probably  due  to  the  existence  of  a  church  on  the  Pincio  at 
Rome  dedicated  to  St  Felix  of  Nola.  Pope  St  Damasus  pays  a  tribute  in  verse  to  Felix  for 
a  cure  he  himself  had  received.      Cf.  Quentin,  Les  Martyrologes  historiques,  pp.  518-522 


January  14]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

ST    MACRINA    THE    ELDER,  Widow        (c.  ad.  340) 

In  more  than  one  of  his  letters  St  Basil  the  Great  refers  to  his  father's  mother, 
Macrina,  by  whom  he  was  apparently  brought  up,  and  to  whose  care  in  giving  him 
sound  religious  instruction  he  attributes  the  fact  that  he  never  imbibed  any  hetero- 
dox opinions  which  he  had  afterwards  to  modify.  During  the  persecution  of 
Galerius  and  Maximinus,  Macrina  and  her  husband  had  much  to  suffer.  They 
were  forced  to  quit  their  home  and  to  hide  themselves  from  the  persecutors  among 
the  hill  forests  of  Pontus  for  seven  years.  They  often  suffered  hunger,  and  St 
Gregory  Nazianzen  declares  that  at  times  they  had  to  depend  for  their  food  upon 
the  wild  creatures  which,  as  he  believed,  by  some  miraculous  interposition  of 
Providence  suffered  themselves  to  be  caught  and  killed.  Even  after  this  danger 
had  passed,  another  persecution  broke  out  in  which  their  goods  were  confiscated, 
and  it  would  seem  that  they  were  honoured  by  a  formal  recognition  of  their 
title  to  be  reckoned  among  the  confessors  of  the  faith.  Macrina  survived  her 
husband,  but  the  exact  date  of  her  death  is  not  recorded.  In  the  Roman 
Marty ro logy  St  Macrina  is  described  as  a  disciple  of  St  Gregory  Thaumaturgus, 
but  this  can  hardly  mean  more  than  that  she  was  an  earnest  student  of  his 

See  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  14  and  DCB.,  vol.  iii,  p.  779. 

SS.    BARBASYMAS  and  his  Companions,  Martyrs         (a.d.  346) 

St  Barbasymas  (Barbashemin)  succeeded  his  brother  St  Sadoth  in  the  metro- 
political  see  of  Seleucia  and  Ctesiphon  in  342.  Being  accused  as  an  enemy  to  the 
Persian  religion,  he  was  apprehended  with  sixteen  of  his  clergy  by  order  of  King 
Sapor  II.  The  king,  seeing  that  his  threats  made  no  impression,  confined  him  in 
a  loathsome  dungeon,  in  which  he  was  often  tortured  with  scourgings  and  other 
atrocities,  besides  the  continual  discomfort  of  stench,  filth,  hunger  and  thirst. 
After  eleven  months  the  prisoners  were  again  brought  before  the  king.  Their 
bodies  were  disfigured  and  their  faces  hardly  recognizable.  Sapor  held  out  to  the 
bishop  a  golden  cup  in  which  were  a  thousand  gold  coins,  and  besides  this  he 
promised  him  a  governorship  if  he  would  suffer  himself  to  be  initiated  in  the  rites 
of  the  sun.  The  saint  replied  that  he  could  not  answer  the  reproaches  of  Christ 
at  the  last  day  if  he  should  prefer  gold,  or  a  whole  empire,  to  His  holy  law  ;  and 
that  he  was  ready  to  die.  He  received  his  crown  by  the  sword,  with  his  companions, 
on  January  14,  346  at  Ledan  in  Huzistan. 

St  Maruthas,  Bishop  of  Maiferkat,  supposed  to  be  the  author  of  his  acts,  adds 
that  Sapor,  resolving  to  extinguish  the  Christian  name  in  his  empire,  published 
a  new  edict,  whereby  he  commanded  everyone  to  be  tortured  and  put  to  death 
who  should  refuse  to  worship  the  sun,  fire  and  water,  and  to  feed  on  the  blood 
of  living  creatures.  The  see  of  Seleucia  remained  vacant  twenty  years,  and 
innumerable  martyrs  watered  Persia  with  their  blood.  St  Maruthas  was  not 
able  to  recover  their  names,  but  has  left  us  a  lengthy  panegyric  of  their  heroic 
deeds,  very  devotional  in  tone,  in  which  he  prays  to  be  speedily  united  with  them 
in  glory. 

See  Assemani,  Acta  martyrum  orientalium,  vol.  i,  pp.  111-116  ;  but  the  Syriac  text  has 
been  more  correctly  edited  by  Bedjan,  Acta  martyrum  et  sanctorum,  vol.  ii,  pp.  296-303  ; 
Sozomen,  Hist.  Eccles.,  bk  ii,  c.  13  ;    BHO.,  n.  33. 


ST  KENTIGERN,  OR  MUNGO  [January  14 

THE    MARTYRS    OF   MOUNT    SINAI        (Fourth  Century) 

Thirty-eight  solitaries  on  Mount  Sinai  were  put  to  death  by  a  troop  of  Arabians, 
and  many  other  hermits  in  the  desert  of  Raithu,  two  days'  journey  from  Sinai,  near 
the  Red  Sea,  were  similarly  massacred  by  the  Blemmyes.  Also  many  anchorets 
on  Mount  Sinai  were  martyred  by  a  band  of  desert  marauders  at  the  close  of  the 
fourth  century.  A  boy  of  fourteen  years  of  age  led  among  them  an  ascetic  life  of 
great  perfection.  The  raiders  threatened  to  kill  him  if  he  did  not  discover  where 
the  older  monks  had  concealed  themselves.  He  answered  that  death  did  not  terrify 
him,  and  that  he  could  not  ransom  his  life  by  a  sin  in  betraying  his  fathers.  The 
barbarians,  enraged  at  this  answer,  fell  on  him  with  all  their  weapons  at  once,  and 
the  youth  died  by  as  many  martyrdoms  as  he  had  executioners.  St  Nilus  {cf. 
November  12)  left  an  account  of  this  massacre  :  at  that  time  he  led  an  eremitical 
life  in  that  wilderness. 

These  holy  solitaries  are  commemorated  together  on  this  day  in  the  Eastern  church, 
and  are  mentioned  in  the  Roman  Martyrology.  See  Martynov,  Annus  ecclesiasticus  graeco- 
slavicus,  pp.  41  seq.  ;  Nilles,  Kalendarium  Manuale  (1 896-1 897),  vol.  i.  The  narratives  of 
St  Nilus  are  in  Migne,  PC,  vol.  lxxix,  pp.  590-694.  On  the  authorship  of  these  narratives 
see  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xxxviii  (1920),  pp.  420  seq.  ;  and  cf.  Delehaye,  Synax.  Const., 
PP.  389-391. 

ST   DATIUS,  Bishop  of  Milan        (a.d.  552) 

The  life  of  St  Datius  was  spent  in  stormy  times.  During  the  greater  part  of  his 
episcopate — which  lasted  at  least  from  530  to  552 — he  was  engaged  in  strife, 
sometimes  in  defence  of  temporal,  more  often  in  championing  spiritual,  interests. 
To  save  his  city  of  Milan  from  the  Goths  he  had  allied  himself  with  Belisarius. 
Unfortunately  he  was  disappointed  in  his  hopes.  Before  help  could  come  from 
Belisarius,  Milan  was  invested  and  eventually  sacked.  It  is  possible  that  Datius 
himself  was  taken  prisoner,  and  afterwards  liberated  through  the  influence  of  his 
friend  Cassiodorus.  Driven  from  Milan  the  bishop  betook  himself  to  Constan- 
tinople, where,  in  545,  he  boldly  supported  Pope  Vigilius  against  Justinian  in  the 
controversy  concerning  the  "  Three  Chapters  ".  He  seems  to  have  died  in  552, 
while  still  at  Constantinople,  whence  his  remains  were  at  a  later  date  translated  to 
his  episcopal  city  of  Milan.  St  Gregory  the  Great  in  his  Dialogues  recounts  a 
curious  story  of  a  haunted  house  from  which  the  devil  used  to  frighten  all  intending 
occupants,  by  producing  the  most  alarming  and  discordant  howlings  of  beasts. 
St  Datius,  however,  showed  no  fear,  but  put  the  aggressor  to  shame  and  restored 
perfect  quiet. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  14  ;  DCB.,  vol.  i,  p.  789  ;  and  L.  Duchesne, 
Ultglise  au  Vie  siecle>  pp.  197-199. 

ST    KENTIGERN,  or  MUNGO,  Bishop  in  Strathclyde        (a.d. 

If  we  may  trust  our  sources,  St  Kentigern's  mother,  Thaney  (Thenew,  Tenoi  ; 
cf.  "  St  Enoch's  "  station  at  Glasgow)  was  of  royal  birth  and,  being  discovered  to 
be  with  child,  of  which  the  father  was  unknown,  was  sentenced  to  be  hurled  from 
the  top  of  a  precipitous  hill  (Traprain  Law  in  Haddingtonshire).  She  escaped, 
however,  without  injury,  and  was  then  put  into  a  coracle  and  cast  adrift  at  the 


January   14]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

mouth  of  the  Firth  of  Forth.  The  tide  eventually  carried  her  to  Culross,  on  the 
opposite  shore  of  the  estuary,  where  she  brought  forth  her  child,  and  where  St  Serf 
took  both  mother  and  babe  under  his  protection.  The  boy  became  very  dear  to 
him,  and  was  given  the  pet  name  Mungo  (=  darling).  When  he  had  grown  up, 
Kentigern  felt  himself  drawn  to  a  life  of  solitude  and  self-denial,  and  he  accordingly 
retired  to  a  place  called  "  Glasghu  ",  now  Glasgow.  There  after  a  while  a  com- 
munity gathered  round  him,  and  the  fame  of  his  virtues  spread,  so  that  in  the  end 
the  clergy  and  people  of  that  district  would  have  no  other  for  their  bishop  ;  and 
he  was  consecrated  by  a  bishop  from  Ireland.  St  Kentigern  travelled  everywhere 
on  foot,  preaching  the  gospel  to  his  people  ;  he  practised  the  severest  austerities, 
and  recited  the  whole  psalter  every  day,  often  standing  immersed  the  while  in 
the  water  of  some  ice-cold  stream.  During  Lent  he  always  withdrew  from  the 
company  of  his  fellow-men,  and  in  some  desert  spot  gave  himself  up  entirely  to 
penance  and  prayer.  This  apostolic  way  of  life  was  blessed,  we  are  told,  by 
many  miracles. 

The  political  conditions  of  this  great  tract  of  country,  which  was  later  known  as 
Strathclyde  and  stretched  southwards  as  far  as  the  Ribble,  were  terribly  unstable. 
The  chieftains  were  constantly  engaged  in  feuds  among  themselves,  and  although 
they  recognized  some  sort  of  "  king  ",  or  supreme  authority,  plots  and  cabals  were 
constantly  being  formed  against  him.  The  sequence  of  events,  with  such  slender 
and  contradictory  data  as  we  possess,  is  impossible  to  determine,  but  it  is  said  that 
Kentigern  was  eventually  driven  into  exile  or  flight.  He  made  his  way  into  Wales, 
where  he  is  said  to  have  stayed  for  a  time  with  St  David  at  Menevia,  till  Cadwallon, 
a  chieftain  in  Denbighshire,  bestowed  on  him  the  land  near  the  meeting  of  the 
rivers  Elwy  and  Clwyd,  on  which  he  built  a  monastery,  called  from  the  former  of 
the  two  rivers  Llanelwy,  where  a  number  of  disciples  and  scholars  put  themselves 
under  his  direction,  among  them  St  Asaph.  It  is  to  be  noted,  however,  that  some 
Welsh  historians  deny  that  Kentigern  founded  this  abbey,  now  represented  by  the 
cathedral  church  of  Saint  Asaph,  or  even  that  he  was  ever  there  ;  and,  indeed, 
while  Asaph's  name  is  common  in  the  toponymy  of  the  district,  that  of  Kentigern 
is  unknown. 

Later  he  returned  to  the  north,  and  when  he  again  reached  Strathclyde 
Kentigern  for  a  while  settled  at  Hoddam  in  Dumfriesshire,  but  before  long  took 
up  his  abode  at  Glasgow  as  before.  His  austerity  of  life  and  zeal  for  the  spread 
of  the  Gospel  continued  unabated,  and  his  biographer  tells  us  that  on  one  occasion 
a  meeting  took  place  between  him  and  that  other  great  apostle  of  Scotland,  St 
Columba,  with  whom  he  exchanged  croziers.  Many  extravagant  miracles  are 
recounted  of  Kentigern,  one  of  which  is  especially  famous,  as  the  memory  of  it  is 
perpetuated  by  the  ring  and  the  fish  seen  in  the  arms  of  the  city  of  Glasgow. 
King  Rydderch  found  a  ring,  which  he  had  given  to  his  queen  as  a  love-token, 
upon  the  finger  of  a  sleeping  knight  whom  she  favoured.  He  removed  it  without 
awakening  the  sleeper,  threw  it  into  the  sea,  and  then  asked  his  wife  to  produce  the 
ring  he  had  given  her.  In  her  distress  she  applied  to  St  Kentigern,  and  he  sent 
a  monk  out  to  fish,  who  caught  a  salmon  which  had  swallowed  the  ring.  A  curious 
description  of  the  death  of  the  saint  in  the  act  of  taking  a  hot  bath  on  the  octave  of 
the  Epiphany,  "  on  which  day  he  had  been  accustomed  to  baptize  a  multitude  of 
people  ",  seems  certainly  to  point  to  some  more  primitive  source  which  the 
biographer  had  before  him.  The  date  of  his  death  seems  to  have  been  603,  when 
Kentigern  will  have  been  eighty-five — not,  as  his  biographer  states,  185 — years  old. 


BD  ODO  OF  NO  VARA  [January   14 

His  feast  is  kept  throughout  Scotland  as  the  first  bishop  of  Glasgow,  and  also  in 
the  dioceses  of  Liverpool,  Salford,  Lancaster  and  Menevia. 

See  A.  P.  Forbes,  Lives  of  St  Ninian  and  St  Kentigern  (1874),  who  prints  the  text  of 
Joscelyn  of  Furness  and  of  the  incomplete  anonymous  life  ;  also  his  Kalendars  of  Scottish 
Saints  (1872),  pp.  362  seq.  ;  Skene,  Celtic  Scotland,  vol.  ii,  pp.  179  seq.  Cf.  also  the  Acta 
Sanctorum,  January  13  ;  and  A.  W.  Wade-Evans,  Life  of  Saint  David  (1923),  pp.  109  seq. 
Forbes's  KSS.  is  the  most  useful  reference  for  the  little  that  is  known  of  the  lesser  Scottish 
saints  in  whose  honour  Catholic  churches  are  still  dedicated,  e.g.  Cumin  (at  Morar),  Quivox 
(Prestwick),  Triduana  (Edinburgh),  Machan  (Lennoxtown).  But  see  also  M.  Barrett,  A 
Calendar  of  Scottish  Saints  (1904).  D.  D.  C.  Pochin  Mould's  Scotland  of  the  Saints  (1952) 
is  useful  for  Scottish  saints  in  general. 

BD    ODO    OF    NOVARA        (ad.  1200) 

Bd  Odo,  a  Carthusian  monk  of  the  twelfth  century,  stands  out  from  among  some 
of  his  saintly  contemporaries  by  the  fact  that  we  have  good  first-hand  evidence 
concerning  his  manner  of  life.  Pope  Gregory  IX  ordered  an  inquiry  to  be  made 
with  a  view  to  his  canonization,  and  the  depositions  of  the  witnesses  are  still 
preserved.  One  or  two  extracts  will  serve  to  sketch  his  portrait  better  than  a 
narrative.  "  Master  Richard,  Bishop  of  Trivento,  having  been  adjured  in  the 
name  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  the  holy  Gospels  lying  open  before  him,  affirmed  that  he 
had  seen  the  blessed  Odo  and  knew  him  to  be  a  God-fearing  man,  modest  and 
chaste,  given  up  night  and  day  to  watching  and  prayer,  clad  only  in  rough  garments 
of  wool,  living  in  a  tiny  cell,  which  he  hardly  ever  quitted  except  to  pray  in  the 
church,  obeying  always  the  sound  of  the  bell  when  it  called  him  to  office.  Without 
ceasing,  he  poured  forth  his  soul  in  sighs  and  tears  ;  there  was  no  one  he  came 
across  to  whom  he  did  not  give  new  courage  in  the  service  of  God  ;  he  constantly 
read  the  divine  Scriptures,  and  in  spite  of  his  advanced  age,  as  long  as  he  stayed  in 
his  cell,  he  laboured  with  his  hands  as  best  he  could  that  he  might  not  fall  a  prey 
to  idleness."  The  bishop  then  goes  on  to  give  a  brief  sketch  of  Odo's  life,  noting 
that  after  he  became  a  Carthusian  he  had  been  appointed  prior  in  the  recently 
founded  monastery  of  Geyrach  in  Slavonia,  but  had  there  been  so  cruelly  persecuted 
by  the  bishop  of  the  diocese,  Dietrich,  that,  being  forced  to  leave  his  community, 
he  had  travelled  to  Rome  to  obtain  the  pope's  permission  to  resign  his  office. 
He  had  then  been  given  hospitality  by  the  aged  abbess  of  a  nunnery  at 
Tagliacozzo,  who,  struck  by  his  holiness,  got  leave  to  retain  him  as  chaplain  to  the 
community.  Numerous  other  witnesses,  who  had  been  the  spectators  of  Odo's 
edifying  life,  spoke  of  his  austerities,  his  charity  and  his  humble  self-effacement. 

One  of  these,  the  Archpriest  Oderisius,  deposes  that  he  was  present  when  Odo 
breathed  his  last,  and  that  "as  he  lay  upon  the  ground  in  his  hair-shirt  in  the 
aforesaid  little  cell,  he  began  to  say,  when  at  the  point  of  death,  *  Wait  for  me,  Lord, 
wait  for  me,  I  am  coming  to  thee  '  ;  and  when  they  asked  him  to  whom  he  was 
speaking,  he  answered,  *  It  is  my  King,  whom  now  I  see,  I  am  standing  in  His 
presence.'  And  when  the  blessed  Odo  spoke  these  words,  just  as  if  someone  were 
offering  him  his  hand,  he  stood  straight  up  from  the  ground,  and  so,  with  his  hands 
stretched  out  heavenwards,  he  passed  away  to  our  Lord."  This  happened  on 
January  14  in  the  year  1200,  when  Odo  was  believed  to  be  nearly  a  hundred  years 
old.  He  worked  many  miracles  both  during  life  and  after  death,  but  it  horrified 
him  to  think  that  people  should  attribute  to  him  any  supernatural  power. 
"  Brother  ",  he  said  to  one  who  asked  his  aid,  "  why  dost  thou  make  game  of  me 


January  14]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

a  wretched  sinner,  a  bag  of  putrid  flesh  ?  Leave  me  in  peace  ;  it  is  for  Christ,  the 
Son  of  the  living  God,  to  heal  thee  "  ;  and  as  he  said  this  he  burst  into  tears.  But 
the  man  went  away  permanently  cured  of  an  infirmity  which,  as  the  witness  who 
recounts  this  attests  from  personal  knowledge,  had  tortured  him  for  many  years. 
The  cultus  of  Bd  Odo  was  confirmed  in  1859. 

See  Le  Couteulx,  Annates  Ordinis  Cartvsiensis  (1888),  vol.  iii,  pp.  263-271.  In  vol.  iv, 
pp.  59-72,  the  editor  prints  a  selection  of  the  depositions  of  the  witnesses  to  the  miracles 
which  were  wrought  at  the  tomb  of  Bd  Odo.  As  the  evidence  was  all  given  within  a  year 
of  the  occurrences  related,  it  forms  one  of  the  best  collections  of  medieval  miracles  preserved 
to  us.  The  documents  have  been  edited  entire  in  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  i  (1882), 
pp.  323-354.      Cf.  also  Le  Vasseur,  Ephemerides,  vol.  i,  pp.  60-68. 

ST    SAVA,  Archbishop  of  the  Serbs        (a.d.  1237) 

The  public  ecclesiastical  life  and  politics  of  St  Sava  {i.e.  Sabas)  were  to  a  great 
extent  conditioned  by  political  considerations,  a  circumstance  common  to  many 
churchmen  in  history,  and  nowhere  more  acute  than  in  the  Balkans,  at  the  junction 
of  great  civil  and  ecclesiastical  powers  and  the  meeting-place  of  diverse  cultures. 

Sava,  born  in  1174,  was  the  youngest  of  the  three  sons  of  Stephen  I,  founder 
of  the  dynasty  of  the  Nemanydes  and  of  the  independent  Serbian  state.  At  the 
age  of  seventeen  he  became  a  monk  on  the  Greek  peninsula  of  Mount  Athos,  where 
he  was  joined  by  his  father  when  that  prince  abdicated  in  1196.  Together  they 
established  a  monastery  for  Serbian  monks,  with  the  name  of  Khilandari,  which 
is  still  in  existence  as  one  of  the  seventeen  "  ruling  monasteries  "  of  the  Holy 
Mountain.  As  abbot,  Sava  was  noted  for  his  light  and  effective  touch  in  training 
young  monks  ;  it  was  remarked,  too,  that  his  influence  was  always  on  the  side  of 
gentleness  and  leniency.  He  began  the  work  of  translating  books  into  the  Serbian 
language,  and  there  are  still  treasured  at  Khilandari  a  psalter  and  ritual  written  out 
by  himself,  and  signed,  "  I,  the  unworthy  lazy  monk  Sava  ". 

In  the  meanwhile  his  brothers,  Stephen  II  and  Vulkan,  had  fallen  out  over 
their  inheritance,  and  in  1207  St  Sava  returned  home.  Religiously  as  well  as 
civilly  he  found  his  country  in  a  bad  way.  The  Serbs  had  been  Christians  for 
some  time,  but  much  of  it  was  a  nominal  Christianity,  quite  uninstructed  and  mixed 
up  with  heathenism.  The  clergy  were  few  and  mostly  uneducated,  for  the  church 
had  been  ruled  from  Constantinople  or  Okhrida  in  Bulgaria,  whose  hierarchs  had 
shown  little  care  or  sympathy  for  thos^  whom  they  regarded  as  barbarians.  So 
St  Sava,  following  the  example  of  the  Benedictines  in  the  West  and  the  earlier 
Russian  monks,  utilized  the  monks  who  had  accompanied  him  from  Khilandari 
for  pastoral  and  missionary  work.  He  established  himself  at  the  monastery  of 
Studenitsa,  from  whence  he  founded  a  number  of  small  monasteries  in  places 
convenient  for  travelling  around  and  getting  to  the  people.  But  this  did  not  mean 
that  the  former  Athonite  had  changed  his  mind  about  the  necessity  of  solitude  and 
contemplation  :  there  may  still  be  seen  in  the  Studenitsa  valley,  high  and  away 
above  the  monastery,  the  rocky  hermitage  to  which  St  Sava  himself  used  to  retire. 

What  happened,  and  the  order  of  what  happened,  subsequently  is  more  difficult 
to  assess,  but  the  following  represents  a  recent  reading  of  the  rather  contradictory 
evidence.  It  remained  desirable  (and  politically  advantageous  also)  that  the  Serbs 
should  have  their  own  bishops.  So  Stephen  II  sent  his  brother  to  Nicaea,  where 
the  Eastern  emperor  and  patriarch  had  taken  refuge  from  the  Frankish  intruders 
at  Constantinople.      Sava  won  over  the  emperor,  Theodore  II  Laskaris  (who  was 


ST  SAVA  [January  14 

related  to  the  Nemanya  family),  and  he  designated  Sava  as  the  first  metropolitan  of 
the  new  hierarchy.  The  patriarch,  Manuel  I,  was  unwilling,  but  in  the  circum- 
stances dared  not  oppose  obstinately,  and  himself  ordained  Sava  bishop,  in  1219. 
Sava  returned  by  way  of  Mount  Athos,  bringing  with  him  more  monks  and  many 
books  that  had  been  translated  at  Khilandari,  and  straightway  set  about  the  organ- 
ization of  his  church.  It  seems  that  already  Stephen  II,  "  the  First-Crowned  ", 
had  asked  to  be  recognized  as  king  by  Pope  Honorius  III  and  had  been  duly 
crowned  by  a  papal  legate  in  12 17.  But  in  1222  he  was  again  crowned,  by  his 
brother  as  archbishop,  and  one  source  asserts  that  it  was  on  this  occasion  that 
Honorius  sent  a  crown,  in  response  to  a  request  from  Sava,  who  had  informed  the 
Holy  See  of  his  own  episcopal  ordination. 

Thus  the  retiring  young  prince,  who  had  left  home  as  a  youth  to  be  a  monk, 
succeeded  before  he  was  fifty  years  of  age  in  consolidating  the  state  founded  by  his 
father  by  reforming  the  religious  life  of  the  people,  giving  them  bishops  of  their 
own  race,  and  sealing  the  sovereign  dignity  of  his  brother.  St  Sava  is  regarded  as 
the  patron-saint  of  Serbia  and,  with  him  as  with  others,  the  people's  gratitude 
attributes  benefits  for  which  he  was  very  doubtfully  responsible  :  in  this  case,  how 
to  turn  a  plow  across  the  head-land  instead  of  dragging  it  back  to  the  starting  point, 
and  how  to  make  windows  instead  of  admitting  air  and  light  by  the  door  (cf.  the 
men  of  the  Sussex  coast  who  said  that  St  Wilfrid  taught  them  how  to  catch  fish). 

The  later  years  of  St  Sava's  life  were  marked  externally  by  two  voyages  to 
Palestine  and  the  Near  East ;  the  first  seems  to  have  been  a  pilgrimage  of  devotion, 
the  second  an  ecclesiastical  mission.  On  his  way  back  from  this  last  he  was  taken 
ill  at  Tirnovo  in  Bulgaria  and  there  he  died,  with  a  smile  on  his  face,  on  January  14, 
1237.  ^n  tne  following  year  his  body  was  translated  to  the  monastery  of  Milochevo 
in  Serbia,  where  it  rested  until  1594  when,  during  civil  disturbances,  the  relics  were 
deliberately  burned  by  a  Turkish  pasha  who  was  an  Italian  renegade. 

The  Orthodox  of  Serbia  look  on  St  Sava  not  only  as  the  founder  of  their  national 
church  but  also  as  the  conscious  father  of  their  separation  from  Rome.  And 
indeed  it  would  seem  this  might  be  so — if  events  are  looked  at  from  the  position  in 
later  times.  But  the  position  in  those  days  was  quite  different.  Behind  the 
ecclesiastical  authorities  of  Rome  and  Nicaea-Byzantium  and  Okhrida  were  corre- 
sponding civil  powers,  all  of  them  a  threat  to  the  nascent  Serbian  state.  Among 
these  King  Stephen  II  and  his  archbishop  had  to  move  warily  ;  and  in  any  case 
schism  between  Rome  and  the  Byzantine  East  was  hardly  definitive  ;  Southern 
Slavs,  and  for  that  matter  many  "  Franks  ",  did  not  yet  know  any  hard-and-fast 
division  into  Catholic  and  Orthodox.  In  fact,  St  Sava  Prosvtitely,  "  the  Enlight- 
ener  ",  figures  in  several  Latin  calendars  and  his  feast  is  also  kept  in  the  Catholic 
Byzantine  diocese  of  Krizevtsy  in  Croatia. 

A  life  of  St  Sava  was  written  by  his  disciple  Domitian  about  1250,  but  it  has  not  survived 
in  its  original  form  :  it  was  edited  during  the  fourteenth  century,  with  "  an  obvious  tenden- 
ciousness  in  a  certain  ecclesiastical  direction  "  (i.e.  in  favour  of  the  Orthodox)  says  Shafarik, 
who  cannot  be  suspected  of  partiality  for  the  Catholic  Church.  Other  sources  are  the  letters 
of  Stephen  II  and  the  history  of  Salona  by  the  contemporary  Latin  archdeacon  of  Spalato, 
Thomas.  See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  14  ;  J.  Martynov,  Trifolium  Serbicum  ;  J.  Matl, 
"  Der  hi.  Sava  als  Begrunder  der  serbischen  Nationalkirche  ",  in  Kyrios,  vol.  ii  (1937), 
pp.  23-37  *>  V.  Yanich  and  C.  P.  Hankey  in  Lives  of  the  Serbian  Saints  ;  and  a  useful  con- 
ference on  Sava  given  in  Belgrade  by  P.  B£lard,  printed  in  U Unite  de  I'figlise,  no.  78  (1936). 
A  seventeenth-century  Latin  bishop  in  Bosnia,  I.  T.  Mrnavich,  wrote  a  biography  of  St  Sava, 
and  the  Franciscan  poet  Andrew  Kachich  devoted  one  of  his  best  poems  to  him. 


January  14]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

BD    ROGER    OF   TODI        (ad.  1237) 

Not  much  is  recorded  concerning  Bd  Roger  (Ruggiero)  da  Todi,  and  in  the  little 
which  is  told  us  there  seems  to  be  a  certain  amount  of  confusion.  What  can  be 
affirmed  with  confidence  is  that  he  received  the  habit  of  the  Friars  Minor  from  the 
hands  of  the  Seraphic  Father  himself  in  12 16,  that  he  was  appointed  by  St  Francis 
to  act  as  spiritual  director  to  the  community  founded  and  governed  by  Bd  Philippa 
Mareri  at  Rieti  in  Umbria  under  the  rule  of  St  Clare,  that  he  assisted  Philippa  on 
her  deathbed  in  1236,  and  that  he  died  himself  at  Todi  shortly  afterwards  on 
January  5,  1237.  Pope  Gregory  IX,  who  had  known  him  personally,  permitted 
the  town  of  Todi,  where  his  remains  were  enshrined,  to  keep  a  feast  in  his  honour, 
and  Benedict  XIV  confirmed  the  cultus  for  the  whole  Franciscan  Order. 

See  Mazzara,  Leggendario  Francescano  (1676),  vol.  i,  pp.  29-31  ;  L£on,  Aureole  Seraphique 
(English  trans.),  vol.  i,  pp.  442-443. 

BD    ODORIG    OF    PORDENONE        (ad.  133 i) 

It  would  not  be  easy  to  find  in  secular  literature  a  more  adventurous  career  than 
that  of  the  Franciscan  Friar  Odoric  of  Pordenone.  He  was  a  native  of  Friuli,  and 
his  family  name  is  said  to  have  been  Mattiussi.  About  the  year  1300,  when  he  was 
fifteen,  he  received  the  habit  of  St  Francis  at  Udine,  and  his  later  biographers 
expatiate  upon  the  extreme  fervour  with  which  he  gave  himself  to  prayer,  poverty 
and  penance.  After  a  while  he  felt  called  to  serve  God  in  solitude,  and  he  obtained 
the  permission  to  lead  the  life  of  a  hermit  in  a  remote  cell.  We  are  not  told  how 
long  he  spent  in  this  close  communion  with  God,  but  he  seems  to  have  been  guided 
to  return  to  Udine  and  to  take  up  apostolic  work  in  the  surrounding  districts. 
Great  success  followed  his  preaching,  and  crowds  gathered  from  afar  to  hear  him. 
But  about  13 17,  when  he  was  a  little  over  thirty,  there  came  to  him  an  inspiration 
of  a  somewhat  different  kind,  and  it  is  difficult  from  the  documents  before  us  to 
decide  how  far  he  was  influenced  in  his  subsequent  career  by  a  simple  spirit  of 
adventure  and  how  far  by  the  burning  desire  of  the  missionary  to  extend  God's 
kingdom  and  to  save  souls.  We  shall  probably  not  be  wrong  in  assuming  that 
there  was  a  mixture  of  both. 

It  is  not  easy  to  give  precise  dates,  but  according  to  Yule  and  Cordier  he  was 
in  western  India  soon  after  1321,  he  must  have  spent  three  of  the  years  between 
1322  and  1328  in  northern  China,  and  he  certainly  died  at  home  among  his  brethren 
at  Udine  in  January  1331.  With  regard  to  the  route  he  followed  in  his  wanderings 
we  are  better  informed.  His  first  objective  was  Constantinople,  and  from  thence 
he  passed  on  to  Trebizond,  Erzerum,  Tabriz  and  Soltania.  There  were  houses  of 
the  order  in  most  of  these  cities,  and  he  probably  made  a  considerable  stay  in  each, 
so  that  this  part  of  his  journey  may  well  have  occupied  three  years.  From  Soltania 
he  seems  to  have  wandered  about  very  irregularly,  but  eventually  he  came  south 
through  Baghdad  to  Hormuz  at  the  entrance  of  the  Persian  Gulf,  where  he  took 
ship  and  sailed  to  Salsette.  At  Tana,  or  possibly  Surat,  he  gathered  up  the  bones 
of  his  four  brethren  who  had  been  martyred  there  shortly  before,  in  1321,  and 
carried  them  with  him  on  his  voyage  eastward.  He  went  on  to  Malabar  and 
Ceylon,  and  then  probably  rested  for  a  while  at  the  shrine  of  St  Thomas  at  Mailapur, 
by  the  modern  Madras.  Here  he  again  took  ship  for  Sumatra  and  Java,  possibly 
also  visiting  southern  and  eastern  Borneo.      China  was  his  next  goal.      Starting 


BD  GILES  OF  LORENZANA  [January  14 

from  Canton,  he  travelled  to  the  great  ports  of  Fo-kien,  and  from  Fu-chau  he  pro- 
ceeded across  the  mountains  to  Hang-chau,  then  famous  under  the  name  of 
Quinsai  as  the  greatest  city  of  the  world,  and  Nan-king.  Taking  to  the  water 
again  upon  the  great  canal  at  Yang-chau,  he  made  his  way  to  Khanbaliq,  or  Peking, 
and  there  remained  for  three  years,  attached  apparently  to  one  of  the  churches 
founded  by  Archbishop  John  of  Montecorvino,  another  heroic  Franciscan  mission- 
ary, now  in  extreme  old  age.  There  Odoric  turned  his  face  homewards,  passing 
through  Shen-si  to  Tibet  and  its  capital,  Lhasa,  but  we  have  no  further  record  of 
the  course  by  which  he  ultimately  reached  his  native  province  in  safety.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  that  during  the  latter  part  at  least  of  these  long  journeys  Odoric 
had  for  his  companion  an  Irish  friar  of  the  same  order,  one  Brother  James.  The 
fact  is  known  to  us  from  a  record  preserved  in  the  archives  of  Udine,  which  tells 
us  that  after  Odoric's  death  a  present  of  two  marks  was  made  "  for  the  love  of  God 
and  the  blessed  Brother  Odoric  "  to  Brother  James,  the  Irishman,  who  had  been 
his  companion  on  his  journey. 

The  account  which  has  been  left  us  of  Odoric's  travels,  which  unfortunately 
was  not  written  down  by  himself  at  the  time  but  dictated  to  one  of  his  brethren 
after  his  return,  says  practically  nothing  of  any  missionary  labours  on  his  part.  It 
is,  therefore,  not  certain  how  far  we  may  credit  the  wonderful  stories  which  were 
current  in  later  times  regarding  the  success  which  attended  his  preaching.  Luke 
Wadding,  the  annalist,  declares  that  he  converted  and  baptized  20,000  Saracens, 
but  he  gives  us  no  idea  of  the  source  of  his  information.  It  is  also  stated  that 
Odoric's  purpose  in  leaving  China  and  returning  to  Europe  was  to  obtain  fresh 
supplies  of  missionaries  and  to  conduct  them  himself  to  the  Far  East.  At  Pisa, 
however,  St  Francis  appeared  to  him  and  bade  him  return  to  Udine,  declaring  that 
he  himself  would  look  after  those  distant  missions  about  which  Odoric  was  anxious. 
On  his  deathbed  the  worn-out  apostle  said  that  God  had  made  known  to  him  that 
his  sins  were  pardoned,  but  that  he  wished,  like  a  humble  child,  to  submit  himself 
to  the  keys  of  the  Church  and  to  receive  the  last  sacraments.  He  died  on  January 
14,  133 1.  Many  miracles  are  said  to  have  been  wrought  after  his  death,  and  in 
one  of  these  we  hear  again  of  Brother  James  the  Irishman,  for  a  certain  Franciscan 
who  was  a  preacher  and  doctor  of  theology  at  Venice,  and  had  suffered  cruelly  from 
a  painful  malady  of  the  throat,  asked  Brother  James  to  recommend  him  to  his  late 
fellow  traveller,  and  was  immediately  cured.  The  cultus  long  paid  to  him  was 
approved  in  1755. 

The  narrative  of  his  journeys,  as  dictated  in  Latin  by  Bd  Odoric,  will  be  found  printed 
in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  14,  but  the  fullest  account,  with  translation  and  notes, 
will  be  found  in  Yule-Cordier,  Cathay  and  the  Way  Thither  (191 3),  vol.  ii.  See  also  Wadding, 
Annales,  s.a.  1331  ;  M.  Komroff,  Contemporaries  of  Marco  Polo  (1928)  ;  and  H.  Matrod, 
Uitineraire  .  .  .  du  b.  Odoric  de  Pordenone  (1936).  There  is  a  fifteenth-century  Welsh 
version  of  the  voyages,  ed.  S.  J.  Williams,  Ffordd  y  Brawd  Odrig  (1929).  Fuller  biblio- 
graphies in  Yule  and  in  U.  Chevalier,  Bio-Bibliographie. 

BD    GILES    OF    LORENZANA        (ad.  15 18) 

The  published  lives  of  this  Giles  tell  us  that  he  was  born  about  1443  at  Lorenzana 
in  what  was  once  the  kingdom  of  Naples.  His  parents  were  a  devout  couple  of 
the  working  class,  and  the  boy  was  not  hindered  in  the  religious  practices  which  he 
adopted  from  early  youth,  more  especially  after  he  came  under  the  influence  of 
the   Franciscan  friars,  who  made  a  foundation  in  his  native  town.      In  time  he 


January  14]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

decided  to  serve  God  in  solitude,  settling  near  a  little  shrine  of  our  Lady.  Here 
he  spent  most  of  his  time  absorbed  in  prayer,  the  birds  and  beasts  becoming  his 
familiar  companions.  But  the  news  of  the  miracles  he  was  believed  to  work 
gradually  attracted  visitors,  and  being  forced  to  seek  refuge  elsewhere,  he  next  took 
service  with  a  farmer  near  Lorenzana.  Of  this  stage  of  his  life  it  is  said  that, 
though  he  spent  most  of  his  time  in  church,  his  work,  God  so  disposing,  did  not 
suffer  from  his  absence.  Eventually  he  was  received  into  the  Franciscan  com- 
munity as  a  lay-brother,  and  being  given  the  care  of  the  garden,  he  was  allowed  to 
build  himself  a  little  hut  there,  where  he  lived  as  in  a  kind  of  hermitage.  He  was 
still  the  friend  of  the  birds  and  all  living  creatures,  and  his  miraculous  cures,  his 
ecstatic  prayer  and  gift  of  prophecy  were  renowaed  far  and  wide.  In  particular 
he  is  said  to  have  been  frequently  seen  raised  from  the  ground  and  to  have  been 
physically  assaulted  by  the  Evil  One.  He  died  on  January  10,  15 18.  The  state- 
ment made  that  six  years  after  his  death  his  incorrupt  body,  though  it  had  been 
laid  in  the  tomb  in  the  ordinary  way,  was  found  kneeling,  rosary  in  hand,  and  the 
face  turned  towards  the  Blessed  Sacrament,  can  hardly  be  considered  to  rest  upon 
evidence  sufficient  to  establish  so  strange  a  marvel.  The  cult  of  Bd  Giles  was 
confirmed  in  1880. 

See  L£on,  Aureole  Seraphique  (English  trans.),  January  10  ;  Antony  da  Vicenza,  Vita 
e  miracoli  del  B.  Egidio  (1880). 

ST     ANTONY    PUGGI        (ad.  1892) 

This  saint  ,  though  a  member  of  a  religious  order,  the  Servants  of  Mary,  spent 
most  of  his  life  and  achieved  holiness  as  a  parish  priest.  He  was  born  of  peasant 
stock  at  Poggiole,  near  Pistoia,  in  18 19  ;  he  was  the  second  of  seven  children  and 
was  christened  Eustace.  As  a  boy  his  kind  and  gentle  disposition  was  noticeable, 
as  was  his  industry  and  willingness  to  help,  especially  in  his  parish  church,  of  which 
his  father  was  sacristan.  Nevertheless,  when  Eustace's  inclination  to  become  a 
Servite  had  been  finally  confirmed  during  a  pilgrimage  to  the  shrine  of  our 
Lady  at  Bocca,  Pucci  senior  and  his  wife  opposed  their  son's  resolution  (he 
was  their  eldest  boy),  and  it  was  not  till  he  was  eighteen,  in  1837,  that  he  entered 
the  Servite  priory  of  the  Annunciation  at  Florence.  He  took  the  names  of 
Antony  Mary. 

During  his  early  years  as  a  religious  Brother  Antony  showed  those  qualities  of 
frankness  and  of  steadiness  in  face  of  difficulties  that  were  to  distinguish  him  all  his 
life.  Prayer  and  obedience  were  his  first  concern,  and  after  them  study.  He  was 
ordained  in  1843,  and  less  than  a  year  later  was  appointed  curate  of  St  Andrew's 
church  in  Viareggio.  In  1847,  when  still  only  28,  he  became  parish  priest  there. 
Viareggio  is  a  seaside  town — a  fishing-port  with  a  ship-building  yard,  but  chiefly 
a  holiday  resort — and  here  Father  Antony  remained  for  the  rest  of  his  days. 

Father  Antony's  flock  called  him  "  II  curatino  ",  which  can't  be  translated  into 
English  ;  but  it  means  that  he  was  "  a  grand  little  man  ",  who  was  equally  loved 
and  respected.  It  has  been  said  of  him  that  he  was  before  his  time  in  recognizing 
the  need  for  organization,  and  organizations,  in  a  parish.  But  he  never  forgot  that 
these  things  are  but  means  to  an  end,  and  that  end  the  life  of  divine  charity  ;  and 
that  the  living  example  of  love  must  come  from  the  father  of  the  flock.  He  was 
the  father  and  therefore  the  servant  of  all  :  the  sick,  the  aged,  the  poor,  all  in 
trouble  or  distress,  came  to  him,  and  he  served  them  without  stint.     This  selfless- 


ST  PAUL  THE  HERMIT  [January  15 

ness  was  never  more  apparent  than  when  Viareggio  was  visited  by  two  bad  epi- 
demics, in  1854  and  in  1866  ;  and  one  of  the  fruits  of  Father  Antony's  love  for  the 
young  was  his  inauguration  of  a  seaside  nursing-home  for  children — something 
quite  new  in  those  days.  To  the  religious  instruction  of  children  he  devoted  much 
thought  and  work,  emphasizing  that  what  is  done  in  church  and  school  must  be 
begun  and  finished  in  the  home.  Nor  were  his  concerns  bounded  by  the  limits  of 
his  parish  :  in  his  enthusiasm  for  the  conversion  of  the  heathen  Father  Antony  was 
one  of  the  pioneers  in  Italy  of  the  work  of  the  A.P.F.  and  of  the  Holy  Childhood 

St  Antony  Pucci  died  on  January  14,  1892  at  the  age  of  73;  his  passing  was 
greeted  with  an  outburst  of  grief  in  Viareggio,  and  miracles  of  healing  took  place 
at  his  grave.  He  was  beatified  in  1952,  and  canonized  in  1962  during  the  Second 
Vatican  Council. 

See  the  decree  of  beatification  in  the  Acta  Apostolicae  Sedis,  vol.  xliv  (1952)  ;    and  Un 
apostolo  della  caritd  (1920),  by  a  Servite. 


ST    PAUL    THE    HERMIT        (ad.  342) 

ELIAS  and  St  John  the  Baptist  sanctified  the  desert,  and  Jesus  Christ  Himself 
was  a  model  of  the  eremitical  state  during  His  forty  days'  fast  in  the 
wilderness.  But  while  we  cannot  doubt  that  the  saint  of  this  day  was  guided 
by  the  Holy  Ghost  to  live  in  solitude  far  from  the  haunts  of  men,  we  must  recognize 
that  this  was  a  special  vocation,  and  not  an  example  to  be  rashly  imitated.  Speaking 
generally,  this  manner  of  life  is  beset  with  many  dangers,  and  ought  only  to  be 
embraced  by  those  already  well-grounded  in  virtue  and  familiar  with  the  practice 
of  contemplative  prayer. 

St  Paul  was  a  native  of  the  lower  Thebaid  in  Egypt,  and  lost  both  his  parents 
when  he  was  but  fifteen  years  of  age.  Nevertheless,  he  was  proficient  in  Greek 
and  Egyptian  learning,  was  gentle  and  modest,  and  feared  God  from  his  earliest 
youth.  The  cruel  persecution  of  Decius  disturbed  the  peace  of  the  Church  in  250  ; 
and  Satan  by  his  ministers  sought  not  so  much  to  kill  the  bodies,  as  by  subtle 
artifices  to  destroy  the  souls  of  men.  During  these  times  of  danger  Paul  kept 
himself  concealed  in  the -house  of  a  friend;  but  finding  that  a  brother-in-law 
coveting  his  estate  was  inclined  to  betray  him,  he  fled  into  the  desert.  There  he 
found  certain  caverns  which  were  said  to  have  been  the  retreat  of  money-coiners 
in  the  days  of  Cleopatra,  Queen  of  Egypt.  He  chose  for  his  dwelling  a  cave  in  this 
place,  near  which  were  a  palm  tree  and  a  clear  spring  ;  the  former  by  its  leaves 
furnished  him  with  raiment,  and  by  its  fruit  with  food  ;  and  the  latter  supplied 
him  with  water  to  drink.  Paul  was  twenty-two  years  old  when  he  entered  the 
desert.  His  first  intention  was  to  enjoy  liberty  in  serving  God  till  the  persecution 
should  cease  ;  but  relishing  the  sweets  of  solitude  and  heavenly  contemplation,  he 
resolved  to  return  no  more  and  never  to  concern  himself  with  the  things  of  the 
world  ;  it  was  enough  for  him  to  know  that  there  was  a  world,  and  to  pray  that  it 
might  grow  better.  He  lived  on  the  fruit  of  his  tree  till  he  was  forty-three  years 
of  age,  and  from  that  time  till  his  death,  like  Elias,  he  was  miraculously  fed  with 
bread  brought  him  every  day  by  a  raven.  His  method  of  life,  and  what  he  did  in 
this  place  during  ninety  years,  is  hidden  from  us  ;  but  God  was  pleased  to  make 
His  servant  known  a  little  before  his  death. 


January  15]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

The  great  St  Antony,  who  was  then  ninety  years  of  age,  was  tempted  to  vanity, 
thinking  that  no  one  had  served  God  so  long  in  the  wilderness  as  he  had  done,  since 
he  believed  himself  to  be  the  first  to  adopt  this  unusual  way  of  life  ;  but  the  contrary 
was  made  known  to  him  in  a  dream,  and  the  saint  was  at  the  same  time  commanded 
by  Almighty  God  to  set  out  forthwith  in  quest  of  a  solitary  more  perfect  than  him- 
self. The  old  man  started  the  next  morning.  St  Jerome  relates  that  he  met  a 
centaur,  or  creature  with  something  of  the  mixed  shape  of  man  and  horse,  and  that 
this  monster  or  phantom  of  the  devil  (St  Jerome  does  not  profess  to  determine 
which  it  was),  upon  his  making  the  sign  of  the  cross,  fled  away,  after  having  pointed 
out  the  road.  Our  author  adds  that  St  Antony  soon  after  met  also  a  satyr,  who  gave 
him  to  understand  that  he  dwelt  here  in  the  desert,  and  was  one  of  those  beings 
whom  the  deluded  gentiles  worshipped.*  St  Antony,  after  two  days  and  a  night 
spent  in  the  search,  discovered  the  saint's  abode  by  a  light  which  shone  from  it  and 
guided  his  steps.  Having  begged  admittance  at  the  door  of  the  cell,  St  Paul  at  last 
opened  it  with  a  smile  ;  they  embraced,  and  called  each  other  by  their  names, 
which  they  knew  by  revelation.  St  Paul  then  inquired  whether  idolatry  still 
reigned  in  the  world.  While  they  were  discoursing  together,  a  raven  flew  towards 
them,  and  dropped  a  loaf  of  bread  before  them.  Upon  which  St  Paul  said,  "  Our 
good  God  has  sent  us  a  dinner.  In  this  manner  have  I  received  half  a  loaf  every 
day  these  sixty  years  past ;  now  you  have  come  to  see  me,  Christ  has  doubled  His 
provision  for  His  servants."  Having  given  thanks  to  God,  they  both  sat  down  by 
the  spring.  But  a  little  contest  arose  between  them  as  to  who  should  break  the 
bread  ;  St  Antony  alleged  St  Paul's  greater  age,  and  St  Paul  pleaded  that  Antony 
was  the  stranger  :  both  agreed  at  last  to  take  up  their  parts  together.  Having 
refreshed  themselves  at  the  spring,  they  spent  the  night  in  prayer. 

The  next  morning  St  Paul  told  his  guest  that  the  time  of  his  death  approached, 
and  that  he  had  been  sent  to  bury  him,  adding,  "  Go  and  fetch  the  cloak  given  you 
by  Athanasius,  Bishop  of  Alexandria,  in  which  I  desire  you  to  wrap  my  body." 
This  he  probably  said  that  he  might  be  left  alone  in  prayer,  while  expecting  to  be 
called  out  of  this  world  ;  as  also  that  he  might  testify  his  veneration  for  St  Athan- 
asius, and  his  high  regard  for  the  faith  and  communion  of  the  Catholic  Church,  on 
account  of  which  that  holy  bishop  was  then  a  great  sufferer.  St  Antony  was 
surprised  to  hear  him  mention  the  cloak,  of  which  he  could  only  have  known  by 
revelation.  Whatever  was  his  motive  for  desiring  to  be  buried  in  it,  St  Antony 
acquiesced  in  what  was  asked  of  him,  and  he  hastened  to  his  monastery  to  comply 
with  St  Paul's  request.  He  told  his  monks  that  he,  a  sinner,  falsely  bore  the  name 
of  a  servant  of  God  ;  but  that  he  had  seen  Elias  and  John  the  Baptist  in  the  wilder- 
ness, even  Paul  in  Paradise.  Having  taken  the  cloak,  he  returned  with  it  in  all 
haste,  fearing  lest  the  hermit  might  be  dead  ;  as,  in  fact,  it  happened.  Whilst  on 
the  road  he  saw  his  soul  carried  up  to  Heaven,  attended  by  choirs  of  angels,  prophets 
and  apostles.  St  Antony,  though  he  rejoiced  on  St  Paul's  account,  could  not  help 
lamenting  on  his  own,  for  having  lost  a  treasure  so  lately  discovered.  He  arose, 
pursued  his  journey,  and  came  to  the  cave.  Going  in  he  found  the  body  kneeling, 
and  the  hands  stretched  out.      Full  of  joy,  and  supposing  him  yet  alive,  he  knelt 

*  Educated  pagans  were  no  less  credulous  than  their  Christian  contemporaries.  Plutarch, 
in  his  life  of  Sylla,  says  that  a  satyr  was  brought  to  that  general  at  Athens  ;  and  St  Jerome 
tells  us  that  one  was  shown  alive  at  Alexandria,  and  after  its  death  was  embalmed,  and  sent 
to  Antioch  that  Constantine  the  Great  might  see  it.  Pliny  and  others  assure  us  that  centaurs 
have  been  seen. 


ST  MACARIUS  THE   ELDER  [January   15 

down  to  pray  with  him,  but  by  his  silence  soon  perceived  Paul  was  dead.  Whilst 
he  stood  perplexed  how  to  dig  a  grave,  two  lions  came  up  quietly,  and  as  it  were 
mourning  ;  and,  tearing  up  the  ground,  made  a  hole  large  enough.  St  Antony  then 
buried  the  body,  singing  psalms  according  to  the  rite  then  usual  in  the  Church. 
After  this  he  returned  home  praising  God,  and  related  to  his  monks  what  he  had 
seen  and  done.  He  always  kept  as  a  great  treasure,  and  wore  himself  on  great 
festivals,  the  garment  of  St  Paul,  of  palm-tree  leaves  patched  together.  St  Paul 
died  in  the  year  342,  the  hundred  and  thirteenth  of  his  age,  and  the  ninetieth  of  his 
solitude,  and  is  usually  called  the  "  First  Hermit  ",  to  distinguish  him  from  others 
of  that  name.  He  is  commemorated  in  the  canon  of  the  Mass  according  to  the 
Coptic  and  Armenian  rites. 

The  summary  which  Alban  Butler  has  here  given  of  the  life  of  the  First  Hermit  is  taken 
from  the  short  biography  edited  in  Latin  by  St  Jerome,  and  afterwards  widely  circulated  in 
the  West.  It  seems  possible,  though  this  has  been  much  disputed,  that  St  Jerome  himself 
did  little  more  than  translate  a  Greek  text  of  which  we  have  versions  in  Syriac,  Arabic  and 
Coptic,  and  which  contained  a  good  deal  of  fabulous  matter.  Jerome,  however,  undoubtedly 
regarded  the  life  as  in  substance  historical.  The  Greek  original  seems  to  have  been  written 
as  a  supplement,  and  in  some  measure  a  correction,  to  the  Life  of  St  Antony  by  St  Athanasius. 
See  on  the  whole  question  F.  Nau  in  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xx  (1901),  pp.  121-157. 
The  two  principal  Greek  texts  have  been  edited  by  J.  Bidez  (1900),  the  Syriac  and  Coptic 
by  Pereira  (1904).  Cf.  also  J.  de  Decker,  Contribution  a  V etude  des  vies  de  Paul  de  Thebes 
(1905)  ;  Plenkers  in  Der  Katholik  (1905),  vol.  ii,  pp.  294-300  ;  Schiwietz,  Das  morgenldndische 
Monchtum  (1904),  pp.  49-51  ;  Cheneau  d 'Orleans,  Les  Saints  d'Egypte  (1923),  vol.  i,  pp. 
76-86.  For  a  French  translation  of  Jerome's  Life  of  Paul,  see  R.  Draguet,  Les  Peres  du 
desert  (1949)  ;   and  cf.  H.  Waddell,  The  Desert  Fathers  (1936),  pp.  35-53. 

ST    MACARIUS    THE    ELDER        (ad.  390) 

This  Macarius  was  born  in  Upper  Egypt,  about  the  year  300,  and  spent  his  youth 
in  tending  cattle.  By  a  powerful  call  of  divine  grace  he  retired  from  the  world  at 
an  early  age  and,  dwelling  in  a  little  cell,  made  mats,  in  continual  prayer  and  the 
practice  of  great  austerities.  A  woman  falsely  accused  him  of  having  offered  her 
violence,  for  which  supposed  crime  he  was  dragged  through  the  streets,  beaten  and 
insulted,  as  a  base  hypocrite  under  the  garb  of  a  monk.  He  suffered  all  with 
patience,  and  sent  the  woman  what  he  earned  by  his  work,  saying  to  himself, 
"  Well,  Macarius  !  having  now  another  to  provide  for,  thou  must  work  the  harder  ". 
But  God  made  his  innocence  known  ;  for  the  woman  falling  in  labour,  lay  in  ex- 
treme anguish,  and  could  not  be  delivered  till  she  had  named  the  true  father  of  her 
child.  The  fury  of  the  people  turned  into  admiration  for  the  saint's  humility  and 
patience.  To  escape  the  esteem  of  men  he  fled  to  the  vast  and  melancholy  desert 
of  Skete,  being  then  about  thirty  years  of  age.  In  this  solitude  he  lived  sixty  years, 
and  became  the  spiritual  parent  of  innumerable  holy  persons  who  put  themselves 
under  his  direction  and  were  governed  by  the  rules  he  laid  down  for  them  ;  but  all 
occupied  separate  hermitages.  St  Macarius  admitted  only  one  disciple  to  dwell  with 
him,  whose  duty  it  was  to  receive  strangers.  He  was  compelled  by  an  Egyptian 
bishop  to  receive  the  priesthood  that  he  might  celebrate  the  divine  mysteries 
for  the  convenience  of  this  colony.  When  the  desert  became  better  peopled, 
there  were  four  churches  built  in  it,  which  were  served  by  so  many  priests. 

The  austerities  of  St  Macarius  were  excessive  ;  he  usually  ate  but  once  a  week. 
Evagrius,  his  disciple,  once  asked  him  leave,  when  tortured  with  thirst,  to  drink  a 
little  water  ;   but  Macarius  bade  him  content  himself  with  reposing  awhile  in  the 


January  15]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

shade,  saying,  "  For  these  twenty  years  I  have  never  once  eaten,  drunk  or  slept  as 
much  as  nature  required  ".  His  face  was  very  pale,  and  his  body  feeble  and 
shrivelled.  To  go  against  his  own  inclinations  he  did  not  refuse  to  drink  a  little 
wine  when  others  desired  him  ;  but  then  he  would  punish  himself  for  this  indul- 
gence by  abstaining  two  or  three  days  from  all  manner  of  drink  ;  and  it  was  for  this 
reason  that  his  disciple  besought  strangers  never  to  offer  him  wine.  He  delivered 
his  instructions  in  few  words,  and  recommended  silence,  retirement  and  continual 
prayer,  especially  the  last,  to  all  sorts  of  people.  He  used  to  say,  "  In  prayer  you 
need  not  use  many  or  lofty  words.  You  can  often  repeat  with  a  sincere  heart, 
*  Lord,  show  me  mercy  as  thou  knowest  best.'  Or,  '  O  God,  come  to  my  assist- 
ance/ "  His  mildness  and  patience  were  invincible,  and  wrought  the  conversion  of  a 
heathen  priest  and  many  others. 

A  young  man  applying  to  St  Macarius  for  spiritual  advice,  he  directed  him  to 
go  to  a  burying-place  and  upbraid  the  dead  ;  and  after  that  to  go  and  flatter  them. 
When  he  returned  the  saint  asked  him  what  answer  the  dead  had  made.  "  None 
at  all  ",  said  the  other,  "  either  to  reproaches  or  praises."  "  Then  ",  replied 
Macarius,  "  go  and  learn  neither  to  be  moved  by  abuse  nor  by  flattery.  If  you  die 
to  the  world  and  to  yourself,  you  will  begin  to  live  to  Christ."  He  said  to  another, 
"  Receive  from  the  hand  of  God  poverty  as  cheerfully  as  riches,  hunger  and  want 
as  readily  as  plenty  ;  then  you  will  conquer  the  Devil,  and  subdue  your  passions." 
A  certain  monk  complained  to  him  that  in  solitude  he  was  always  tempted  to  break 
his  fast,  whereas  in  the  monastery  he  could  fast  the  whole  week  cheerfully.  "  Vain- 
glory is  the  reason  ",  replied  the  saint ;  "  Fasting  pleases  when  men  see  you  ;  but 
seems  intolerable  when  the  craving  for  esteem  is  not  gratified."  One  came  to 
consult  him  who  was  molested  with  temptations  to  impurity  ;  the  saint  examining 
into  the  source,  convinced  himself  that  the  trouble  was  due  to  indolence.  Accord- 
ingly, he  advised  him  never  to  eat  before  sunset,  to  meditate  fervently  at  his  work, 
and  to  labour  vigorously  without  slackening  the  whole  day.  The  other  faithfully 
complied,  and  was  freed  from  his  torment.  God  revealed  to  St  Macarius  that  he 
had  not  attained  to  the  perfection  of  two  married  women,  who  lived  in  a  certain 
town.  The  saint  thereupon  paid  them  a  visit,  and  learned  the  means  by  which 
they  sanctified  themselves.  They  were  careful  never  to  speak  idle  or  rash  words  ; 
they  lived  in  humility,  patience,  charity  and  conformity  to  the  humours  of  their 
husbands  ;  and  they  sanctified  all  their  actions  by  prayer,  consecrating  to  the 
divine  glory  all  the  powers  of  their  soul  and  body. 

A  heretic  of  the  sect  of  the  Hieracites,  called  so  from  Hie  rax,  who  denied  the 
resurrection  of  the  dead,  had  caused  some  to  be  unsettled  in  their  faith.  St 
Macarius,  to  confirm  them  in  the  truth,  raised  a  dead  man  to  life,  as  Socrates, 
Sozomen,  Palladius  and  Rufinus  relate.  Cassian  says  that  he  only  made  a  dead 
body  to  speak  for  that  purpose  ;  then  bade  it  rest  till  the  resurrection.  Lucius, 
the  Arian  usurper  of  the  see  of  Alexandria,  sent  troops  into  the  desert  to  disperse 
the  zealous  monks,  several  of  whom  sealed  their  faith  with  their  blood.  The 
leading  ascetics,  namely  the  two  Macariuses,  Isidore,  Pambo  and  some  others  were 
banished  to  a  little  island  in  the  Nile  delta,  surrounded  with  marshes.  The 
inhabitants,  who  were  pagans,  were  all  converted  by  the  example  and  preaching 
of  these  holy  men.  In  the  end  Lucius  suffered  them  to  return  to  their  cells. 
Macarius,  knowing  that  his  end  drew  near,  paid  a  visit  to  the  monks  of  Nitria,  and 
exhorted  them  in  such  moving  terms  that  they  all  fell  weeping  at  his  feet.  "  Let 
us  weep,  brethren  ",  said  he,  "  and  let  our  eyes  pour  forth  floods  of  tears  before 


ST  JOHN  CALYBITES  [January  15 

we  go  hence,  lest  we  fall  into  that  place  where  tears  will  only  feed  the  flames  in 
which  we  shall  burn."  He  went  to  receive  the  reward  of  his  labours  at  the  age  of 
ninety,  after  having  spent  sixty  years  in  Skete.  Macarius  seems  to  have  been,  as 
Cassian  asserts,  the  first  anchoret  who  inhabited  this  vast  wilderness.  Some  style 
him  a  disciple  of  St  Antony  ;  but  it  appears  that  he  could  not  have  lived  under  the 
direction  of  Antony  before  he  retired  to  Skete.  It  seems,  however,  that  later  on 
he  paid  a  visit,  if  not  several,  to  that  holy  patriarch  of  monks,  whose  dwelling  was 
fifteen  days'  journey  distant.  Macarius  is  commemorated  in  the  canon  of  the 
Mass  according  to  the  Coptic  and  Armenian  rites. 

See  Palladius,  Historia  Lausiaca,  c.  19  seq.  ;  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  15  ;  Schiwietz, 
Morgenland.  Mdnchtum,  vol.  i,  pp.  97  seq.  ;  Bardenhewer,  Patrology  (Eng.  ed.),  pp.  266-267  ; 
Gore  in  Jour n.  of  TheoL  Stud.,  vol.  viii,  pp.  85-90  ;  Cheneau  d'Orl£ans,  Les  saints  d'Egypte 
(1923),  vol.  i,  pp.  1 17-138. 

ST    ISIDORE    OF   ALEXANDRIA        (ad.  404) 

In  early  life  Isidore,  after  distributing  his  large  fortune  to  the  poor,  became  an 
ascetic  in  the  Nitrian  desert.  Afterwards  he  fell  under  the  influence  of  St  Athan- 
asius,  who  ordained  him  and  took  him  to  Rome  in  341.  The  greater  part  of  his 
life,  however,  seems  to  have  been  passed  as  governor  of  the  great  hospital  at 
Alexandria.  When  Palladius,  the  author  of  the  Lausiac  History,  came  to  Egypt 
to  adopt  an  ascetic  life,  he  addressed  himself  first  to  Isidore,  who  advised  him 
simply  to  practise  austerity  and  self-denial,  and  then  to  return  for  further  instruc- 
tion. During  his  last  days  the  saint,  when  over  eighty  years  of  age,  was  over- 
whelmed with  persecutions,  misrepresentations  and  troubles  of  every  description. 
St  Jerome  denounced  him  in  violent  terms  for  his  supposed  Origenist  sympathies, 
and  his  own  bishop,  Theophilus,  who  had  once  been  his  friend,  excommunicated 
him,  so  that  Isidore  was  driven  to  take  refuge  in  the  Nitrian  desert,  where  he  had 
spent  his  youth.  In  the  end  he  fled  to  Constantinople  to  seek  the  protection  of  St 
John  Chrysostom,  and  there  shortly  afterwards  he  died  at  the  age  of  eighty-five. 

See  Palladius,  Historia  Lausiaca,  and  Dialogus  de  vita  Chrysostomi  ;  and  Acta  Sanctorum, 
January  15. 

ST    JOHN    CALYBITES        (c.  ad.  450) 

It  was  at  Gomon  on  the  Bosphorus,  among  the  "  sleepless  "  monks  founded  by  St 
Alexander  Akimetes,  that  St  John  sought  seclusion,  leaving  his  father  and  a 
large  fortune.  After  six  years  he  returned  disguised  in  the  rags  of  a  beggar,  and 
lived  unrecognized  upon  the  charity  afforded  him  by  his  parents,  close  to  their  door 
in  a  little  hut  (/caAu/fy)  ;  whence  he  is  known  as  "  Calybites  ".  He  sanctified  his 
soul  by  wonderful  patience,  meekness  and  prayer.  When  at  the  point  of  death  he 
is  said  to  have  revealed  his  identity  to  his  mother,  producing  in  proof  the  book  of 
the  gospels,  bound  in  gold,  which  he  had  used  as  a  boy.  He  asked  to  be  buried 
under  the  hut  he  had  occupied,  and  this  was  granted,  but  a  church  was  built  over 
it,  and  his  relics  were  at  a  later  date  translated  to  Rome.  The  legend  of  Calybites 
has  either  originated  from,  or  been  confused  with,  those  of  St  Alexis,  St  Onesimus, 
and  one  or  two  others  in  which  the  same  idea  recurs  of  a  disguise  long  persisted  in. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  15,  and  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xv  (1896),  pp. 
256-267.      Cj.  also  Synaxarium  Cp.  (ed.  Delehaye),  p.  393. 


January  15]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

ST    ITA,  Virgin        (c.  a.d.  570) 

Among  the  women  saints  of  Ireland,  St  Ita  (also  called  Ida  and  Mida,  with  other 
variant  spellings)  holds  the  foremost  place  after  St  Brigid.  Although  her  life  has 
been  overlaid  with  a  multitude  of  mythical  and  extravagant  miracles,  there  is  no 
reason  to  doubt  her  historical  existence.  She  is  said  to  have  been  of  royal  descent, 
to  have  been  born  in  one  of  the  baronies  of  Decies,  near  Drum,  Co.  Waterford,  and 
to  have  been  originally  called  Deirdre.  A  noble  suitor  presented  himself,  but  by 
fasting  and  praying  for  three  days  Ita,  with  angelic  help,  won  her  father's  consent 
to  her  leading  a  life  of  virginity.  She  accordingly  migrated  to  Hy  Conaill,  in  the 
western  part  of  the  present  county  of  Limerick.  There  at  Killeedy  she  gathered 
round  her  a  community  of  maidens  and  there,  after  long  years  given  to  the  service 
of  God  and  her  neighbour,  she  eventually  died,  probably  in  the  year  570.  We 
are  told  that  at  first  she  often  went  without  food  for  three  or  four  days  at  a  time. 
An  angel  appeared  and  counselled  her  to  have  more  regard  for  her  health,  and  when 
she  demurred,  he  told  her  that  in  future  God  would  provide  for  her  needs.  From 
that  time  forth  she  lived  entirely  on  food  sent  her  from  Heaven.  A  religious 
maiden,  a  pilgrim  from  afar,  asked  her  one  day,  "  Why  is  it  that  God  loves  thee  so 
much  ?  Thou  art  fed  by  Him  miraculously,  thou  healest  all  manner  of  diseases, 
thou  prophesiest  regarding  the  past  and  the  future,  the  angels  converse  with  thee 
daily,  and  thou  never  ceasest  to  keep  thy  thoughts  fixed  upon  the  divine  mysteries." 
Then  Ita  gave  her  to  understand  that  it  was  this  very  practice  of  continual  medita- 
tion, in  which  she  had  trained  herself  from  childhood,  which  was  the  source  of  all 
the  rest.  Ita  is  said  to  have  been  sought  out  and  consulted  by  the  most  saintly  of 
her  countrymen. 

It  appears  that  St  Ita  conducted  a  school  for  small  boys,  and  we  are  told  that 
the  bishop  St  Ere  committed  to  her  care  one  who  was  afterwards  destined  to  be 
famous  as  abbot  and  missionary,  the  child  Brendan,  who  for  five  years  was  trained 
by  her.  One  day  the  boy  asked  her  to  tell  him  three  things  which  God  specially 
loved.  She  answered  :  "  True  faith  in  God  with  a  pure  heart,  a  simple  life  with 
a  religious  spirit,  openhandedness  inspired  by  charity — these  three  things  God 
specially  loves."  "  And  what  ",  continued  the  boy,  "  are  the  three  things  which 
God  most  abhors  ?  "  "  A  face  ",  she  said,  "  which  scowls  upon  all  mankind, 
obstinacy  in  wrong-doing,  and  an  overweening  confidence  in  the  power  of  money  ; 
these  are  three  things  which  are  hateful  in  God's  sight." 

Not  a  few  of  the  miracles  attributed  to  St  Ita  are  very  preposterous,  as,  for 
example,  the  story  that  a  skilful  craftsman  whose  services  she  had  retained,  and  to 
whom  she  gave  her  sister  as  wife,  promising  that  he  should  become  the  father  of 
a  famous  and  holy  son,  went  out  to  battle  against  a  party  of  raiders  and  had  his 
head  cut  off.  On  making  a  search  for  him,  they  found  the  trunk,  but  the  head 
had  been  carried  away  by  the  victors.  Then  Ita,  because  her  promise  was 
still  unfulfilled,  set  to  work  to  pray  ;  whereupon  the  head,  by  the  power  of 
God,  flew  back  through  the  air  to  unite  itself  to  the  body,  and  an  hour  later 
the  man,  standing  up  alive,  returned  with  them  to  the  convent.  Afterwards  he 
had  a  son  who  was  known  as  St  Mochoemog  (hypocoristic  for  Coemgen),  the 
future  abbot  of  Liath-mor  or  Leagh,  in  Tipperary.  It  was  St  Ita  who  had 
care  of  him,  and  gave  him  his  name,  which  means  "  my  beautiful  little  one  ", 
sometimes  latinized  as  Pulcherius,  St  Ita's  feast  is  celebrated  throughout 


ST  BONITUS,  OR  BONET  [January  15 

The  life  of  St.  Ita  has  been  critically  edited  by  C.  Plummer  in  VSH.,  vol.  ii,  pp.  1 16-130. 
See  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  15  ;  J.  Colgan,  Acta  Sanctorum  Hiberniae  ;  LIS., 
vol.  i,  p.  200  ;  J.  Ryan,  Irish  Monasticism  (193 1),  pp.  138-140  ;  and  J.  Begley,  Diocese  of 
Limerick,  Ancient  and  Modern  (1906),  ch.  iv. 

ST    MAURUS,  Abbot        (Sixth  Century) 

Among  other  noblemen  who  placed  their  sons  under  the  care  of  St  Benedict  to  be 
brought  up  in  piety  and  learning  a  certain  Equitius  left  his  son  Maurus,  then  but 
twelve  years  old  ;  and  when  he  was  grown  up  St  Benedict  made  him  his  assistant 
in  the  government  of  Subiaco.  The  boy  Placid,  going  one  day  to  fetch  water,  fell 
into  the  lake  and  was  carried  the  distance  of  a  bow-shot  from  the  bank.  St  Benedict 
saw  this  in  spirit  in  his  cell,  and  bade  Maurus  run  and  draw  him  out.  Maurus 
obeyed,  walked  unknowingly  upon  the  water,  and  dragged  out  Placid  by  the  hair. 
He  attributed  the  miracle  to  the  prayers  of  St  Benedict ;  but  the  abbot  declared 
that  God  had  rewarded  the  obedience  of  the  disciple.  Not  long  after,  the  holy 
patriarch  retired  to  Monte  Cassino,  and  St  Maurus  may  have  become  superior  at 

This,  which  we  learn  from  St  Gregory  the  Great,  is  all  that  can  be  told  with  any 
probability  regarding  the  life  of  St  Maurus.  It  is,  however,  stated  upon  the 
authority  of  a  pretended  biography  by  pseudo-Faustus — i.e.  Abbot  Odo  of 
Glanfeuil — that  St  Maurus,  coming  to  France,  founded  by  the  liberality 
of  King  Theodebert  the  great  abbey  of  Glanfeuil,  afterwards  called  Saint-Maur- 
sur-Loire,  which  he  governed  until  his  seventieth  year.  Maurus  then  resigned 
the  abbacy,  and  passed  the  remainder  of  his  life  in  solitude  to  prepare  himself 
for  his  passage  to  eternity.  After  two  years  he  fell  sick,  and  died  on  January 
15  in  the  year  584.  He  was  buried  on  the  right  side  of  the  altar  in  the  church  of 
St  Martin,  and  on  a  roll  of  parchment  laid  in  his  tomb  was  inscribed  this  epitaph  : 
"  Maurus,  a  monk  and  deacon,  who  came  into  France  in  the  days  of  King 
Theodebert,  and  died  the  eighteenth  day  before  the  month  of  February." 
That  this  parchment  was  really  found  in  the  middle  of  the  ninth  century  is 
probable  enough  ;  but  there  is  no  reliable  evidence  to  establish  the  fact  that 
the  Maurus  so  described  is  identical  with  the  Maurus  who  was  the  disciple  of  St 

From  the  time  of  Bollandus  and  of  Mabillon  (who  in  his  Acta  Sanctorum,  O.S.B.,  vol.  i, 
pp.  275-298  printed  the  Life  of  St  Maurus  by  pseudo-Faustus  as  an  authentic  document) 
down  to  the  present  day  a  lively  controversy  has  raged  over  the  question  of  St  Maurus 's 
connection  with  Glanfeuil.  Bruno  Krusch  (Neues  Archiv,  vol.  xxxi,  pp.  245-247)  considers 
that  we  have  no  reason  to  affirm  the  existence  of  any  such  monk  as  Maurus,  or  any  abbey  at 
Glanfeuil  in  Merovingian  times.  Without  going  quite  so  far  as  this,  Fr  Poncelet,  in  many 
notes  in  the  Analecta  Bollandiana  {e.g.  vol.  xv,  pp.  355-356),  and  U.  Berliere  in  the  Revue 
Benedictine  (vol.  xxii,  pp.  541-542)  are  agreed  *hat  the  life  by  "  Faustus  "  is  quite  untrust- 
worthy. An  admirable  review  of  the  whole  discussion,  summing  it  up  in  the  same  sense, 
has  been  published  by  H.  Lecleicq  in  DAC,  $.7'.  "  Glanfeuil  "  (vol.  vi,  cc.  1283-13 19). 
See  also  J.  McCann,  St  Benedict  (1938),  pp.  274-281. 

ST   BONITUS,  or  BONET,  Bishop  of  Clermont        (a.d.  706) 

St  Bonitus  was  referendary  or  chancellor  to  St  Sigebert  III,  king  of  Austrasia  ; 
and  by  his  zeal,  religion  and  justice  flourished  in  that  kingdom  under  four  kings. 
In  677  Thierry  III  made  him  governor  of  Marseilles,  an  office  he  carried  out  with 


January  15]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

distinction  and  liberality.  His  elder  brother,  St  Avitus  II,  Bishop  of  Clermont 
in  Auvergne,  having  recommended  him  for  his  successor,  died  in  689,  and  Bonet 
was  consecrated.  But  after  having  governed  that  see  some  years  with  exemplary 
piety,  he  had  a  scruple  whether  his  election  had  been  perfectly  canonical ;  and 
having  consulted  St  Tillo,  then  leading  an  eremitical  life  at  Solignac,  resigned  his 
dignity,  led  a  most  penitential  life  in  the  abbey  of  Manglieu,  and  after  having  made 
a  pilgrimage  to  Rome  died  at  Lyons  in  706.  The  colloquial  form  of  this  saint's 
name  is  Bont. 

See  his  life,  written  by  a  monk  of  Sommon  in  Auvergne,  published  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum, 
January  15  ;    MGH.,  Scriptores  Merov.,  vol.  vi  ;    and  CMH.,  pp.  37-38. 

ST    CEOLWULF        (a.d.  760  :) 

It  is  difficult  to  find  any  trace  of  late  medieval  cultus  of  this  Northumbrian 
king,  but  he  was  held  in  high  honour  after  his  death,  his  body  in  830  being  trans- 
lated to  Norham,  and  the  head  to  Durham.  Bede  speaks  enthusiastically  of 
his  virtues  and  his  zeal,  and  dedicated  to  him  his  Ecclesiastical  History,  which 
he  submitted  to  the  king's  criticism.  Ceolwulf  ended  his  days  as  a  monk  at 
Lindisfarne,  and  it  is  recorded  that  through  his  influence  the  community,  who 
previously  had  drunk  nothing  but  water  or  milk,  were  allowed  to  take  beer, 
and  even  wine.  His  relics  were  said  to  work  many  miracles.  Simeon  of 
Durham  assigns  his  death  to  764,  but  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  the  date 
given  is  760. 

Practically  all  available  information  will  be  found  collected  in  Plummer's  edition  of  Bede, 
especially  vol.  ii,  p.  340. 

BD    PETER    OF    GASTELNAU,  Martyr        (a.d.  1208) 

This  Cistercian  monk  was  born  near  Montpellier,  and  in  1199  we  hear  of  him 
as  archdeacon  of  Maguelone,  but  he  entered  the  Cistercian  Order  a  year  or  two 
later.  To  him,  aided  by  another  of  his  religious  brethren,  Pope  Innocent  III 
in  1203  confided  the  mission  of  taking  action  as  apostolic  delegate  and  inquisi- 
tor against  the  Albigensian  heretics,  a  duty  which  Peter  discharged  with  much 
zeal,  but  little  success.  The  opposition  against  him,  which  was  fanned  by 
Raymund  VI,  Count  of  Toulouse,  ended  in  his  assassination  on  January  15, 
1209,  r*ot  far  from  the  abbey  of  Saint-Gilles.  Pierced  through  the  body  by  a 
lance,  Bd  Peter  cried  to  his  murderer,  "  May  God  forgive  thee  as  fully  as  I  for- 
give thee  ".  His  relics  were  enshrined  and  venerated  in  the  abbey  church  of 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  March  5  ;    Hurter  in  Kirchenlexikon,  vol.  ii,  cc.  2031-2033  ;    H. 
Nickerson,  The  Inquisition,  pp.  77-95. 

BD    FRANCIS    DE    CAPILLAS,  Martyr        (a.d.  1648) 

The  Dominicans  followed  the  Jesuits  to  China  early  in  the  seventeenth  century, 
and  to  the  Order  of  Preachers  belongs  the  honour  of  having  produced  the  first 
native  Chinese  priest  and  bishop,  Gregory  Lo  (1616-1691),  and  the  first  beatified 
martyr  in  China,  Francis  Ferdinand  de  Capillas.  He  was  born  of  humble  stock  in 
the  province  of  Valladolid,  and  joined  the  Preachers  when  he  was  seventeen.      He 


BD  FRANCIS  DE  CAPILLAS  [January   15 

volunteered  for  the  mission  in  the  Philippines,  and  received  the  priesthood  at 
Manila  in  1631.  For  ten  years  he  laboured  under  a  tropical  sun  in  the  Cagayan 
district  of  Luzon,  regarding  this  apostolic  field  as  a  sort  of  training-ground  for 
the  still  more  arduous  mission  to  which  he  felt  himself  destined.  Here  it  was, 
accordingly,  that  he  already  practised  great  austerities,  lying,  for  example,  upon 
a  wooden  cross  during  the  short  hours  he  gave  to  sleep,  and  deliberately  ex- 
posing his  body  to  the  bites  of  the  insects  which  infest  these  regions.  At  last, 
in  1642,  he  was  chosen  to  accompany  the  pioneer  missionary,  Father  Francis 
Diaz,  o.P.,  who  was  returning  by  way  of  Formosa  to  take  up  again  the  apostolate 
he  had  already  begun  in  the  Chinese  province  of  Fokien.  After  learning 
the  language  an  immense  success  is  said  to  have  attended  the  labours  of  Father 
de  Capillas,  and  in  Fogan,  Moyan,  Tingteu  and  other  towns,  he  made  many 

Unfortunately  it  was  just  at  this  epoch  that  great  revolutionary  disturbances 
shook  the  whole  Chinese  empire.  The  Ming  dynasty  came  to  an  end,  and  the 
Manchu  Tatars  were  called  in  to  help  to  quell  one  party  of  the  rebels,  with  the 
result  that  they  themselves  eventually  became  masters  of  the  country.  In  Fokien 
a  stout  resistance  was  offered  to  the  Tatars,  and  although  they  occupied  Fogan  they 
were  besieged  there  by  the  armies  of  the  Chinese  viceroy.  It  would  seem  that 
while  the  town  was  thus  invested  Father  de  Capillas  entered  it  by  stealth  to  render 
spiritual  assistance  to  some  of  his  converts.  The  mandarins  of  the  old  adminis- 
tration had  been  tolerant  and  often  friendly  to  the  Christians.  The  new  masters 
were  bitterly  hostile  to  the  religion  of  the  foreigner.  Father  de  Capillas  was  caught, 
cruelly  tortured,  tried  as  a  spy  who  was  believed  to  be  conveying  information  to  the 
besiegers,  and  in  the  end  put  to  death  by  having  his  head  cut  off,  on  January  15, 
1648.  In  view  of  the  question  raised  in  the  case  of  some  of  our  English  martyrs 
as  to  whether  they  really  died  for  the  faith,  or  were  only  put  to  death  as  political 
offenders,  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  although  Fathers  Ferrando  and  Fonseca  in 
their  Spanish  History  of  the  Dominicans  in  the  Philippines  admit  that  sedition 
(rebeldid)  was  the  formal  charge  upon  which  Father  de  Capillas  was  sentenced  to 
death,  the  Holy  See  has  pronounced  him  to  be  a  true  martyr. 

In  reference  to  this  same  holy  Dominican,  a  quotation  may  not  be  out  of  place 
from  Sir  Robert  K.  Douglas  : 

"  Why  do  you  so  much  trouble  yourselves  ",  the  emperor  [K'anghsi]  asked 
on  one  occasion  of  a  missionary,  "  about  a  world  which  you  have  never  yet 
entered  ?  "  and  adopting  the,  to  him,  canonical  view,  he  expressed  his  opinion 
that  it  would  be  much  wiser  if  they  thought  less  of  the  world  to  come  and  more 
of  the  present  life.  It  is  possible  that  when  he  said  this  he  may  have  had  in 
his  mind  the  dying  word  of  Ferdinand  de  Capillas,  who  suffered  martyrdom 
in  1648  :  "  I  have  had  no  home  but  the  world  ",  said  this  priest,  as  he  faced 
his  last  earthly  judge,  "  no  bed  but  the  ground,  no  food  but  what  Providence 
sent  me  from  day  to  day,  and  no  other  object  but  to  do  and  suffer  for  the  glory 
of  Jesus  Christ  and  for  the  eternal  happiness  of  those  who  believe  in  His 

See  Touron,  Histoire  des  hommes  illustres  O.P.,  vol.  vi,  pp.  732-735  ;  but  especially  Juan 
Ferrando  and  Joaquin  Fonseca,  Historia  de  los  PP.  Dominicos  en  las  Islas  Filipinas,  vol.  ii, 
pp.  569-587.  Cf.  R.  K.  Douglas,  China,  in  the  Story  of  the  Nations  series,  pp.  61-62.  For 
other  martyrs  in  China  see  herein  under  February  17,  May  26,  July  9  and  September  11. 
Bd  Francis  de  Capillas  was  beatified  in  1909. 


January  16]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 


ST    MARCELLUS    I,  Pope  and  Martyr        (a.d.  309) 

ST  MARCELLUS  had  been  a  priest  under  Pope  St  Marcellinus,  and 
succeeded  him  in  308,  after  the  see  of  Peter  had  been  vacant  for  three  years 
and  a  half.  An  epitaph  written  of  him  by  Pope  St  Damasus  says  that  by 
enforcing  the  canons  of  penance  he  drew  upon  himself  the  hostility  of  many  tepid 
and  refractory  Christians,  and  that  for  his  severity  against  a  certain  apostate,  he 
was  banished  by  Maxentius.  He  died  in  309  at  his  unknown  place  of  exile.  The 
Liber  Pontificalis  states  that  Lucina,  the  widow  of  one  Pinian,  who  lodged  St 
Marcellus  when  he  lived  in  Rome,  after  his  death  converted  her  house  into  a  church, 
which  she  called  by  his  name.  His  false  acts  relate  that,  among  other  sufferings, 
he  was  condemned  by  the  tyrant  to  keep  cattle.  He  is  styled  a  martyr  in  the  early 
sacramentaries  and  martyrologies,  but  the  fifth-century  account  of  his  martyrdom 
conflicts  with  the  earlier  epitaph.  His  body  lies  in  Rome  under  the  high  altar  in 
the  ancient  church  which  bears  his  name  and  gives  its  title  to  a  cardinal. 

The  difficult  question  of  the  chronology  of  the  brief  pontificate  of  Pope  St  Marcellus  has 
been  discussed  at  length  by  Mgr  Duchesne  {Liber  Pontificalis,  vol.  i,  pp.  xcix  and  164)  and 
Father  Grisar  (Kirchenlexikon,  vol.  viii,  cc.  656-658)  :  cf.  also  Duchesne  in  Melanges  d'arch. 
.  .   .,  1898,  pp.  382-392,  and  CMH.,  pp.  42-43. 

ST    PRISCILLA,  Matron        (c.  a.d.  98) 

It  is  tantalizing  to  know  so  little  of  St  Priscilla,  who  is  commemorated  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology  on  this  day  and  who  has  given  her  name  as  foundress  to  what 
is  probably  the  most  ancient  and  interesting  of  the  catacombs.  She  seems  to  have 
been  the  wife  of  Manius  Acilius  Glabrio,  who,  as  we  learn  from  the  pagan  historians 
Suetonius  and  Dion  Cassius,  was  put  to  death  by  Domitian  on  the  pretext  of  some 
crime  of  sedition  or  blasphemous  impiety,  under  which  charge  we  may  perhaps 
recognize  a  conversion  to  Christianity.  It  is  likely  that  St  Priscilla  was  the  mother 
of  the  senator  St  Pudens,  and  through  him,  the  ancestress  of  SS.  Praxedis  and 
Pudentiana.  St  Peter,  the  apostle,  is  believed  to  have  used  a  villa  belonging  to 
St  Priscilla  on  the  Via  Salaria,  beneath  which  the  catacomb  was  afterwards  excav- 
ated, as  the  seat  of  his  activities  in  Rome.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  Acilii 
Glabriones  were  intimately  connected  with  this  spot,  and  that  many  of  the  family 
in  the  second  and  third  centuries  were  Christians  and  were  buried  in  the  catacombs. 

See  De  Rossi  in  Bullettino  di  archeologia  cristiana,  1 888-1 889,  pp.  15  and  103  ;  Marucchi 
in  Nttovo  bullettino  .  .  .,  vol.  viii  (1902),  pp.  217-232  ;  H.  Leclercq  in  DAC,  s.v.  "  Glabrion", 
vol.  vi,  cc.  1259-1274. 

ST    HONORATUS,  Bishop  of  Arles        (a.d.  429) 

Honoratus  was  of  a  consular  Roman  family  settled  in  Gaul,  and  was  well  versed 
in  the  liberal  arts.  In  his  youth  he  renounced  the  worship  of  idols  and  gained  to 
Christ  his  elder  brother  Venantius,  whom  he  also  inspired  with  a  contempt  for  the 
world.  They  desired  to  forsake  it  entirely,  but  their  father  put  continual  obstacles 
in  their  way.  At  length  they  took  with  them  St  Caprasius,  a  holy  hermit,  to  act 
as  their  instructor,  and  sailed  from  Marseilles  to  Greece,  intending  to  live  there 
unknown  in  some  desert.  Venantius  soon  died  at  Modon  ;  and  Honoratus,  having 
also  fallen  ill,  was  obliged  to  return  with  his  conductor.     He  first  led  an  eremitical 


ST  FURSEY  [January  16 

life  in  the  mountains  near  Frejus.  Two  small  islands  lie  in  the  sea  near  that  coast : 
one  larger  and  nearer  the  continent,  called  Lero,  now  St  Margaret's  ;  the  other 
smaller  and  more  remote,  two  leagues  from  Antibes,  named  Lerins,  at  present 
Saint-Honorat,  from  our  saint.  There  he  settled  ;  and  being  followed  by  others 
he  founded  the  famous  monastery  of  Lerins  about  the  year  400.  Some  he  appointed 
to  live  in  community  ;  others  in  separate  cells  as  anchorets.  His  rule  was  chiefly 
borrowed  from  that  of  St  Pachomius.  Nothing  can  be  more  attractive  than  the 
description  St  Hilary  of  Aries  has  given  of  the  virtues  of  this  company  of  saints, 
especially  of  the  charity  and  devotion  which  reigned  amongst  them. 

A  charming  legend,  unfortunately  of  much  later  date,  recounts  how  Margaret, 
the  sister  of  Honoratus,  converted  at  last  from  paganism  by  his  prayers,  came  to 
settle  on  the  other  island,  Lero,  in  order  to  be  near  her  brother.  With  some 
reluctance  he  was  induced  to  promise  that  he  would  visit  her  once  a  year,  when  the 
mimosa  was  in  bloom.  But  on  one  occasion  Margaret  in  great  distress  of  soul 
longed  for  his  guidance.  It  was  still  two  months  from  the  time  appointed,  but  she 
fell  upon  her  knees  and  prayed.  Suddenly  all  the  air  was  filled  with  an  unmistak- 
able perfume  ;  she  looked  up,  and  there,  close  beside  her,  was  a  mimosa  tree 
covered  with  its  fragrant  blossom.  She  tore  off  a  bough  and  sent  it  to  her  brother, 
who  understood  her  appeal  and  tenderly  acceded  to  the  summons.  It  was  their 
last  meeting,  for  she  passed  away  soon  afterwards.  Honoratus  was  by  compulsion 
consecrated  archbishop  of  Aries  in  426,  and  died  exhausted  with  austerities  and 
apostolic  labours  in  429.  The  style  of  his  letters,  so  St  Hilary,  his  successor, 
assures  us,  was  clear  and  affecting,  penned  with  an  admirable  delicacy,  elegance 
and  sweetness.  The  loss  of  all  these  is  much  to  be  regretted.  His  tomb  is  shown 
empty  under  the  high  altar  of  the  church  which  bears  his  name  at  Aries,  his  body 
having  been  translated  to  Lerins  in  1391. 

C/.  Gallia  Christiana  novissima,  vol.  iii  (1901),  p.  26  ;  Revue  Benedictine,  vol.  iv,  pp. 
180-184  ;  Duchesne,  Fastes  fipiscopaux,  vol.  i,  p.  256.  See  also  his  panegyric  by  his  disciple, 
kinsman  and  successor,  St  Hilary  of  Aries,  and  especially  A.  C.  Cooper-Marsden,  The  History 
of  the  Islands  of  the  Lerins  (191 3),  illustrated  with  excellent  photographs.  B.  Munke  and 
others  have  edited  a  medieval  Latin  life  of  St  Honoratus  (191 1),  but  like  the  Provencal  Vida 
de  Sant  Honorat  it  contains  nothing  of  historical  value.  Hilary's  discourse  is  translated  in 
F.  R.  Hoare,  The  Western  Fathers  (1954). 

ST   FURSEY,  Abbot        (c.  a.d.  648) 

There  are  few  of  the  early  Irish  saints  whose  lives  are  better  known  to  us  than  that 
of  St  Fursey  (Fursa).  He  seems  to  have  been  born  near  Lough  Corrib — possibly 
upon  the  island  of  Inisquin  itself.  Though  conflicting  accounts  are  given  of  his 
parentage,  he  was  certainly  of  noble  birth,  but,  as  we  are  told,  he  was  more  noble 
by  virtue  than  by  blood.  His  gifts  of  person  and  mind  are  dilated  on  by  his 
biographer,  but  in  order  to  equip  himself  better  in  sacred  learning  he  left  his  home 
and  his  own  people,  and  eventually  erected  a  monastery  at  Rathmat  (?  Killursa), 
which  was  thronged  by  recruits  from  all  parts  of  Ireland. 

After  a  time,  returning  home  to  his  family,  he  experienced  the  first  of  some 
wonderful  ecstasies,  which  being  detailed  by  his  biographer  and  recounted  after- 
wards by  such  writers  as  Bede  and  Aelfric,  became  famous  throughout  the  Christian 
world.  During  these  trances  his  body  seems  to  have  remained  motionless  in  a 
cataleptic  seizure,  and  his  brethren,  believing  him  to  be  dead,  made  preparations 
for  his  burial.     The  principal  subject  of  these  visions  was  the  effort  of  the  powers 


January  16]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

of  evil  to  claim  the  soul  of  the  Christian  as  it  quits  the  body  on  its  passage  to  another 
life.  A  fierce  struggle  is  depicted,  in  which  the  angels  engage  in  conflict  with  the 
demons,  refuting  their  arguments,  and  rescuing  the  soul  from  the  flames  with 
which  it  is  threatened.  In  one  particular  vision  we  are  told  that  St  Fursey  was 
lifted  up  on  high  and  was  ordered  by  the  angels  who  conducted  him  to  look  back 
upon  the  world.  Whereupon,  casting  his  eyes  downward,  he  saw  as  it  were  a  dark 
and  gloomy  valley  far  beneath.  Around  this  were  four  great  fires  kindled  in  the 
air,  separate  one  from  the  other,  and  the  angel  told  him  that  these  four  fires  would 
consume  all  the  world,  and  burn  the  souls  of  those  men  who  through  their  misdeeds 
had  made  void  the  confession  and  promise  of  their  baptism.  The  first  fire,  it  was 
explained,  will  burn  the  souls  of  those  who  are  forsworn  and  untruthful ;  the 
second,  those  who  give  themselves  up  to  greed  ;  the  third,  those  who  stir  up  strife 
and  discord  ;  the  fourth,  those  who  think  it  no  crime  to  deceive  and  defraud  the 
helpless.  Then  the  fires  seemed  all  to  coalesce  and  to  threaten  him  with  destruc- 
tion, so  that  he  cried  out  in  alarm.  But  the  angel  answered,  "  That  which  you  did 
not  kindle  shall  not  burn  within  you,  for  though  this  appears  to  be  a  terrible  and 
great  fire,  yet  it  tries  every  man  according  to  the  merits  of  his  works  ".  Bede,  after 
giving  a  long  summary  of  these  visions,  writes  :  "An  elderly  brother  of  our 
monastery  is  still  living  who  is  wont  to  narrate  how  a  very  truthful  and  religious 
man  told  him  that  he  had  seen  Fursey  himself  in  the  province  of  the  East  Angles, 
and  heard  these  visions  from  his  own  lips  ;  adding,  that  though  it  was  most  sharp 
winter  weather  and  a  hard  frost,  and  this  man  was  sitting  in  a  thin  garment  when 
he  related  it,  yet  he  sweated  as  if  it  had  been  the  greatest  heat  of  summer,  either 
through  the  panic  of  fear  which  the  memory  called  up,  or  through  excess  of  spiritual 
consolation  ".  This  is  certainly  a  very  remarkable  tribute  to  the  vividness  of  St 
Fursey's  descriptions.  One  other  curious  detail  in  connection  with  the  visions 
is  the  statement  that  the  saint,  having  jostled  against  a  condemned  soul,  carried 
the  brand-mark  of  that  contact  upon  his  shoulder  and  cheek  until  the  day  of  his 

After  twelve  years  of  preaching  in  Ireland,  St  Fursey  came  with  his  brothers, 
St  Foillan  and  St  Ultan,  tc  England,  and  settled  for  a  while  in  East  Anglia,  where 
he  was  cordially  welcomed  by  King  Sigebert,  who  gave  him  land  to  build  a  monas- 
tery, probably  at  Burgh  Castle,  near  Yarmouth.  This  migration  must  have  taken 
place  after  the  year  630  ;  but  somewhere  between  640  and  644  the  Irish  monk 
determined  to  cross  over  to  Gaul.  Establishing  himself  in  Neustria,  he  was 
honourably  received  by  Clovis  II.  He  built  a  monastery  at  Lagny,  but  died,  when 
on  a  journey,  shortly  afterwards,  probably  in  648.  His  remains  were  transferred 
to  Peronne.  The  feast  of  St  Fursey  is  celebrated  throughout  Ireland  and  also  in 
the  diocese  of  Northampton. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  16  ;  Plummer's  edition  of  Bede's  Ecclesiastical 
History,  vol.  ii,  pp.  169-174  ;  M.  Stokes,  Three  Months  in  the  Forests  of  France,  pp.  134-177  ; 
Moran,  Irish  Saints  in  Great  Britain,  p.  315  ;  Healy,  Ireland's  Ancient  Schools,  p.  266  ; 
Gougaud,  Gaelic  Pioneers  of  Christianity,  and  Christianity  in  Celtic  Lands  ;  Grutzmacher 
in  Zeitschrift  f.  Kirchengesch.,  vol  xix  (1898),  pp.  190-196. 

BD   FERREOLUS,   Bishop  of  Grenoble,   Martyr         (c.  a.d.  670) 

Although  the  cult  of  Bd  Ferreolus  was  confirmed  by  Pope  Pius  X  in  1907, 
practically  nothing  is  known  of  the  facts  of  his  life.     He  is  said  to  have  been  the 


BD  GONSALO  OF  AMARANTE  [January  16 

thirteenth  bishop  of  Grenoble,  but,  as  Mgr  Duchesne  points  out,  nothing  connects 
him  with  the  see  but  a  feeble  liturgical  tradition.  Later  accounts  describe  him  as 
resisting  the  demands  of  the  tyrannical  mayor  of  the  palace,  Ebroin,  and  as  having 
been,  in  consequence,  driven  from  his  see,  and  eventually  put  to  death. 

See  Duchesne,  Fastes  Episcopaux,  vol.  i,  p.  232,  and  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  12. 

ST   HENRY    OF    COCKET        (ad.     1220) 

The  Danes  were  indebted  in  part  for  the  light  of  faith,  under  God,  to  the  example 
and  labours  of  English  missionaries.  Henry  was  born  in  that  country,  and  from 
his  youth  gave  himself  to  the  divine  service  with  his  whole  heart.  When  he  came 
to  man's  estate  he  sailed  to  the  north  of  England.  The  little  island  of  Cocket, 
which  lies  on  the  coast  of  Northumberland,  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  of  the  same 
name,  had  been  the  home  of  anchorets  even  in  St  Bede's  time,  as  appears  from  his 
life  of  St  Cuthbert.  This  island  belonged  to  the  monastery  of  Tynemouth,  and 
St  Henry  undertook  to  lead  in  it  an  eremitical  life.  His  only  daily  meal,  which  he 
took  after  sunset,  was  bread  and  water  ;  and  this  bread  he  earned  by  tilling  a  little 
garden.  He  died  in  his  hermitage  on  January  16,  11 27,  and  was  buried  by  the 
monks  at  Tynemouth  in  their  church. 

His  life  by  Capgrave  is  printed  in  the  Ada  Sanctorum  for  January  16.  Cf.  also  Stanton, 
Menology,  pp.  22-23.      There  seems  to  be  no  evidence  of  public  cultus. 

SS.   BERARD  and  his  Companions,  Martyrs         (a.d.  1220) 

These  five  friars  were  sent  by  St  Francis  to  the  Mohammedans  of  the  West  whilst 
he  went  in  person  to  those  of  the  East.  They  preached  first  to  the  Moors  of 
Seville,  where  they  suffered  much  for  their  zeal,  and  were  banished.  Passing 
thence  into  Morocco,  they  began  there  to  preach  Christ,  and  tried  to  act  as  chaplains 
to  the  sultan's  Christian  mercenaries.  The  friars  were  looked  on  as  lunatics  and 
treated  accordingly.  When  they  refused  either  to  return  whence  they  had  come 
or  to  keep  silent,  the  sultan,  taking  his  scimitar,  clove  their  heads  asunder,  on 
January  16,  1220.  These  formed  the  vanguard  of  that  glorious  army  of  martyrs 
which  the  Seraphic  order  has  since  given  to  the  Church.  When  St  Francis  heard 
the  news  of  their  heroic  endurance  and  triumph,  he  cried  out,  "  Now  I  can  truly 
say  I  have  five  brothers  ".  They  were  SS.  Berard,  Peter,  Odo,  Accursio  and 

They  were  canonized  in  1481.  See  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  16  ;  Wadding,  Annales 
Minorum,  s.a.  1220  ;  and  in  Analecta  Franciscana,  vol.  iii,  pp.  579-596.  Cf.  also  Karl 
Miiller,  Die  Anfdnge  des  Minoritenordens,  pp.  207-210  ;  L6on,  Aureole  Seraphique  (Eng. 
trans.),  vol.  i,  pp.  99-1 11  ;   and  H.  Koehler,  Ufcglise  du  Maroc  .   .   .  (1934),  PP-  3~20. 

BD    GONSALO    OF   AMARANTE        (a.d.  1259?) 

It  must  be  confessed  that  many  of  the  incidents  recorded  in  the  life  of  Bd  Gonsalo 
(Gundisalvus),  a  Portuguese  of  high  family,  are  not  of  a  nature  to  inspire  confidence 
in  the  sobriety  of  his  biographer's  judgement.  At  the  very  outset  we  are  told  that 
when  carried  to  the  font  the  infant  fixed  his  eyes  on  the  crucifix  with  a  look  of 
extraordinary  love.  Then,  when  he  had  grown  up  and  been  ordained  priest,  he  is 
said  to  have  resigned  his  rich  benefice  to  his  nephew,  and  to  have  spent  fourteen 


January  17]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

years  upon  a  pilgrimage  to  the  Holy  Land.  On  his  return,  being  repulsed  by  his 
nephew,  who  set  the  dogs  on  him  as  a  vagrant,  he  was  supernaturally  directed  to 
enter  that  order  in  which  the  office  began  and  ended  with  the  Ave  Maria.  He 
accordingly  became  a  Dominican,  but  was  allowed  by  his  superiors  to  live  as  a 
hermit,  during  which  time  he  built,  largely  with  his  own  hands,  a  bridge  over  the 
river  Tamega.  When  the  labourers  whom  he  persuaded  to  help  him  had  no  wine 
to  drink,  and  he  was  afraid  that  they  would  go  on  strike,  he  betook  himself  to  prayer  ; 
and  then,  on  his  hitting  the  rock  with  his  stick,  an  abundant  supply  of  excellent 
wine  spouted  forth  from  a  fissure.  Again,  when  provisions  failed  he  went  to  the 
riverside  to  summon  the  fishes,  who  came  at  his  call  and  jumped  out  of  the  river, 
competing  for  the  privilege  of  being  eaten  in  so  worthy  a  cause.  Similarly,  we 
read  that  "  when  he  was  preaching  to  the  people,  desiring  to  make  them  understand 
the  effect  of  the  Church's  censures  upon  the  soul,  he  excommunicated  a  basket 
of  bread,  and  the  loaves  at  once  became  black  and  corrupt.  Then,  to  show  that 
the  Church  can  restore  to  her  communion  those  who  humbly  acknowledge  their 
fault,  he  removed  the  excommunication,  and  the  loaves  recovered  their  whiteness 
and  their  wholesome  savour  "  (Procter,  p.  3).  It  is  to  be  feared  that  legend  has 
played  a  considerable  part  in  filling  in  the  rather  obscure  outlines  of  the  biography. 
Bd  Gonsalo  died  on  January  10,  but  his  feast  is  kept  on  this  day  by  the  Dominicans, 
his  cultus  having  been  approved  in  1560. 

See  Castiglio,  Historia  Generale  di  S.  Domenico  e  dell*  Ordine  suo  (1589),  vol.  i,  pp.  299- 
304  ;  Procter,  Short  Lives  of  Dominican  Saints,  pp.  1-4  ;  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  10. 
The  miracle  of  the  fishes  is  said  to  have  occurred  not  once,  but  repeatedly  :  "  molte  e  diverse 
volte  ". 


ST   ANTONY    THE    ABBOT  (ad.  356) 

ST  ANTONY  was  born  at  a  village  south  of  Memphis  in  Upper  Egypt  in  251. 
His  parents,  who  were  Christians,  kept  him  always  at  home,  so  that  he  grew 
up  in  ignorance  of  what  was  then  regarded  as  polite  literature,  and  could  read 
no  language  but  his  own.  At  their  death  he  found  himself  possessed  of  a  consider- 
able estate  and  charged  with  the  care  of  a  younger  sister,  before  he  was  twenty  years 
of  age.  Some  six  months  afterwards  he  heard  read  in  the  church  those  wrords  of 
Christ  to  the  rich  young  man  :  "  Go,  sell  what  thou  hast,  <ind  give  it  to  the  poor, 
and  thou  shalt  have  treasure  in  Heaven  ".  Considering  these  words  as  addressed 
to  himself,  he  went  home  and  made  over  to  his  neighbours  his  best  land,  and  the 
rest  of  his  estate  he  sold  and  gave  the  price  to  the  poor,  except  what  he  thought 
necessary  for  himself  and  his  sister.  Soon  after,  hearing  in  the  church  those  other 
words  of  Christ,  "  Be  not  solicitous  for  to-morrow  ",  he  also  distributed  in  alms  the 
moveables  which  he  had  reserved,  and  placed  his  sister  in  a  house  of  maidens,  which 
is  commonly  assumed  to  be  the  first  recorded  mention  of  a  nunnery.  Antony 
himself  retired  into  solitude,  in  imitation  of  a  certain  old  man  who  led  the  life  of  a 
hermit  in  the  neighbourhood.  Manual  labour,  prayer  and  reading  were  his  whole 
occupation  ;  and  such  was  his  fervour  that  if  he  heard  of  any  virtuous  recluse,  he 
sought  him  out  and  endeavoured  to  take  advantage  of  his  example  and  instruction. 
In  this  way  he  soon  became  a  model  of  humility,  charity,  prayerfulness  and  many 
more  virtues. 


ST  ANTONY  THE  ABBOT  [January  17 

The  Devil  assailed  Antony  by  various  temptations,  representing  to  him  first  of 
all  many  good  works  he  might  have  been  able  to  carry  out  with  his  estate  in  the 
world,  and  the  difficulties  of  his  present  condition — a  common  artifice  of  the  enemy, 
whereby  he  strives  to  make  a  soul  dissatisfied  in  the  vocation  God  has  appointed. 
Being  repulsed  by  the  young  novice,  he  varied  his  method  of  attack,  and  harassed 
him  night  and  day  with  gross  and  obscene  imaginations.  Antony  opposed  to  his 
assaults  the  strictest  watchfulness  over  his  senses,  austere  fasts  and  prayer,  till 
Satan,  appearing  in  a  visible  form,  first  of  a  woman  coming  to  seduce  him,  then  of 
a  Negro  to  terrify  him,  at  length  confessed  himself  vanquished.  The  saint's  food 
was  only  bread,  with  a  little  salt,  and  he  drank  nothing  but  water  ;  he  never  ate 
before  sunset,  and  sometimes  only  once  in  three  or  four  days.  When  he  took  his 
rest  he  lay  on  a  rush  mat  or  the  bare  floor.  In  quest  of  a  more  remote  solitude  he 
withdrew  to  an  old  burial-place,  to  which  a  friend  brought  him  bread  from  time 
to  time.  Satan  was  here  again  permitted  to  assault  him  in  a  visible  manner,  and 
to  terrify  him  with  gruesome  noises  ;  indeed,  on  one  occasion  he  so  grievously  beat 
him  that  he  lay  almost  dead,  and  in  this  condition  was  found  by  his  friend.  When 
he  began  to  come  to  himself  Antony  cried  out  to  God,  "  Where  wast  thou,  my  Lord 
and  Master  ?  Why  wast  thou  not  here  from  the  beginning  of  this  conflict  to  render 
me  assistance  ?  "  A  voice  answered,  "  Antony,  I  was  here  the  whole  time  ;  I  stood 
by  thee  and  beheld  thy  combat ;  and  because  thou  hast  manfully  withstood  thy 
enemies,  I  will  always  protect  thee,  and  will  render  thy  name  famous  throughout 
the  earth." 

Hitherto  Antony,  ever  since  he  turned  his  back  on  the  world  in  272,  had  lived 
in  solitary  places  not  very  far  from  his  village  of  Koman  ;  and  St  Athanasius 
observes  that  before  him  many  fervent  persons  led  retired  lives  in  penance  and 
contemplation  near  the  towns,  while  others  followed  the  same  manner  of  life 
without  withdrawing  from  their  fellow  creatures.  Both  were  called  ascetics,  from 
their  being  devoted  to  the  exercise  of  mortification  and  prayer,  according  to  the 
import  of  the  Greek  word  aoKiqais  (practice  or  training).  Even  in  earlier  times 
we  find  mention  made  of  such  ascetics  ;  and  Origen,  about  the  year  249,  says  they 
abstained  from  flesh-meat  no  less  than  the  disciples  of  Pythagoras.  Eusebius  tells 
us  that  St  Peter  of  Alexandria  practised  austerities  equal  to  those  of  the  ascetics  ; 
he  says  the  same  of  Pamphilus,  and  St  Jerome  uses  the  same  expression  of  Pierius. 
St  Antony  had  led  this  manner  of  life  near  Koman  until  about  the  year  285  when, 
at  the  age  of  thirty-five,  he  crossed  the  eastern  branch  of  the  Nile  and  took  up  his 
abode  in  some  ruins  on  the  top  of  a  mountain,  in  which  solitude  he  lived  almost 
twenty  years,  rarely  seeing  any  man  except  one  who  brought  him  bread  every  six 

To  satisfy  the  importunities  of  others,  about  the  year  305,  the  fifty-fourth  of  his 
age,  he  came  down  from  his  mountain  and  founded  his  first  monastery,  in  the 
Fayum.  This  originally  consisted  of  scattered  cells,  but  we  cannot  be  sure  that 
the  various  colonies  of  ascetics  which  he  planted  out  in  this  way  were  all  arranged 
upon  the  same  plan.  He  did  not  stay  permanently  with  any  such  community,  but 
he  visited  them  occasionally,  and  St  Athanasius  tells  us  how,  in  order  to  reach  this 
first  monastery,  he  had,  both  in  going  and  returning,  to  cross  the  Arsinoitic  canal, 
which  was  infested  by  crocodiles.  It  seems,  however,  that  the  distraction  of  mind 
caused  by  this  intervention  in  the  affairs  of  his  fellow  men  gave  him  great  scruples, 
and  we  hear  even  of  a  temptation  to  despair,  which  he  could  only  overcome  by 
prayer  and  hard  manual  labour.      In  this  new  manner  of  life  his  daily  sustenance 


January  17]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

was  six  ounces  of  bread  soaked  in  water,  to  which  he  sometimes  added  a  few  dates. 
He  took  it  generally  after  sunset,  and  in  his  old  age  he  added  a  little  oil.  Sometimes 
he  ate  only  once  in  three  or  four  days,  yet  appeared  vigorous  and  always  cheerful ; 
strangers  knew  him  from  among  his  disciples  by  the  joy  on  his  countenance, 
resulting  from  the  inward  peace  of  his  soul.  St  Antony  exhorted  his  brethren  to 
allot  the  least  time  they  possibly  could  to  the  care  of  the  body,  notwithstanding 
which  he  was  careful  not  to  make  perfection  seem  to  consist  in  mortification  but  in 
the  love  of  God.  He  instructed  his  monks  to  reflect  every  morning  that  perhaps 
they  might  not  live  till  night,  and  every  evening  that  perhaps  they  might  never  see 
the  morning  ;  and  to  do  every  action  as  if  it  were  the  last  of  their  lives.  "  The 
Devil  ",  he  said,  "  dreads  fasting,  prayer,  humility  and  good  works  ;  he  is  not  able 
even  to  stop  my  mouth  who  speak  against  him.  His  illusions  soon  vanish,  especially 
if  a  man  arms  himself  with  the  sign  of  the  cross.' '  He  told  them  that  once  when 
the  Devil  appeared  to  him  and  said,  "  Ask  what  you  please  ;  I  am  the  power  of 
God,"  he  invoked  the  name  of  Jesus  and  the  tempter  vanished. 

In  the  year  311,  when  the  persecution  was  renewed  under  Maximinus,  St  Antony 
went  to  Alexandria  in  order  to  give  courage  to  the  martyrs.  He  publicly  wore  his 
white  tunic  of  sheep-skin  and  appeared  in  the  sight  of  the  governor,  yet  took  care 
never  presumptuously  to  provoke  the  judges  or  impeach  himself,  as  some  rashly 
did.  The  persecution  having  abated,  he  returned  to  his  monastery,  and  some  time 
after  organized  another,  called  Pispir,  near  the  Nile  ;  but  he  chose  for  the  most  part 
to  shut  himself  up  in  a  cell  upon  a  mountain  difficult  of  access  with  Macarius,  a 
disciple  whose  duty  it  was  to  interview  visitors.  If  he  found  them  to  be  Hiero- 
solymites,  i.e.  spiritual  men,  St  Antony  himself  sat  with  them  in  discourse  ;  if 
Egyptians  (by  which  name  they  meant  worldly  persons),  then  Macarius  entertained 
them,  and  Antony  only  appeared  to  give  them  a  short  exhortation.  Once  the  saint 
saw  in  a  vision  the  whole  earth  covered  so  thick  with  snares  that  it  seemed  scarce 
possible  to  set  down  a  foot  without  being  entrapped.  At  this  sight  he  cried  out 
trembling,  "  Who,  Lord,  can  escape  them  all  ?  "  A  voice  answered  him,  "  Humil- 
ity, Antony  !  " 

St  Antony  cultivated  a  little  garden  on  his  desert  mountain,  but  this  tillage  was 
not  the  only  manual  labour  in  which  he  employed  himself.  St  Athanasius  speaks 
of  his  making  mats  as  an  ordinary  occupation.  We  are  told  that  he  once  fell  into 
dejection,  finding  uninterrupted  contemplation  above  his  strength  ;  but  was  taught 
to  apply  himself  at  intervals  to  manual  work  by  an  angel  in  a  vision,  who  appeared 
platting  mats  of  palm-tree  leaves,  then  rising  to  pray,  and  after  some  time  sitting 
down  again  to  work,  and  who  at  length  said  to  him,  "  Do  thus,  and  relief  shall  come 
to  thee  ".  But  St  Athanasius  declares  that  Antony  continued  in  some  degree  to 
pray  whilst  he  was  at  work.  He  spent  a  great  part  of  the  night  in  contemplation  ; 
and  sometimes  when  the  rising  sun  called  him  to  his  daily  tasks  he  complained  that 
its  visible  light  robbed  him  of  the  greater  interior  light  which  he  enjoyed  when  left 
in  darkness  and  solitude.  After  a  short  sleep  he  always  rose  at  midnight,  and 
continued  in  prayer  on  his  knees  with  his  hands  lifted  to  Heaven  till  sunrise,  and 
sometimes  till  three  in  the  afternoon,  so,  at  least,  Palladius  informs  us  in  his  Lausiac 

St  Antony  in  the  year  339  saw  in  a  vision,  under  the  figure  of  mules  kicking 
down  the  altar,  the  havoc  which  the  Arian  persecution  was  to  cause  two  years  after 
in  Alexandria.  So  deep  was  the  impression  of  horror  that  he  would  not  speak  to 
a  heretic  unless  to  exhort  him  to  the  true  faith  ;    and  he  drove  all  such  from  his 


ST  ANTONY  THE  ABBOT  [January  17 

mountain,  calling  them  venomous  serpents.  At  the  request  of  the  bishops,  about 
the  year  355,  he  took  a  journey  to  Alexandria  to  confute  the  Arians,  preaching  that 
God  the  Son  is  not  a  creature,  but  of  the  same  substance  with  the  Father  ;  and  that 
the  Arians,  who  called  him  a  creature,  did  not  differ  from  the  heathen  themselves, 
"  who  worshipped  and  served  the  creature  rather  than  the  Creator  ".  All  the 
people  ran  to  see  him,  and  rejoiced  to  hear  him  ;  even  the  pagans,  struck  with  the 
dignity  of  his  character,  flocked  around  him,  saying,  "  We  want  to  see  the  man  of 
God  ".  He  converted  many,  and  even  worked  miracles.  St  Athanasius  conducted 
him  back  as  far  as  the  gates  of  the  city,  where  he  cured  a  girl  possessed  by  an  evil 
spirit.  Being  desired  by  the  governor  to  make  a  longer  stay  in  the  city,  he  answered, 
"  As  fish  die  if  they  are  taken  from  the  water,  so  does  a  monk  wither  away  if  "he 
forsake  his  solitude  ". 

St  Jerome  relates  that  at  Alexandria  Antony  met  the  famous  Didymus,  the 
blind  head  of  the  catechetical  school  there,  and  exhorted  him  not  to  regret  overmuch 
the  loss  of  eyes,  which  were  common  even  to  insects,  but  to  rejoice  in  the  treasure 
of  that  inner  light  which  the  apostles  enjoyed,  by  which  we  see  God  and  kindle  the 
fire  of  His  love  in  our  souls.  Heathen  philosophers  and  others  often  went  to 
discuss  with  him,  and  returned  astonished  at  his  meekness  and  wisdom.  When 
certain  philosophers  asked  him  how  he  could  spend  his  time  in  solitude  without 
even  the  alleviation  of  books,  he  replied  that  nature  was  his  great  book  and  amply 
supplied  the  lack  of  all  else.  When  others  came  to  ridicule  his  ignorance,  he  asked 
them  with  great  simplicity  which  was  best,  good  sense  or  book  learning,  and  which 
had  produced  the  other.  The  philosophers  answered,  "  Good  sense."  "  This, 
then  ",  said  Antony,  "  is  sufficient  of  itself."  Some  others  wishing  to  cavil  and 
demanding  a  reason  for  his  faith  in  Christ,  he  put  them  to  silence  by  showing  that 
they  degraded  the  notion  of  godhead  by  ascribing  to  it  human  passions  ;  but  that 
the  humiliation  of  the  Cross  is  the  greatest  demonstration  of  infinite  goodness,  and 
its  ignominy  is  shown  to  be  the  highest  glory  by  Christ's  triumphant  resurrection 
and  by  His  raising  of  the  dead  to  life  and  curing  the  blind  and  the  sick.  St 
Athanasius  mentions  that  he  disputed  with  these  Greeks  through  an  interpreter. 
Further,  he  assures  us  that  no  one  visited  St  Antony  under  any  affliction  who  did 
not  return  home  full  of  comfort  ;  and  he  relates  many  miraculous  cures  wrought 
by  him  and  several  heavenly  visions  and  revelations. 

About  the  year  337  Constantine  the  Great  and  his  two  sons,  Constantius  and 
Constans,  wrote  a  letter  to  the  saint,  recommending  themselves  to  his  prayers.  St 
Antony,  seeing  his  monks  surprised,  said,  "  Do  not  wonder  that  the  emperor  writes 
to  us,  a  man  even  as  I  am  ;  rather  be  astounded  that  God  should  have  written  to  us, 
and  that  He  has  spoken  to  us  by  His  Son  ".  He  said  he  knew  not  how  to  answer 
it ;  but  at  last,  through  the  importunity  of  his  disciples,  he  penned  a  letter  to  the 
emperor  and  his  sons,  which  St  Athanasius  has  preserved,  in  which  he  exhorts  them 
to  constant  remembrance  of  the  judgement  to  come.  St  Jerome  mentions  seven 
other  letters  of  St  Antony  to  divers  monasteries.  A  maxim  which  he  frequently 
repeats  is,  that  the  knowledge  of  ourselves  is  the  necessary  and  only  step  by  which 
we  can  ascend  to  the  knowledge  and  love  of  God.  The  Bollandists  give  us  a  short 
letter  of  St  Antony  to  St  Theodore,  abbot  of  Tabenna,  in  which  he  says  that  God 
had  assured  him  that  He  showed  mercy  to  all  true  worshippers  of  Jesus  Christ, 
even  though  they  should  have  fallen,  if  they  sincerely  repented  of  their  sin.  A 
monastic  rule,  which  bears  St  Antony's  name,  may  very  possibly  preserve  the 
general  features  of  his  system  of  ascetic  training.      In  any  case,  his  example  and 


January  17]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

instructions  have  served  as  a  trustworthy  rule  for  the  monastic  life  to  all  succeeding 
ages.  It  is  related  that  St  Antony,  hearing  his  disciples  express  surprise  at  the 
multitudes  who  embraced  the  religious  state,  told  them  with  tears  that  the  time 
would  come  when  monks  would  be  fond  of  living  in  cities  and  stately  buildings,  of 
eating  at  well-laden  tables,  and  be  only  distinguished  from  persons  of  the  world 
by  their  dress  ;  but  that  still  some  amongst  them  would  rise  to  the  spirit  of  true 

St  Antony  made  a  visitation  of  his  monks  a  little  before  his  death,  which  he 
foretold,  but  no  tears  could  move  him  to  die  among  them.  It  appears  from  St 
Athanasius  that  the  Christians  had  begun  to  imitate  the  pagan  custom  of  embalming 
the  bodies  of  the  dead,  an  abuse  which  Antony  had  often  condemned  as  proceeding 
from  vanity  and  sometimes  superstition.  He  gave  orders  that  he  should  be  buried 
in  the  earth  beside  his  mountain  cell  by  his  two  disciples,  Macarius  and  Amathas. 
Hastening  back  to  his  solitude  on  Mount  Kolzim  near  the  Red  Sea,  he  some  time 
after  fell  ill  ;  whereupon  he  repeated  to  these  disciples  his  orders  that  they  should 
bury  his  body  secretly  in  that  place,  adding,  "  In  the  day  of  the  resurrection  I  shall 
receive  it  incorruptible  from  the  hand  of  Christ  ".  He  ordered  them  to  give  one 
of  his  sheep-skins,  with  the  cloak  upon  which  he  lay,  to  the  bishop  Athanasius,  as 
a  public  testimony  of  his  being  united  in  faith  and  communion  with  that  holy 
prelate  ;  to  give  his  other  sheep-skin  to  the  bishop  Serapion  ;  and  to  keep  for 
themselves  his  sackcloth.  "  Farewell,  my  children.  Antony  is  departing,  and 
will  no  longer  be  with  you."  At  these  words  they  embraced  him,  and  he,  stretching 
out  his  feet,  without  any  other  sign,  calmly  ceased  to  breathe.  His  death  occurred 
in  the  year  356,  probably  on  January  17,  on  which  day  the  most  ancient  martyr- 
ologies  commemorate  him.  He  was  one  hundred  and  five  years  old.  From 
his  youth  to  that  extreme  old  age  he  always  maintained  the  same  fervour  and 
austerity  ;  yet  he  lived  without  sickness,  his  sight  was  not  impaired,  his  teeth  were 
only  worn,  not  one  was  lost  or  loosened.  The  two  disciples  interred  him  ac- 
cording to  his  directions.  About  the  year  561  his  remains  are  supposed  to  have 
been  discovered  and  translated  to  Alexandria,  thence  to  Constantinople,  and 
eventually  to  Vienne,  in  France.  The  Bollandists  print  an  account  of  many 
miracles  wrought  by  his  intercession,  particularly  of  those  connected  with  the 
epidemic  called  St  Antony's  Fire,  which  raged  violently  in  many  parts  of  Europe 
in  the  eleventh  century  about  the  time  of  the  translation  of  his  reputed  relics 

In  art  St  Antony  is  constantly  represented  with  a  taw-shaped  crutch  or  cross, 
a  little  bell,  a  pig,  and  sometimes  a  book.  The  crutch,  in  this  peculiarly  Egyptian 
T-shaped  form  of  the  cross,  may  be  simply  an  indication  of  the  saint's  great  age 
and  abbatial  authority,  or  it  may  very  possibly  have  reference  to  his  constant  use 
of  the  sign  of  the  cross,  in  his  conflict  with  evil  spirits.  The  pig,  no  doubt,  in  its 
origin,  denoted  the  Devil,  but  in  the  course  of  the  twelfth  century  it  acquired  a  new 
significance  owing  to  the  popularity  of  the  Hospital  Brothers  of  St  Antony,  founded 
at  Clermont  in  1096.  Their  works  of  charity  endeared  them  to  the  people,  and 
they  obtained  in  many  places  the  privilege  of  feeding  their  swine  gratuitously  upon 
the  acorns  and  beech  mast  in  the  woods.  For  this  purpose  a  bell  was  attached  to 
the  neck  of  one  or  more  sows  in  a  herd  of  pigs,  or  possibly  their  custodians  an- 
nounced their  coming  by  ringing  a  bell.  In  any  case,  it  seems  that  the  bell  became 
associated  with  the  members  of  the  order,  and  in  that  way  developed  into  an  attri- 
bute of  their  eponymous  patron.      The  book,  no  doubt,  has  reference  to  the  book  of 



nature  which  compensated  the  saint  for  the  lack  of  any  other  reading.  We  also  some- 
times find  flames  indicated,  which  are  typical  of  the  disease,  St  Antony's  Fire, 
against  which  the  saint  was  specially  invoked.*  His  popularity,  largely  due  to  the 
prevalence  of  this  form  of  epidemic  (see,  e.g.  the  Life  of  St  Hugh  of  Lincoln),  was 
very  great  in  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries.  He  was,  in  particular,  appealed 
to,  probably  on  account  of  his  association  with  the  pig,  as  the  patron  of  domestic 
animals  and  farm  stock,  so  that  gilds  of  butchers,  brushmakers,  etc.,  placed  them- 
selves under  his  protection.  Antony  is  named  in  the  preparation  of  the  Byzantine 
eucharistic  liturgy  and  in  the  canon  according  to  the  Coptic  and  Armenian  rites. 

The  main  authority  for  our  knowledge  of  St  Antony  is  the  Life  by  St  Athanasius,  the 
authorship  of  which  is  now  practically  undisputed  ;  there  is  an  English  trans,  by  Dr  R.  T. 
Meyer  in  the  Ancient  Christian  Writers  series,  and  others.  A  very  early  Latin  translation 
of  the  original  Greek  was  made  by  Evagrius,  and  a  Syriac  version  is  also  known.  (On  a 
second  Latin  rendering,  see  Wilmart,  in  the  Revue  Benedictine,  1914,  pp.  163-173.)  Inter- 
esting supplementary  details  are  also  contributed  by  Palladius  in  his  Historia  Lausiaca, 
Cassian,  and  the  later  church  historians.  The  literature  of  the  subject  is  considerable.  It 
will  be  sufficient  to  refer  to  Abbot  C.  Butler,  Lausiac  History,  vol.  i,  pp.  215-228,  and  in  the 
Catholic  Encyclopedia,  vol.  i,  pp.  553-555  ;  Hannay,  Christian  Monasticism,  pp.  95  seq.,  and 
pp.  274  seq.  ;  H.  Leclercq,  art.  "  C£nobitisme  ",  in  the  DAC.  ;  and  Fr  Cheneau,  Saints 
d'Egypte,  vol.  i,  pp.  1 53-181.  On  the  diabolical  assaults  and  temptations  which  figure  so 
prominently  in  the  life,  cf.  J.  Stoffels  in  Theologie  und  Glaube,  vol.  ii  (1910),  pp.  721  seq.,  and 
809  seq.  Some  fragments  of  what  seems  to  be  the  original  Coptic  of  three  of  St  Antony's 
letters  have  been  published  in  the  Journal  of  Theol.  Studies,  July,  1904,  pp.  540-545  ;  their 
authenticity  is  still  a  matter  of  dispute.  We  only  know  all  seven  in  an  imperfect  Latin 
translation.  The  suggestion  made  by  G.  Ghedini  (Lettere  cristiane  dei  papiri  greci,  1923, 
no.  19)  that  a  letter  in  Greek  on  a  fragment  of  papyrus  in  the  British  Museum  is  an  autograph 
of  St  Antony,  cannot  be  treated  seriously  ;  see  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xlii  (1924),-  p.  173. 
See  also  G.  Bardy  in  the  Dictionnaire  de  spiritualite,  vol.  i,  cc.  702-708  ;  L.  von  Hertling, 
Antonius  der  Einsiedler  (1930)  ;  B.  Lavaud,  Antoine  le  Grand  (1943)  ;  and  L.  Bouyer,  St 
Antoine  le  Grand  (1950),  a  valuable  essay  on  primitive  monastic  spirituality.  H.  Queffelec's 
biography  (1950)  is  "  une  vie  romance  ".  On  the  saint  in  art,  see  H.  Detzel,  Christliche 
Ikonographie,  vol.  ii,  pp.  85-88  ;  Jameson,  Sacred  and  Legendary  Art,  vol.  ii,  pp.  741  seq.  ; 
Drake,  Saints  and  Their  Emblems,  p.  11.  In  the  East  St  Antony  is  also  greatly  vener- 
ated, and  religious  communities  among  the  Maronites  and  Chaldeans,  and  the  Orthodox 
monks  of  Sinai,  still  profess  to  follow  his  rule.  See  also  Reitzenstein,  Des  Athanasius 
Wcrk  iiber  das  Leben  des  Antonius  (1914)  ;  and  Contzen,  Die  Regel  des  hi.  Antonius  (1896). 
There  is  no  justification  for  the  spelling  "  Anthony  "  in  this  or  any  other  example  of  the 


(A.D.    155  ?) 

These  are  stated  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  to  have  been  tergeminiy  three  twin 
brothers,  who,  with  their  grandmother,  Leonilla  (or  Neonilla),  suffered  martyrdom, 
apparently  at  Langres  in  France,  in  the  reign  of  Marcus  Aurelius.  The  whole 
story  seems  to  present  a  typical  example  of  a  fiction  which,  written  originally  for 
edification  or  mere  diversion,  has  been  adopted  in  all  seriousness,  and  transplanted 
to  other  lands  far  from  the  place  of  its  birth.  In  its  origin  the  romance  is  clearly 
connected  with  Cappadocia,  but  no  early  or  local  cult  can  be  cited  to  bear  out  any 
of  its  incidents.      How  it  happened  that  the  clergy  of  Langres  in  the  fifth  century 

*  Called  also  the  "  burning  sickness  ",  "  hell  fire  "  or  "  sacred  fire  ".  It  was  later 
identified  with  erysipelas  (called  in  Welsh  y  fendigaid,  "  the  blessed  ")  ;  but  it  appears 
originally  to  have  been  a  far  more  virulent  and  contagious  disorder,  caused  probably  by  the 
consumption  of  flour  made  from  grain  damaged  by  ergot. 


January  17]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

or  later  came  to  believe  themselves  to  be  in  possession  of  the  relics  of  these  martyrs 
cannot  now  be  explained.  The  relics  are  supposed  to  have  been  further  translated, 
at  least  in  part,  to  the  abbey  of  Ellwangen  in  Swabia. 

The  Latin  text  of  the  so-called  acts  is  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  17.  An 
unsatisfactory  Greek  version  has  also  been  printed  by  Leparev  and  by  Gr£goire,  and  a 
Georgian  paraphrase  by  Marr.  The  story  has  been  appealed  to  in  confirmation  of  the  theory, 
first  enunciated  by  Dr  Rendel  Harris,  that  the  pagan  cult  of  the  Dioscuri  (the  heavenly 
twins,  Castor  and  Pollux)  has  been  transplanted  bodily  into  Christian  hagiography  (see, 
e.g.  H.  Gr£goire,  Saints  jumeaux  et  dieux  cavaliers),  a  fantastic  thesis  to  which  full  justice 
has  been  done  by  H.  Delehaye  in  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vols,  xxiii,  pp.  427  seq.  ;  xxiv, 
505  seq.  ;  xxvi,  334  seq.  Cf.  also  C.  Weymann  in  the  Historisches  jfahrbuch,  vol.  xxix, 
PP-  575  seq. 

ST    GENULF,  or  GENOU,  Bishop        (a.d.  250  ?) 

The  early  episcopal  lists  in  many  French  dioceses,  as  Mgr  Duchesne  has  had 
occasion  to  point  out,  are  not  at  all  reliable,  and  the  very  existence  of  the  bishops 
who,  as  reputed  founders  or  patrons,  are  honoured  with  festivals  of  the  highest 
rank  is  in  some  cases  a  matter  of  doubt.  It  seems  that  the  abbey  of  Strada,  founded 
in  828  on  the  banks  of  the  Indre,  acquired  in  the  course  of  the  same  century  the 
relics  of  St  Genulf,  who  lived  with  another  monk,  St  Genitus,  at  a  place  now  called 
Celles-sur-Nahon.  About  the  year  1000  a  document  was  compiled  which  de- 
scribed Genulf  as  sent  from  Rome  with  his  father,  Genitus,  in  the  third  century, 
to  preach  the  gospel  in  Gaul.  They  came,  it  is  said,  to  a  township  (civitas  Gitur- 
nicensis),  where  they  stayed  a  few  months,  made  many  converts,  and  built  a  church  ; 
then  they  settled  in  a  solitude  on  the  banks  of  the  Nahon,  and  eventually  died  there 
surrounded  by  disciples.  There  is,  however,  nothing  to  identify  the  Giturnicenses 
with  the  Cadurcenses  (Cahors),  and  the  improbability  of  anyone  with  a  German 
name  like  Genulf  becoming  bishop  in  Gaul  during  the  third  century  is  extreme. 
From  this  and  other  difficulties  Mgr  Duchesne  concludes  that  the  late  tradition 
which  makes  St  Genulf  the  first  bishop  of  Cahors  is  quite  untrustworthy.  There 
is  no  scrap  of  respectable  evidence  to  justify  the  statement,  neither  does  the  Roman 
Martyrology  (June  17)  connect  "  Gundulphus  "  with  Cahors.  The  feast  of  St 
Genulf  is,  nevertheless,  kept  in  that  diocese  on  January  17  as  a  double  of  the  first 

See  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  17,  and  Duchesne,  Fastes  Jipiscopaux,  vol.  ii,  pp.  126-128. 

ST    JULIAN    SABAS        (a.d.  377) 

In  the  Roman  Martyrology  we  read  on  this  day  :  "  In  the  district  of  Edessa,  in 
Mesopotamia  (the  commemoration)  of  St  Julian,  the  hermit,  called  Sabas,  who, 
when  the  Catholic  faith  at  Antioch  had  almost  died  out  in  the  time  of  the  Emperor 
Valens,  restored  it  again  by  the  power  of  his  miracles  ".  Hiding  himself  from  the 
world  in  a  cave  in  Osrhoene  (beside  the  Euphrates)  he  practised  extraordinary 
asceticism,  eating  only  once  in  the  week.  After  the  expulsion  of  St  Meletius, 
Bishop  of  Antioch,  it  was  asserted  by  the  heretics  in  that  city  that  Julian 
Sabas,  whose  reputation  as  an  ascetic  stood  high,  had  embraced  Arian  doctrines. 
When  besought  by  the  orthodox  in  372  to  come  and  refute  the  slander,  he  com- 
plied, and  his  presence  in  Antioch  was  attended  by  the  most  beneficial  results. 
When  his  mission  was  accomplished  he  returned  to  his  cave,  and  died  not  long 

ST  SULPICIUS  II,  OR  SULPICE  [January  17 

afterwards.  Many  stupendous  miracles  are  attributed  to  him  by  the  Greek  hagio- 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  October  18,  where  Theodoret  is  cited  as  our  most  reliable 
source  of  information.  A  Syriac  version  of  Theodoret's  account  has  been  printed  by 
Bedjan  ;   see  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xvi  (1897),  p.  184  ;   and  BHG.,  nn.  67-68. 

ST    SABINUS,  Bishop  of  Piacenza        (a.d.  420) 

The  letters  of  St  Ambrose  to  Sabinus  bear  witness  to  the  close  friendship  between 
the  two  bishops,  as  also  to  the  high  reputation  for  learning  which  St  Sabinus 
enjoyed,  for  in  one  letter  St  Ambrose  asks  for  his  criticisms  of  some  treatises  which 
he  sent  to  him.  He  sat  in  the  Council  of  Aquileia  in  381  against  the  Arians,  and 
in  that  of  Milan  nine  years  later  against  Jovinian.  He  is  probably  identical  with 
the  Sabinus  who  was  a  deacon  at  Milan,  and  was  sent  by  Pope  St  Damasus  to  the 
East  in  connection  with  the  Arian  troubles  at  Antioch.  St  Gregory  has  preserved 
the  legend  according  to  which  St  Sabinus  averted  a  disastrous  flood  by  writing 
down  an  order  and  casting  the  paper  into  the  River  Po.  The  river  obeyed,  and 
returned  to  its  proper  channel.     He  is  said  to  have  died  on  December  11,  420. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  17. 

ST  SULPICIUS  II,  or  SULPICE,  Bishop  of  Bourges         (a.d.  647) 

The  life  of  St  Sulpicius  (Pius),  the  second  bishop  of  Bourges  of  that  name,  which 
is  one  of  the  few  biographies  admitted  even  by  Krusch  to  be  an  authentic  Merov- 
ingian document,  does  not  supply  very  much  detail,  but  it  must  have  been  composed 
within  a  few  years  of  the  bishop's  death,  and  the  sincerity  and  enthusiasm  of  the 
writer  are  unmistakable.  Sulpicius  was  the  son  of  wealthy  parents,  who  renounced 
the  idea  of  marriage  and  devoted  himself  even  from  his  youth  to  all  kinds  of  good 
works,  and  especially  to  care  for  the  poor.  Being  elected  bishop,  he  became  the 
father  of  his  people,  defended  them  against  the  tyranny  of  Lullo,  the  minister  of 
King  Dagobert,  and,  as  the  effect  of  a  general  fast  which  he  imposed  for  three  days, 
obtained  considerate  treatment  for  them  under  Clovis  II,  Dagobert's  successor. 
Various  miracles,  notably  the  extinction  of  a  great  conflagration  by  making  the  sign 
of  the  cross  over  it,  were  attributed  to  him  during  his  life,  and  many  more  took 
place  beside  his  tomb  after  death. 

The  chronological  data  are  scanty,  but  we  know  that  St  Sulpicius  attended  the 
Council  of  Clichy  in  627,  and  that  he  exchanged  letters  frequently  with  St  Didier 
of  Cahors,  whom  he  had  consecrated  bishop  in  630.  His  austerity  of  life  was 
remarkable.  He  spent  much  of  the  night  in  prayer,  fasted  continually,  and  recited 
the  entire  psalter  each  day.  By  the  force  of  his  example  and  his  exhortations  the 
whole  Jewish  population  of  Bourges  was  converted  to  Christianity.  Towards  the 
end  of  his  days,  finding  that  he  could  no  longer  give  the  same  amount  of  time  to 
the  care  of  the  poor  and  afflicted  whom  he  loved,  Sulpicius  obtained  leave  from  the 
king  to  appoint  another  bishop  in  his  place,  in  order  that  he  himself  might  have 
more  leisure  for  his  works  of  charity.  His  death,  in  647,  was  followed  by  extra- 
ordinary scenes  of  which  his  biographer  was  evidently  an  eye-witness.  He  com- 
pares the  outcry  and  lamentations  heard  on  all  sides  to  the  rumbling  of  thunder, 
and  tells  us  that  at  his  obsequies  the  vast  throng  of  people,  throwing  themselves 
flat  on  the  ground  in  their  sorrow  and  despair,  rendered  it  almost  impossible  for 


January  17]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

the  clergy  to  carry  out  the  offices.  "  O  good  shepherd  ",  they  cried,  "  guardian  of 
thy  people,  why  dost  thou  forsake  us  ?  To  whom  this  day  dost  thou  leave  us  ?  " 
Though  the  times  are  far  removed  from  our  own,  the  sketch  which  his  biographer 
has  left  us  gives  an  impression  of  such  charity,  zeal  and  strict  observance  as  seems 
befitting  in  the  patron  of  that  famous  Paris  seminary  which  was  afterwards  to  bear 
his  name. 

The  most  reliable  text  of  the  life  has  been  printed  by  B.  Krusch  in  MGH.,  Scriptores 
Merov.f  vol.  iv,  pp.  364-380,  from  MS.  Addit.  11880,  of  the  ninth  century,  in  the  British 
Museum.  See  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  17,  Duchesne,  Fastes  Episcopaux,  vol.  ii, 
pp  28-29,  and  BHL.,  n.  1146.  "Pius"  is  an  epithet  to  distinguish  Sulpicius  from  a 

ST   RICHIMIR,  Abbot        (c.  a.d.  715) 

Much  obscurity  overshadows  the  memory  of  St  Richimir.  His  name  is  omitted 
from  the  martyrologies.  Nothing  is  known  of  the  place  of  his  burial,  while  the 
country  which  he  sanctified  has  long  since  abandoned  devotion  to  him.  For- 
tunately a  contemporary  life  has  been  preserved.  The  anonymous  author  relates 
how  St  Richimir,  while  not  yet  in  orders,  went  to  Gilbert,  Bishop  of  Le  Mans,  and 
asked  permission  to  settle  in  his  diocese,  together  with  a  few  followers,  and  to 
found  a  monastery  under  the  Rule  of  St  Benedict.  The  bishop  gladly  assented, 
and  offered  him  a  suitable  property.  But  Richimir  preferred  wild  and  desolate 
land  which  had  yet  to  be  cultivated.  Having  been  ordained,  he  set  out  for  the 
Loire  and  built  a  cell  near  the  river.  When  the  bishop  heard  of  his  great  poverty, 
he  gladly  sent  him  the  necessaries  of  life,  although  Richimir  accepted  these  only 
reluctantly.  Apparently  the  position  was  not  suitable,  for  he  abandoned  it  and 
selected  a  place  not  far  distant,  called  later  Saint-Rigomer-des-Bois.  There  he 
built  a  church  in  honour  of  the  Apostles,  and  founded  a  monastery  over  which  he 
ruled  as  abbot  till  his  death  about  715. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  17,  and  Mabillon,  vol.  iii,  part  i,  pp.  228-232. 

BD    ROSELINE,  Virgin        (a.d.  1329) 

This  holy  Carthusian  nun,  Roseline  de  Villeneuve,  was  of  very  distinguished 
ancestry.  Her  father  was  Baron  des  Arcs,  and  her  mother  was  a  de  Sabran.  She 
had  to  overcome  strong  family  opposition  before  she  could  finally  execute  her 
purpose  of  consecrating  herself  to  God.  She  had  been  educated  by  the  nuns  of 
St  Clare,  but  found  her  own  vocation  in  following  the  austere  Carthusian  rule. 
She  seems  to  have  been  received  in  the  convent  of  Bertrand  at  the  age  of  twenty-five, 
and  twelve  years  later  was  made  prioress  of  Celle  Roubaud,  in  Provence,  where  she 
died,  January  17,  1329.  She  occasionally  passed  a  whole  week  together  without 
taking  food  ;  she  punished  herself  with  terrible  disciplines,  and  never  gave  more 
than  three  or  four  hours  to  sleep.  She  used  to  teach  her  nuns  to  have  a  great  dread 
of  those  words,  "  I  know  you  not  ",  in  order  that  they  might  make  sure  of  hearing 
the  greeting,  "  Come,  ye  blessed  of  my  Father."  When  Roseline  was  asked  what 
was  the  best  means  of  getting  to  Heaven,  she  often  replied,  "  To  know  oneself  ". 
She  had  frequent  visions  and  ecstasies,  and  possessed  an  extraordinary  gift  of 
reading  the  hearts  of  all  who  came  to  her.  Her  body  was  indescribably  beautiful 
after  death,  and  no  sign  of  rigidity  or  corruption  appeared  in  it.  Five  years 
afterwards  it  was  still  perfectly  preserved,  and  the  ecclesiastic  who  presided  at  the 


ST  PETER'S  CHAIR  AT  ROME  [January  18 

exhumation  thought  the  living  appearance  of  the  eyes  so  wonderful  that  he  had 
them  enucleated  and  kept  in  a  reliquary  apart.  The  body  was  still  quite  entire  a 
hundred  years  later,  and  the  eyes  had  neither  shrivelled  nor  decayed  as  late  as  1644. 
Her  cultus  was  confirmed  in  1851. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  June  11  ;   Le  Couteulx,  Annales  Ordinis  Cartusiensis,  vol.  v, 
pp.  262-268  ;    ViJleneuve-Flayose,  Histoire  de  Ste  Roseline  de  Villeneuve  (1866). 


•  ST    PETER'S    CHAIR   AT   ROME 

ST  PETER,  having  triumphed  over  Satan  in  the  East,  pursued  the  enemy 
to  Rome  with  unabated  energy.  He  who  had  formerly  trembled  at  the  voice 
of  a  servant-maid,  now  feared  not  the  stronghold  of  idolatry  and  superstition. 
The  capital  of  the  empire  of  the  world,  and  the  centre  of  impiety,  called  for  the  zeal 
of  the  leader  of  the  Apostles.  The  Roman  empire  had  extended  its  dominion 
beyond  that  of  any  former  monarchy,  and  the  influence  of  its  metropolis  was  of  the 
greatest  human  importance  for  the  spread  of  Christ's  gospel.  St  Peter  claimed 
that  province  for  himself ;  and  repairing  to  Rome,  there  preached  the  faith  and 
established  his  episcopal  chair,  and  from  him  the  bishops  of  Rome  in  all  ages  have 
derived  their  succession.  That  SS.  Peter  and  Paul  founded  that  church  is  expressly 
asserted  by  Caius,  a  priest  of  Rome  under  Pope  St  Zephyrinus  (quoted  by  Eusebius, 
Hist,  eccl.y  bk  ii,  c.  25),  who  relates  also  that  his  body  was  then  on  the  Vatican  hill, 
and  that  of  his  fellow-labourer,  St  Paul,  on  the  Ostian  road.  That  he  and  St  Paul 
planted  the  faith  in  Rome,  and  were  both  crowned  with  martyrdom  there,  is  affirmed 
by  St  Dionysius,  Bishop  of  Corinth,  in  the  second  century.  St  Irenaeus,  in  the 
same  century,  calls  the  church  at  Rome  "  The  greatest  and  most  ancient  church, 
founded  by  the  two  glorious  apostles,  Peter  and  Paul." 

Nevertheless,  doubt  has  been  cast  upon  the  historical  fact  of  St  Peter's  presence 
in  Rome.  It  is  pointed  out  that  no  clear  contemporary  statement  can  be  adduced 
in  proof  of  his  residence  there,  that  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  suggest  nothing  of  the 
kind,  that  the  only  thing  we  know  concerning  his  later  life  is  that  his  own  first 
epistle  was  written  from  "  Babylon  ",  that  the  so-called  Roman  tradition  is  inex- 
tricably mixed  up  with  fabulous  legends  about  Simon  Magus  which  no  serious 
scholar  would  now  dream  of  defending,  and  that  the  twenty-five  years'  Roman 
episcopate,  attributed  to  St  Peter  with  a  quite  suspicious  unanimity  by  later 
historians  such  as  Eusebius,  cannot  be  reconciled  with  the  other  data  they  supply 
and  with  the  complete  silence  of  St  Paul  concerning  his  fellow  apostle  in  his  Epistle 
to  the  Romans.  But  these  difficulties  have  been  duly  considered  and  answered 
not  only  by  Catholic  apologists,  but  by  eminent  Anglicans  such  as  Bishop  Lightfoot, 
Professor  C.  H.  Turner  and  Dr  George  Edmundson,  as  well  as  by  Lutherans  of 
the  standing  of  Harnack  and  Zahn.  The  grounds  upon  which  the  Roman  tradition 
is  based  are  stated  concisely  and  clearly  by  the  Anglican  Dr  F.  H.  Chase,  Bishop  of 
Ely,  in  the  following  passage  : 

The  strength  of  the  case  for  St  Peter's  visit  to  and  martyrdom  at  Rome  lies 
not  only  in  the  absence  of  any  rival  tradition,  but  also  in  the  fact  that  many 
streams  of  evidence  converge  to  this  result.  We  have  the  evidence  of  official 
lists  and  documents  of  the  Roman  church,  which  prove  the  strength  of  the 


January  18]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

tradition  in  later  times,  and  which,  at  least  in  some  cases,  must  rest  on  earlier 
documents.  The  notice  of  the  transference  of  the  apostle's  body  to  a  new 
resting-place  in  258,  and  the  words  of  Caius,  show  that  the  tradition  was 
definite  and  unquestioned  at  Rome  in  the  first  half  of  the  third  century.  The 
fact  that  Caius  is  arguing  with  an  Asiatic  opponent,  the  evidence  of  the  [gnostic] 
Acts  of  Peter,  the  passages  quoted  from  Origen,  Clement  of  Alexandria  and 
Tertullian,  show  that  at  the  same  period  the  tradition  was  accepted  in  the 
churches  of  Asia,  of  Alexandria  and  Carthage.  The  passage  of  Irenaeus 
carries  the  evidence  backward  well  within  the  second  century,  and  is  of  special 
importance,  as  coming  from  one  who  had  visited  Rome,  whose  list  of  Roman 
bishops  suggests  that  he  had  had  access  to  official  documents,  and  who  through 
Polycarp  was  in  contact  with  the  personal  knowledge  of  St  John  and  his 

Further,  Dr  Chase  went  on  to  point  out  that  the  close  association  of  the  mar- 
tyrdom of  St  Peter  with  that  of  St  Paul  in  the  reference  made  to  them  by  St  Clement, 
pope  at  the  end  of  the  first  century,  in  the  unquestionably  genuine  letter  he  wrote 
to  the  church  of  Corinth,  forms  a  strong  presumption  that  he,  who  must  have 
known  the  truth,  identified  both  apostles  equally  with  Rome.  Dr  Chase's  article 
was  written  in  1900,  and  since  then  much  fresh  evidence  has  come  to  light.  It  will 
be  noticed  that  he  refers  to  the  transference  of  the  apostle's  body  to  a  new  resting 
place  in  258.  We  cannot  affirm  that  this  translation,  which  was  in  any  case  only 
temporary,  is  a  certain  fact. 

The  historical  weight  of  this  tradition  was  affirmed  in  eloquent  terms  by  another 
Anglican  divine,  Dr  George  Edmundson,  in  a  Bampton  lecture  given  before  the 
University  of  Oxford  in  19 13,  wherein  he  states  that  "  a  tradition  accepted  univer- 
sally and  without  a  single  dissentient  voice  associates  the  foundation  and  organiza- 
tion of  the  church  of  Rome  with  the  name  of  St  Peter,  and  speaks  of  his  active 
connection  with  the  church  as  extending  over  a  period  of  some  twenty-five  years  ". 
"  It  is  needless  ",  he  goes  on,  "  to  multiply  references.  In  Egypt  and  in  Africa, 
in  the  East  and  in  the  West,  no  other  place  ever  disputed  with  Rome  the  honour  of 
being  the  see  of  St  Peter  ;  no  other  place  ever  claimed  that  he  died  there,  or  that 
it  possessed  his  tomb.  Most  significant  of  all  is  the  consensus  of  the  oriental, 
non-Greek-speaking  churches.  A  close  examination  of  Armenian  and  Syriac 
manuscripts  .  .  .  through  several  centuries  has  failed  to  discover  a  single  writer 
who  did  not  accept  the  Roman  Petrine  tradition." 

It  was  undoubtedly  an  ancient  custom  throughout  the  West  to  keep  as  a  festival 
the  anniversary  of  the  consecration  of  the  bishop.  St  Augustine  has  a  treatise 
de  natali  episcopi,  and  St  Leo  three  sermons  of  which  the  subject  is  the  natalis 
cathedrae,  "  the  birthday  ",  or  anniversary,  "  of  the  chair  "  (i.e.  of  his  installation 
as  bishop).  That  some  commemoration  of  St  Peter's  enthronement  as  bishop  of 
Rome  should  have  been  observed  from  an  early  date  was  to  be  expected.  In  point 
of  fact,  our  calendar  now  contains,  and  has  contained  for  more  than  a  thousand  years 
past,  two  entries  which  recall  the  memory  of  St  Peter's  connection  with  the  episcopal 
office.  That  of  the  day  with  which  we  are  now  concerned  is  expressly  referred  to 
"  the  chair  on  which  he  first  sat  in  Rome  "  ;  that  of  February  22  professes  to  com- 
memorate his  earlier  ministry  in  Antioch.  As  the  result  of  much  investigation  and 
debate  the  conclusion  now  more  generally  adopted  is  that  there  was  originally 


ST  PRISCA  [January  18 

only  one  feast  of  St  Peter's  chair  ;  further,  that  this  was  kept  on  February  22, 
and  had  no  reference  to  Antioch,  but  only  to  the  beginning  of  his  episcopate 
at  Rome.*  It  seems,  then,  that  any  discussion  of  the  rather  complicated 
problem  of  the  duplication  of  the  feast  may  most  fittingly  be  reserved  for 
February  22. 

For  the  present  it  will  be  sufficient  to  point  out  that,  in  the  view  of  some 
archaeologists,  the  material  relic  known  as  "  St  Peter's  chair  ",  which  is  now  pre- 
served in  a  casing  of  bronze  by  Bernini  over  the  apsidal  altar  of  St  Peter's  basilica 
in  Rome,  must  be  regarded  as  an  important  element  in  the  development  of  these 
feasts.  Some  lay  stress  upon  the  fact  that  St  Paul  (Rom.  xvi  5)  sends  greetings  to 
"  the  church  which  is  at  the  house  of  Prisca  and  Aquila  ",  seeming  to  point  to  some 
primitive  meeting-place  of  a  community  of  Roman  Christians,  and  they  urge  that 
such  a  portable  chair  as  the  relic  in  question  might  naturally  have  been  used  as  an 
improvised  bishop's  stool  in  a  private  house.  This  might,  then,  have  been  "  the 
chair  on  which  St  Peter  first  sat  in  Rome  ",  though  after  a  few  years  some  more 
spacious  place  of  assembly  may  have  been  provided  in  which  a  permanent  seat 
could  be  constructed.  It  is,  in  any  case,  curious  that  the  house  of  Prisca  and  Aquila 
seems  to  have  developed  in  course  of  time  into  the  still  existing  church  of  St  Prisca 
on  the  Aventine,  and  that  the  feast  of  the  dedication  of  this  church  was  kept  on 
February  22.  On  the  other  hand,  a  St  Prisca,  martyr,  is  commemorated  on  this 
day,  January  18.  But  obviously  nothing  more  than  vague  conjectures  can  be  based 
on  indications  of  this  kind.  All  that  we  definitely  know  is  that  since  the  end  of  the 
sixth  century,  when  the  Auxerre  redaction  of  the  so-called  Martyrologium  Hiero- 
nymianum  was  compiled,  the  feast  of  "  St  Peter's  chair  at  Rome  "  has  been  honoured 
pretty  generally  throughout  the  West  on  this  day. 

In  a  Motu  Proprio  of  John  XXIII  dated  July  25,  I960,  this  feast  was 
dropped  from   the  Roman   Calendar. 

See  F.  Cabrol  in  DAC,  vol.  iii,  cc.  76-90  ;  CMH.,  pp.  45-46,  109  ;  and  L.  Duchesne, 
Christian  Worship  (1919),  pp.  277-280.  Cf.  herein  St  Peter,  June  29,  and  his  Chair  at 
Antioch,  February  22. 

ST   PRISCA,  Virgin  and  Martyr        (Date  Unknown) 

Great  confusion  and  uncertainty  prevail  regarding  the  saint  who  is  commemorated 
on  this  day  under  the  name  of  Prisca.  On  the  one  hand,  it  is  unquestionable  that 
the  so-called  "  acts  ",  dating  at  earliest  from  the  tenth  century,  are  historically 
worthless,  for  they  simply  reproduce,  with  slight  changes,  the  legendary  Passion 
of  St  Tatiana.  On  the  other  hand,  there  was,  beyond  doubt,  a  genuine  and  early 
cultus  in  Rome  of  at  least  one  St  Prisca,  or  Priscilla.  The  itineraries  nearly  all 
mention  her  as  a  martyr,  and  indicate  the  place  of  her  interment  in  the  catacomb  of 
Priscilla  on  the  Via  Salaria.  Moreover,  as  stated  above  in  connection  with  St 
Peter's  chair,  there  is  a  church  on  the  Aventine  dedicated  to  St  Prisca  which 
furnishes  a  cardinalitial  title,  and  which,  from  the  fourth  to  the  eighth  century,  was 
known  as  the  titulus  S.  Priscae,  but  later  (c.  800)  as  titulus  Aquilae  et  Priscae.  This 
last  designation  clearly  refers  to  the  Aquila  and  his  wife,  Prisca,  of  whom  we  read 
more  than  once  in  the  New  Testament  in  connection  with  St  Paul.  The  husband 
and  wife,  however,  are  commemorated  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  on  July  8,  and 
are  there  assigned  to  Asia  Minor.  Many  conjectures  have  been  made  to  elucidate 
the  problem,  and  in  particular  it  has  been  pointed  out  that  Prisca  seems  to  have 

*  In  the  Benedictine  calendar,  approved  in  191 5,  the  two  "  chair  "  feasts  have  been 
subsumed  in  one,  St  Peter'    Chair,  on  February  22. 


January  18]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

been  a  favourite  name  among  the  Acilii  Glabriones,  and  also  that  the  name  which 
is  written  in  Latin  as  Aquila  appears  in  Greek  as  'AkvXcls  ;  but  no  clear  solution 
has  yet  been  arrived  at. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  18  ;  Marucchi  in  Nuovo  Bullettino  di  archeol.  crist., 
vol.  xiv  (1908),  pp.  5  seq.  ;  Duchesne,  Liber  Pontificalis,  vols,  i,  pp.  501,  517  ;  ii,  201  ;  Pio 
Franchi  de'  Cavalieri  in  the  Romische  Quarialschrift,  1903,  p.  223  ;  and  De  Rossi,  Roma  Softer- 
ranea,  vol.  i,  p.  176. 

ST   VOLUSIAN,  Bishop  of  Tours        (a.d.  496) 

Volusian,  who  was,  it  is  stated,  of  senatorial  rank,  occupied  the  see  of  Tours  from 
488  to  496.  From  a  letter  addressed  to  him  by  Ruricius,  Bishop  of  Limoges,  which 
is  couched  in  not  very  friendly  terms,  it  would  seem  that  Volusian  was  married 
(it  must  be  remembered  that  the  discipline  of  sacerdotal  celibacy  had  not  at  this 
date  been  enforced  even  in  the  West),  and  that  his  wife  had  a  temper  which  was  a 
terror  to  all  their  acquaintance.  Volusian  had  apparently  complained  that  he  lived 
in  fear  of  the  Goths.  Ruricius  replied,  with  an  obvious  reference  to  this  early  Mrs 
Proudie,  that  a  man  who  could  encourage  an  enemy  in  his  own  household  had  no 
business  to  be  afraid  of  enemies  from  outside  (timere  hostem  non  debet  extraneum 
qui  consuevit  sustinere  dotnesticum).  We  learn  from  Gregory  of  Tours  that  Volusian 
was  in  the  end  driven  from  his  see  by  the  Goths,  who  suspected  him  of  wishing  to 
come  to  terms  with  the  Franks,  and  that  going  into  exile  in  Spain  he  died  soon 
afterwards.  Later  accounts  state  that  he  was  further  attacked  by  his  persecutors 
and  decapitated,  and  it  is  probably  on  the  ground  of  this  supposed  martyrdom  that 
he  has  been  honoured  as  a  saint. 

See  the  Acta  Sancrum,  January  18  ;  MGH.,  Auctores  antiquissimi,  vol.  viii,  p.  350  ; 
Duchesne,  Fastes  Episcopaux,  vol.  ii,  p.  301  ;  and  H.  Thurston  in  The  Month,  June,  191 1, 
pp.  642-644. 

ST   DEICOLUS,  or  DESLE,  Abbot        (c.  a.d.  625) 

He  quitted  Ireland,  his  native  country,  with  St  Columban  and  lived  with  him  at 
Luxeuil ;  but  when  his  master  left  France,  he  founded  the  abbey  of  Lure,  in  the 
diocese  of  Besancon,  where  he  ended  his  days  as  a  hermit.  Amidst  his  austerities 
the  joy  and  peace  of  his  soul  appeared  in  his  countenance.  St  Columban  once  said 
to  him  in  his  youth,  "  Deicolus,  why  are  you  always  smiling  ?  "  He  answered  in 
simplicity,  "  Because  no  one  can  take  God  from  me."  He  died  probably  in  the 
year  625. 

See  his  life  and  the  history  of  his  miracles  in  Mabillon,  vol.  ii,  pp.  102-116,  and  MGH., 
Scriptores,  vol.  xvf  pp.  675-682,  both  written  by  a  monk  of  Lure  in  the  tenth  century.  This 
saint  is  often  called  Deicola,  but  in  ancient  MSS.  Deicolus.  In  Franche-Comte'  the  French 
version  of  his  name,  Desle,  used  frequently  to  be  given  in  baptism.  See  also  Gougaud, 
Gaelic  Pioneers  of  Christianity,  pp.  134-135  ;  M.  Stokes,  Forests  of  France,  p.  177,  etc.  ; 
LIS.,  vol.  i,  p.  301  ;   and  J.  Giradot,  La  vie  de  St  Desle  (1947). 

BD    BEATRICE   D'ESTE    OF    FERRARA,  Widow        (a.d.  1262) 

This  nun  was  the  niece  of  another  Bd  Beatrice  d'Este,  of  Gemmola,  whose 
feast  is  kept  on  May  10.  We  have  no  full  account  of  the  life  of  Beatrice  the 
younger,  and  it  is  not  even  quite  certain  whether  she  had  been  married  or  not 
before  she  consecrated  her  life  to  God  in  the  Benedictine  convent  of  St  Antony 



at  Ferrara,  a  convent  which  appears  to  have  been  founded  at  her  special  desire 
by  the  powerful  family  to  which  she  belonged.  She  lived  and  died  in  the 
repute  of  great  holiness,  and  it  was  stated  in  the  seventeenth  century  that  from 
the  marble  tomb  in  which  her  remains  were  enshrined  an  oily  liquid  still 
exuded  which  worked  many  surprising  miracles  of  healing.  The  cultus  of 
this  Beatrice,  which  had  always  been  maintained  at  Ferrara,  was  confirmed  in 

In  an  appendix  to  the  January  section  of  the  Acta  Sanctorum  the  Bollandists  printed  such 
fragments  of  information  as  they  were  able  to  collect  concerning  Bd  Beatrice.  See  also  the 
Analecta  Juris  Pontificii  for  1880,  p.  668. 

BD    CHRISTINA    OF   AQUILA,  Virgin        (a.d.  1543) 

The  family  name  of  this  Christina  was  Ciccarelli,  and  when  she  was  born  in 
the  Abruzzi  she  received  in  baptism  the  name  of  Matthia.  Entering  the 
convent  of  Augustinian  hermitesses  at  Aquila  at  an  early  age,  she  was  there 
called  Sister  Christina.  In  the  cloister  she  showed  herself  a  model  of  virtue, 
but  she  was  especially  remarkable  for  her  humility  and  love  of  the  poor. 
She  gave  long  hours  to  prayer,  was  often  rapt  in  ecstasy,  and  seemed  to  possess 
a  knowledge  of  future  events.  She  is  also  said  to  have  practised  severe  penance, 
and  to  have  worked  many  miracles,  but  our  information  about  her  is  scanty. 
When  she  died  on  January  18,  1543,  it  is  stated  that  the  children  of  Aquila 
went  through  the  town  proclaiming  the  news  of  her  death  by  "  shouting  and 
singing  ",  with  the  result  that  an  enormous  concourse  of  people  attended  her 
obsequies.  The  cultus  paid  to  her  from  time  immemorial  was  confirmed  in 
1 841. 

See  P.  Seebock,  Die  Herrlichkeit  der  katholischen  Kirche  (1900),  p.  297,  and  biographical 
details  in  the  decree  of  confirmation. 


•  SS.  MARIUS,  MARTHA,  AUDIFAX  and  ABACHUM,  Martyrs 

(c.    A.D.    260) 

MARIUS  (Maris),  a  nobleman  of  Persia,  with  his  wife  Martha,  and  two 
sons,  Audifax  and  Abachum,  being  converted  to  the  faith,  distributed 
his  fortune  among  the  poor,  as  the  primitive  Christians  did  at  Jerusalem, 
and  came  to  Rome  to  visit  the  tombs  of  the  apostles.  The  Emperor  Claudius  was 
then  persecuting  the  Church,  and  by  his  order  a  great  number  of  Christians  were 
driven  into  the  amphitheatre,  shot  to  death  with  arrows,  and  their  bodies  burnt. 
Our  saints  gathered  and  buried  their  ashes  with  respect ;  for  which  they  were 
apprehended,  and  after  many  torments  under  the  governor  Marcian,  Marius  and 
his  two  sons  were  beheaded  ;  Martha  was  drowned,  thirteen  miles  from  Rome,  at 
a  place  now  called  Santa  Ninfa.  They  were  buried  on  the  Via  Cornelia,  and  they 
are  mentioned  with  distinction  in  all  the  western  martyrologies  on  January  20  ; 
but  their  feast  is  kept  to-day. 

We  cannot  place  any  great  confidence  in  the  "  acts  "  of  these  martyrs,  but  the  document 
is  not  contemptible  ;  they  have  been  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  19.  See  also 
Allard,  Histoire  des  Persecutions,  vol.  iii,  pp.  214  seq.  ;   and  BHL.,  n«  5543. 


January  19]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

ST   GERMANICUS,  Martyr        (a.d.  155  ?) 

We  know  nothing  of  St  Germanicus  beyond  what  we  learn  from  the  letter  of  the 
Christians  of  Smyrna  who,  writing  of  the  persecution  which  led  to  the  arrest  of 
St  Polycarp,  tell  us  :  "  But  thanks  be  to  God  ;  for  He  verily  prevailed  against  all. 
For  the  right  noble  Germanicus  encouraged  their  timorousness  through  the  con- 
stancy which  was  in  him,  and  he  fought  with  the  wild  beasts  in  a  signal  way.  For 
when  the  proconsul  wished  to  prevail  upon  him,  and  bade  him  have  pity  on  his 
youth,  he  used  violence  and  dragged  the  wild  beast  towards  him,  desiring  the  more 
speedily  to  obtain  release  from  their  unrighteous  and  lawless  way  of  living.  So, 
after  this,  all  the  multitude  marvelling  at  the  bravery  of  the  God-beloved  and 
God-fearing  people  of  the  Christians,  raised  a  cry,  '  Away  with  the  atheists  !  Look 
for  Polycarp  !  '  "  This  narrative,  however,  may  count  as  one  of  the  most  authentic 
memorials  now  extant  of  the  history  of  the  early  Christian  Church.  Eusebius,  in 
his  Historia  Ecclesiastica,  quotes  the  passage,  and  we  possess  the  complete  text 
independently.  It  is  also  noteworthy  that  Germanicus  actually  did  what  St 
Ignatius  of  Antioch  expresses  his  intention  of  doing  {ad  Rom.  5) — viz.  he  provoked 
the  wild  beast  to  attack  him  that  he  might  be  released  the  sooner  from  the  ungodly 
companionship  of  the  pagans  and  Jews  amongst  whom  he  lived.  It  is  noteworthy 
that  the  Roman  Martyrology  also  directs  our  thoughts  to  the  example  of  St  Ignatius 
by  saying  that  Germanicus,  "  who  was  ground  by  the  teeth  of  the  beast,  merited 
to  be  one  with  the  true  bread,  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  by  dying  for  His  sake  ". 

See  Lightfoot,  Apostolic  Fathers,  part  ii,  vol.  iii,  p.  478  ;  Delehaye,  Les  passions  des 
martyrs  .  .  .  (1921),  pp.  12  seq.,  and  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  19.  On  the  date,  see  note 
to  St  Polycarp  herein,  under  January  26. 

ST   NATHALAN,  Bishop        (a.d.  678) 

The  curiously  extravagant  legend  of  St  Nathalan,  whose  cult  was  confirmed  by 
Pope  Leo  XIII  in  1898,  and  whose  feast  is  now  kept  at  Aberdeen  on  January  19, 
cannot  be  better  given  than  in  the  words  of  the  Aberdeen  breviary  :  "  Nathalan  is 
believed  to  have  been  born  in  the  northern  parts  of  the  Scotti,  in  ancient  times,  at 
Tullicht  in  the  diocese  of  Aberdeen  ;  a  man  of  great  sanctity,  who,  after  he  had 
come  to  man's  estate  and  been  imbued  with  the  liberal  arts,  devoted  himself  and 
his  wholly  to  divine  contemplation.  And  when  he  learned  that  amongst  the  works 
of  man's  hands  the  cultivation  of  the  soil  approached  nearest  to  divine  contempla- 
tion, though  educated  in  a  noble  family  with  his  own  hands  he  practised  the  lowly 
art  of  tilling  the  fields,  abandoning  ail  other  occupations  that  his  mind  might  never 
be  sullied  by  the  impure  solicitations  of  the  flesh.  Meanwhile,  as  he  warred  against 
the  Devil  and  the  perishing  world,  a  terrible  famine  broke  out  among  his  neighbours, 
relations  and  friends,  so  that  almost  the  whole  people  were  in  danger  of  perishing 
by  hunger.  But  God's  saint,  Nathalan,  moved  by  the  greatest  pity,  distributed  all 
his  grain  and  whatever  else  he  had,  for  the  name  of  Christ,  to  the  poor  ;  but  when 
the  time  of  spring  came,  when  all  green  things  are  committed  to  the  bowels  of  the 
earth,  not  having  aught  to  sow  in  the  land  which  he  cultivated,  by  divine  revelation 
he  ordered  it  all  to  be  strewn  and  sown  with  sand,  from  which  sand  thus  sown  a 
great  crop  of  all  kinds  of  grain  grew  up  and  was  greatly  multiplied. 

"  But  in  the  time  of  harvest,  when  many  people  of  both  sexes  were  collected 
by  him  to  gather  in  the  crop,  there  came  a  tempest  of  rain  and  a  whirlwind,  so  that 


ST  ALBERT  OF  CASHEL  [January  19 

these  husbandmen  and  women  were  forced  to  abstain  from  labour.  Therefore  he, 
excited  by  anger,  along  with  the  other  reapers  murmured  a  little  against  God  ;  but 
on  the  tempest  abating,  feeling  that  he  had  offended  Him,  in  a  spirit  of  penance  he 
bound  his  right  hand  to  his  leg  with  an  iron  lock  and  key,  and  forthwith  threw  the 
key  into  the  river  Dee,  making  a  solemn  vow  that  he  would  never  unlock  it  until  he 
had  visited  the  thresholds  of  the  blessed  Apostles  Peter  and  Paul  ;  which  actually 
took  place. 

"  Having  entered  the  City,  approaching  in  meditation  the  monuments  of  the 
saints  which  are  there  on  every  side,  and  bewailing  his  sin,  he  worshipped  the 
Creator  whom  he  had  heretofore  offended.  As  he  went  through  the  chief  places 
of  the  city  he  met  a  naked  boy  carrying  a  little  fish  for  sale,  which  he  purchased  at  a 
low  price.  By  the  divine  power  he  found  in  its  belly  the  key,  unrusted,  which  he 
had  flung  into  the  Dee,  and  with  it  he  opened  the  lock  upon  his  leg.  But  the 
Supreme  Pontiff,  informed  of  this  mighty  wonder,  summoned  him  as  a  man  of 
superior  holiness  into  his  presence,  and  made  him,  in  spite  of  his  reluctance,  a 
bishop.  Rendering  himself  dear  to  all  in  Rome  where  he  practised  divine  contem- 
plation for  many  years,  Nathalan,  not  forgetful  even  to  extreme  old  age  of  his 
native  soil,  by  permission  of  the  Roman  pontiff  returned  to  that  part  of  Scotland 
whence  he  sprang.  Having  built  the  churches  of  Tullicht,  Bothelin  and  Colle  at 
his  own  expense,  he  dedicated  them  to  Almighty  God,  and  they  still  exist  in  these 
provinces,  dedicated  in  his  honour.  After  many  remarkable  miracles  blessed 
Nathalan,  full  of  the  grace  of  God,  on  the  6th  of  the  Ides  of  January  (January  8) 
commended  his  soul  to  our  Lord,  and  went  up  into  Heaven  on  high  ;  and  being 
buried  with  great  veneration  at  Tullicht,  he  affords  health  to  the  sick  who  piously 
come  to  invoke  his  aid." 

St  Nathalan  is  commemorated  in  the  Irish  martyrologies,  e.g.  those  of  Oengus  and 
Gorman.      See  KSS.,  pp.  417-419  ;   and  LIS.,  vol.  i,  pp.  121  seq. 

ST   ALBERT    OF   CASHEL,  Bishop        (Seventh  Century  ?) 

The  greatest  obscurity  shrouds  the  history  of  this  saint.  He  is  commonly  called 
archbishop  of  Cashel  and  is  honoured  as  patron  of  that  diocese,  but  it  is  almost 
certain  that  no  such  see  existed  at  the  date  assigned  to  him.  A  Latin  life,  written 
apparently  in  the  twelfth  century,  describes  him  as  natione  Anglus,  conversations 
angelus  (an  Englishman  by  race,  an  angel  in  conduct).  We  are  told  that  he  was 
visited  in  England  by  St  Erhard,  himself  an  Irishman  and  already  bishop  of  Ardagh. 
Albert  accompanied  him  back  to  Ireland,  and  in  passing  through  Cashel,  which 
for  two  years  had  been  without  a  bishop,  the  people  by  acclamation  elected  Albert 
to  that  dignity.  He  had,  however,  only  been  consecrated  for  a  short  time  when, 
during  a  council  at  Lismore,  he  was  induced  by  an  eloquent  sermon  to  renounce 
all  his  honours  and  possessions.  Together  with  his  friend  Erhard  and  a  band  of 
disciples  he  fled  away  to  lead  a  pilgrim's  life  on  the  continent.  They  came  to 
Rome  in  the  time  of  Pope  Formosus  (891-896),  and  were  welcomed  by  him  and 
encouraged  in  their  good  purposes.  Then  they  separated,  and  Albert  for  his  part 
travelled  to  Jerusalem.  On  his  return  he  had  a  longing  to  see  his  friend  Erhard 
again,  but  on  coming  to  Ratisbon  found  him  already  dead.  Albert  prayed  that 
God  might  take  him  also,  and  he  died  there  not  many  hours  afterwards.  In  this 
narrative  there  is  no  mention  of  any  actual  relationship  with  Erhard,  but  other 
accounts  represent  him  as  Albert's  brother,  and  in  fact  mention  a  third  brother, 


January  19]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

Hildulf,  who  was  archbishop  of  Trier.  But  the  whole  story  is  fabulous.  Whatever 
authentic  information  we  have  about  St  Erhard  points  to  his  having  lived  in  the 
seventh  century.  He  cannot,  therefore,  have  visited  Rome  in  the  time  of  Pope 
Formosus  nearly  two  hundred  years  later.  St  Albert's  feast  is  kept  throughout 

The  Life  of  St  Albert  has  been  edited  by  W.  Levison  in  the  MGH.,  Scriptores  Merov., 
vol.  vi,  pp.  21-23.      See  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  8  ;  and   LIS.,  vol.  i,  pp.  102-113. 

ST   FILLAN,  or  FOELAN,  Abbot        (Eighth  Century) 

St  Fillan's  name  is  famous  in  the  Scottish  and  Irish  calendars,  and  his  feast  is 
still  kept  in  the  diocese  of  .Dunkeld,  now  on  this  day.  The  example  and  instruc- 
tions of  his  parents,  Feriach  and  St  Kentigerna,  inspired  him  from  the  cradle  with 
an  ardent  love  of  virtue.  In  his  youth,  despising  the  worldly  prospects  to  which 
high  birth  entitled  him,  he  received  the  monastic  habit  and  passed  many  years  in 
a  cell  at  some  distance  from  a  monastery  not  far  from  Saint  Andrew's.  He  was 
constrained  to  leave  this  solitude  by  being  elected  abbot.  His  sanctity  in  this  office 
shone  forth  with  a  bright  light.  After  some  years  he  resigned  this  charge,  and 
retired  to  a  mountainous  part  of  Glendochart  in  Perthshire,  where  with  the  assist- 
ance of  seven  others  he  built  a  church,  near  which  he  served  for  several  years.  God 
glorified  him  by  a  wonderful  gift  of  miracles,  and  called  him  to  the  reward  of  his 
labours  on  January  9,  probably  early  in  the  eighth  century.  He  was  buried  in 
Strathfillan,  and  his  relics  were  long  preserved  there  with  honour. 

This  account,  as  Butler  tells  us,  is  based  upon  that  given  in  the  Aberdeen 
Breviary.  He  does  not,  however,  reproduce  any  of  the  very  extravagant  incidents 
which  are  there  connected  with  the  saint.  For  example,  we  are  told  that  Fillan 
immediately  after  his  birth  was  thrown  by  his  father  into  a  lake,  and  remained  there 
a  whole  year  tended  by  angels,  also  that  when  he  was  building  his  church  a  wolf 
killed  the  ox  that  used  to  drag  the  materials  to  the  spot,  whereupon  through  Fillan's 
prayers  the  wolf  returned  and  drew  the  cart  in  the  ox's  place.  Evidently  not  much 
trust  can  be  placed  in  historical  materials  of  this  description.  On  the  other  hand, 
it  must  be  said  that  St  Fillan's  name  appears  on  January  9  in  the  Martyrology  of 
Oengus  (a.d.  804),  and  in  nearly  all  other  Irish  and  Scottish  martyrologies  and 
calendars  ;  that  the  honour  paid  to  him  was  very  widespread,  for  Robert  Bruce 
had  with  him  a  relic  of  the  saint  at  the  battle  of  Bannockburn,  to  which,  according 
to  Hector  Boece,  he  attributed  the  victory  ;  and  that  the  crosier  and  bell  believed 
to  have  belonged  to  him  are  still  in  existence.  The  name  is  spelt  in  several 

Fillan's  mother,  St  Kentigerna,  is  commemorated  on  January  7  in  the  Aber- 
deen Breviary,  from  which  we  learn  that  she  was  of  royal  blood,  daughter  of  Cellach, 
Prince  of  Leinster.  After  the  death  of  her  husband  she  left  Ireland,  and  consecrated 
herself  to  God  in  a  religious  state.  After  living  in  great  austerity  and  humility, 
she  died  on  January  7,  in  the  year  734  according  to  the  Annals  of  Ulster. 

See  KSS.,  pp.  341-346  ;  LIS.,  vol.  i,  pp.  134-144  ;  and  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  9. 
As  for  St  Kentigerna,  Adam  King  informs  us  that  a  famous  parish  church  bears  her  name 
on  Tuch  Cailleach  (in  Loch  Lomond),  a  small  island  to  which  she  retired  some  time  before 
her  death.  See  the  Aberdeen  Breviary  ;  Colgan,  Acta  Sanctorum  Hiberniae,  vol.  i,  p.  22  ; 
and  KSS.,  p.  373.  The  "  Martyrology  " — Felire — of  Oengus  referred  to  above  is  often 
mentioned  in  these  notes  :    cf.  St  Oengus  on  March  11. 


ST  WULFSTAN  [January  19 

ST    CANUTE    OF   DENMARK,  Martyr        (ad.  1086) 

St  Canute  (Cnut)  of  Denmark  was  a  natural  son  of  Swein  Estrithson,  whose  uncle 
Canute  had  reigned  in  England.  He  advanced  a  claim  to  the  crown  of  that  country, 
but  his  attempt  on  Northumbria  in  1075  was  a  complete  failure  ;  in  1081  he 
succeeded  his  brother  Harold  as  king  of  Denmark.  The  Danes  had  received  the 
Christian  faith  some  time  before,  but,  as  has  been  said  of  Canute  of  England,  their 
"  religious  enthusiasm  was  quaintly  tinged  with  barbarian  naivete".  Perhaps  the 
word  "  tinged  "  is  hardly  strong  enough.  Canute  II  married  Adela,  sister  of 
Robert,  Count  of  Flanders,  by  whom  he  had  a  son,  Bd  Charles  the  Good.  He 
enacted  several  laws  for  the  administration  of  justice  and  in  restraint  of  the  jarlsy 
granted  privileges  and  immunities  to  the  clergy,  and  exacted  tithes  for  their  sub- 
sistence ;  unfortunately  one  effect  of  his  activities  was  to  make  some  churchmen 
feudal  lords  who  gave  more  attention  to  their  temporal  than  to  their  spiritual  profit 
and  duties.  Canute  showed  a  royal  magnificence  in  building  and  endowing 
churches,  and  gave  the  crown  which  he  wore  to  the  church  of  Roskilde,  which 
became  the  burial-place  of  the  Danish  kings. 

In  1085  Canute  reasserted  his  claim  to  England,  and  made  extensive  prepara- 
tions for  invasion,  in  concert  with  Robert  of  Flanders  and  Olaf  of  Norway.  The 
enterprise  was  brought  to  nothing  by  disputes  with  his  jarls  and  people.  They 
were  becoming  more  and  more  restive  under  his  imposition  of  taxes,  tithes  and  a 
new  social  order,  and  under  his  brother  Olaf  they  broke  into  open  rebellion. 
Canute  fled  to  the  island  of  Fiinen,  and  took  refuge  in  the  church  of  St  Alban  at 
Odense  (said  to  have  its  name  from  a  relic  brought  from  England  by  Canute). 
When  the  insurgents  surrounded  the  church  he  confessed  his  sins  and  received 
communion  ;  an  attack  was  begun,  bricks  and  stones  being  thrown  through  the 
windows,  and  eventually  the  king  was  killed  as  he  knelt  before  the  altar.  His 
brother  Benedict  and  seventeen  others  perished  with  him.  This  happened  on 
July  10,  1086. 

Aelnoth,  Canute's  biographer,  a  monk  of  Canterbury  who  had  spent  twenty-four 
years  in  Denmark,  goes  on  to  tell  us  that  God  attested  the  sanctity  of  the  slain 
monarch  by  many  miraculous  healings  of  the  sick  at  his  tomb,  for  which  reason 
his  relics  were  taken  up  and  honourably  enshrined.  Canute's  second  successor, 
Eric  III,  having  sent  to  Rome  evidence  of  the  miracles  wrought  there,  Pope  Paschal 
II  authorized  the  veneration  of  St  Canute,  though  it  is  not  easy  to  see  upon  what 
his  claim  to  martyrdom  rests.  Aelnoth  adds  that  the  first  preachers  of  Christianity 
in  Denmark  and  Scandinavia  were  Englishmen,  and  that  the  Swedes  were  the  most 
difficult  to  convert. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  July,  vol.  iii  ;  C.  Gertz,  Vitae  Sanctorum  Danorum,  pp.  27-168, 
53I_558  ;  and  B.  Schmeidler  in  Neues  Archiv,  191 2,  pp.  67-97.  Cf.  also  E.  A.  Freeman's 
Norman  Conquest,  vol.  iv,  pp.  249,  586,  689  ;  and  F.  M.  Stenton,  Anglo-Saxon  England 
(1943),  PP-  603,  608-609. 

ST   WULFSTAN,  Bishop  of  Worcester        (a.d.  1095) 

Wulfstan  (Wulstan)  was  a  native  of  Long  Itchington,  in  Warwickshire.  From 
early  youth  he  loved  purity,  and  on  one  occasion,  believing  himself  to  have  offended 
by  watching  a  woman  dancing,  he  withdrew  into  a  thicket  and,  lying  prostrate,  be- 
wailed his  fault  with  such  sorrow  that  henceforth  he  had  such  constant  watchfulness 


January  19]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

over  his  senses  that  he  was  nevermore  troubled  with  the  like  temptations.  He 
made  his  studies  in  the  monastery  of  Evesham  and  afterwards  at  Peterborough, 
and  put  himself  under  the  direction  of  Brihtheah,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  by  whom 
he  was  advanced  to  the  priesthood.  Having  been  distracted  while  celebrating  Mass 
by  the  smell  of  meat  roasting  in  the  kitchen,  he  bound  himself  never  to  eat  of  it 
again.  Not  long  after  he  became  a  novice  in  the  great  monastery  at  Worcester, 
where  he  was  remarkable  for  the  innocence  and  sanctity  of  his  life.  The  first 
charge  with  which  he  was  entrusted  was  instructing  the  children.  He  was  after- 
wards made  precentor,  and  then  treasurer  of  the  church,  but  he  continued  to  devote 
himself  to  prayer,  and  watched  whole  nights  in  the  church.  It  was  only  in  despite 
of  his  strenuous  resistance  that  he  was  made  prior  of  Worcester  and,  in  1062,  bishop 
of  that  see.  Though  not  very  learned,  he  delivered  the  word  of  God  so  impres- 
sively and  feelingly  as  often  to  move  his  audience  to  tears.  To  his  energy  in 
particular  is  attributed  the  suppression  of  a  scandalous  practice  which  prevailed 
among  the  citizens  of  Bristol  of  kidnapping  men  into  slavery  and  shipping  them 
over  to  Ireland.  He  always  recited  the  psalter  whilst  he  travelled,  and  never  passed 
by  any  church  or  chapel  without  going  in  to  pray  before  the  altar. 

When  the  Conqueror  deprived  the  English  of  their  ecclesiastical  and  secular 
dignities  in  favour  of  his  Normans,  Wulfstan  retained  his  see,  an  exception  which 
later  writers  explain  by  a  supposed  miraculous  intervention  of  Providence.  In  a 
synod  held  at  Westminster,  over  which  Archbishop  Lanfranc  presided,  Wulfstan 
was  called  upon  to  surrender  his  crosier  and  ring,  upon  pretext  of  his  simplicity 
and  unfitness  for  business.  The  saint  owned  himself  unworthy  of  the  charge,  but 
said  that  King  Edward  the  Confessor  had  compelled  him  to  take  it  upon  him,  and 
that  he  would  deliver  his  crosier  to  him  alone.  Thereupon,  going  to  the  king's 
tomb,  he  struck  his  crosier  into  the  stone  ;  and  then  went  and  sat  down  among 
the  monks.  No  one  was  able  to  draw  the  crosier  out  till  the  saint  was  ordered  to 
take  it  again,  when  it  followed  his  hand  with  ease. 

Be  that  as  it  may,  after  an  initial  uncertainty  King  William  recognized  Wulf- 
stan's  worth  and  treated  him  with  respect  and  trust.  Lanfranc  even  commissioned 
him  to  make  the  visitation  of  the  diocese  of  Chester  as  his  deputy.  When  any 
English  complained  of  the  oppression  of  the  Normans,  Wulfstan  used  to  tell  them, 
"  This  is  a  scourge  of  God  for  our  sins,  which  we  must  bear  with  patience  ".  He 
caused  young  gentlemen  who  were  brought  up  under  his  care  to  carry  in  the  dishes 
and  wait  on  the  poor  at  table,  to  teach  them  the  true  spirit  of  humility,  in  which 
he  himself  set  an  example.  Wulfstan  rebuilt  his  cathedral  at  Worcester,  c.  1086, 
but  he  loved  the  old  edifice  which  had  to  be  demolished.  "  The  men  of  old  ",  he 
said,  "  if  they  had  not  stately  buildings  were  themselves  a  sacrifice  to  God,  whereas 
we  pile  up  stones,  and  neglect  souls."  He  died  in  1095,  having  sat  as  bishop 
thirty-two  years,  and  lived  about  eighty-seven.  Dr  W.  Hunt,  in  the  Dictionary  of 
National  Biography,  writes  :  "  Wulfstan  was,  so  far  as  is  known,  a  faultless  char- 
acter, and,  save  that  he  knew  no  more  than  was  absolutely  necessary  for  the  dis- 
charge of  his  duties,  a  pattern  of  all  monastic  and  of  all  episcopal  virtues  as  they 
were  then  understood  ".  He  was  canonized  in  1203,  and  his  feast  is  now  kept  in 
the  dioceses  of  Birmingham,  Clifton  and  Northampton. 

The  details  of  St  Wulfstan's  life  are  fairly  well  known  to  us  from  a  number  of  short 
biographies.  Those  by  Hemming  and  William  of  Malmesbury  are  printed  by  Wharton  in 
his  Anglia  Sacra,  that  of  Capgrave  by  the  Bollandists  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  19. 
We  also  obtain  a  good  deal  of  information  from  chroniclers  like  Florence  of  Worcester  and 


BD  ANDREW  OF  PESCHIERA  [January  19 

Simeon  of  Durham.  See  also  Freeman's  Norman  Conquest,  vols,  iv  and  v  passim  ;  D. 
Knowles,  The  Monastic  Order  in  England  (1949),  pp.  1 59-161  and  passim  ;  R.  R.  Darlington, 
The  Vita  Wulfstani  of  William  of  Malmesbury  (Camden  Society,  3rd  series,  vol.  xl,  1928)  ; 
an  English  version  of  the  same  by  J.  H.  F.  Peile  (1934)  ;  and  J.  W.  Lamb,  St  Wulstan, 
Prelate  and  Patriot  (1933). 

ST   HENRY,  Bishop  of  Uppsala,  Martyr        (a.d.  1156?) 

For  lack  of  reliable  contemporary  records  only  a  bare  outline  can  be  given  of  the 
history  of  St  Henry.  He  was  an  Englishman,  and  it  is  possible  that  he  was  already 
resident  in  Rome  when  Cardinal  Nicholas  Breakspear,  afterwards  Pope  Adrian  IV, 
was  sent  in  1 151  as  papal  legate  to  Scandinavia.  Henry  seems  to  have  accompanied 
him  and  to  have  been  consecrated  bishop  of  Uppsala  by  the  legate  himself  in  1152. 
The  new  bishop  won  the  favour  of  St  Eric,  King  of  Sweden,  and  when  the  king 
sailed  to  undertake  a  sort  of  crusade  against  the  pagan  marauders  of  Finland,  the 
new  bishop  went  with  him.  The  Swedish  warriors  gained  a  great  victory  and  as  a 
result  some  of  the  Finns  accepted  Christian  baptism.  Eric  sailed  back  to  Sweden, 
but  the  bishop  remained  behind  to  continue  his  work,  "  with  apostolic  zeal,  though 
occasionally  hardly  with  apostolic  wisdom  ". 

A  convert  named  Lalli  having  committed  a  murder,  St  Henry  required  him  to 
do  penance,  but  Lalli,  resentful  of  the  indignity,  lay  in  wait  for  the  bishop  and  slew 
him  (but  there  is  another  and  quite  different  story  of  his  death).  Several  miracles 
of  healing  and  others  were  recorded  of  Henry,  and  although  there  seems  to  be  no 
evidence  for  the  assertion  that  the  martyred  bishop  was  formally  canonized  by  Pope 
Adrian  himself,  he  has  from  an  early  date  been  recognized  as  the  patron  sajnt  of 
Finland.  It  appears  from  an  indulgence  letter  of  Boniface  VIII  in  1296  that  the 
cathedral  of  Abo  was  already  dedicated  to  St  Henry,  and  when  in  the  sixteenth 
century  the  series  of  paintings  depicting  English  saints  and  martyrdoms  was  set 
up  in  the  English  College  at  Rome,  the  patron  of  Finland  duly  figured  therein.  Of 
much  greater  interest  and  artistic  merit  is  a  wonderful  brass,  still  in  existence, 
engraved  (c.  1440)  to  cover  the  cenotaph  at  Nousis  where  his  relics  first  rested, 
with  twelve  subordinate  plaques  descriptive  of  his  legend  and  miracles.  '  In  1300 
the  remains  of  St  Henry  Were  translated  to  the  cathedral  at  Abo  (now  called  Turku) 
and  a  second  festival  commemorating  this  translation  was  kept  in  Finland  on  June 
18.  In  Sweden  January  19  was  the  day  of  St  Henry's  principal  feast,  but  the 
Finnish  calendars  assign  it  to  January  20. 

A  full  account  of  St  Henry  is  given  in  an  article  by  Professor  T.  Borenius  in  the  Archaeolo- 
gical Journal,  vol.  lxxxvii  (1930),  pp.  340-358  ;  and  further  liturgical  details  are  supplied 
by  Aarno  Malin,  Der  Heiligenkalender  Finnlands  (1925),  pp.  179  and  208-223.  The  thir- 
teenth-century legend  of  St  Henry  is  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January,  vol.  ii,  as  well 
as  elsewhere.  See  also  C.  J.  A.  Oppermann,  English  Missionaries  in  Sweden  and  Finland 
(^93 7).  PP-  200-205  ;   but  cf.  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  lvii  (1939),  pp.  162-164. 

BD    ANDREW    OF    PESCHIERA        (a.d.  1485) 

Not  very  much  authentic  detail  seems  to  be  preserved  to  us  concerning  the  life  of 
this  Andrew.  His  family  name  was  Gregho  (their  origin  was  Greek),  and  he  was 
born  at  Peschiera  upon  the  Lago  di  Garda.  At  an  early  age  he  entered  the  Domi- 
nican Order  at  Brescia,  and  was  sent  to  the  famous  friary  of  San  Marco  at  Florence 
to  make  his  studies.  After  ordination  he  was  bidden  by  his  superiors  to  evangelize 
the  Valtelline,  a  district  of  Switzerland  and  northern  Italy,  where  heresy  was  rife 


January  19]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

and  the  people  fierce  and  godless.  An  attractive  picture  is  painted  of  the  mis- 
sionary's untiring  labours  amongst  these  unsympathetic  people,  of  his  tender 
devotion  to  the  Passion,  of  the  austerity  of  his  life,  and  of  his  spirit  of  humility  and 
poverty.  Some  of  the  miracles  attributed  to  him  are  of  a  rather  extravagant 
character,  as  when  we  are  told  that  when  a  book  was  produced  by  the  heretics  to 
confute  him  in  argument,  he  bade  his  opponents  open  their  book  and  "  an  enormous 
viper  "  came  out  of  it,  typical  of  the  poison  which  the  book  contained.  He  was 
instrumental  in  founding  the  Dominican  house  at  Morbegno,  to  serve  as  a  sort  of 
outpost,  and  it  was  here,  on  January  18,  1485,  that  Bd  Andrew  died.  He  had  spent 
forty-five  years  of  his  life  in  the  Valtelline.     His  cultus  was  confirmed  in  1820. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  May,  vol.  iv,  pp.  627-631  ;  Procter,  Short  Lives  of  the  Dominican 
Saints,  pp.  7-10. 

BD    BERNARD    OF    GORLEONE        (a.d.  1667) 

Philip  Latini,  a  young  man  who  practised  the  trade  of  a  shoemaker  in  the  town 
of  Corleone,  about  twenty  miles  from  Palermo,  seems  also  in  his  youth  to  have  had 
a  hankering  after  a  career  of  arms,  and,  according  to  his  biographer,  was  accounted 
the  best  swordsman  in  Sicily.  Among  many  other  encounters,  having  on  one 
occasion  come  into  conflict  with  the  police  and  wounded  an  officer  of  the  law,  he, 
as  the  custom  was  in  those  days,  took  sanctuary  in  a  church.  There  he  was  safe 
from  arrest,  but  of  course  could  not  venture  to  leave  his  refuge  until  the  coast  was 
clear.  Being  thus  virtually  besieged  for  several  days,  Philip,  who  was  by  nature 
very  devout,  had  time  to  enter  into  himself,  and  realized  that  in  the  wild  and  ad- 
venturous life  he  was  leading  he  stood  in  grave  danger  of  losing  his  soul.  He 
accordingly  in  1631  joined  the  Capuchins  as  a  lay-brother,  being  then  twenty-seven 
years  old,  receiving  the  name  of  Bernard.  From  this  time  forth  the  courage  and 
enthusiasm  which  he  had  displayed  in  fighting  were  entirely  given  to  the  practice 
of  austerity.  His  fastings,  watchings  and  macerations  of  the  flesh  were  incredibly 
severe,  and  the  assaults  which  he  sustained  from  the  enemy  of  mankind,  who,  we 
are  told,  often  appeared  to  him  in  hideous  forms  and  offered  him  physical  violence, 
make  very  sensational  reading.  On  the  other  hand,  the  extraordinary  graces  which 
his  biographer  records  are  on  much  the  same  scale.  We  hear  of  ecstasies  and 
levitations,  and  of  prophecies  and  miracles  innumerable. 

One  special  gift  attributed  to  him,  which  makes  a  more  attractive  appeal  to  the 
feeling  of  our  own  day,  was  that  of  healing  animals.  He  had  great  compassion  for 
the  poor  suffering  beasts,  for,  as  he  observed,  they  have  neither  doctors  nor 
medicine  nor  speech  to  explain  what  is  the  matter  with  them.  They  were  brought 
to  him  in  numbers.  He  said  the  Lord's  Prayer  over  them,  and  then  had  them  led 
three  times  round  the  cross  which  stood  in  front  of  the  friary  church.  But  he  cured 
them  all  (tutte  le  risanava),  and,  what  is  even  more  surprising,  we  are  told  that  at  his 
death  he  bequeathed  this  same  power  of  healing  animals  to  another  member  of  the 
community  who  was  very  attached  to  him.  Brother  Bernard  of  Corleone  died  at 
Palermo  on  January  12,  1667,  and  was  beatified  in  1768. 

See  B.  Sanbenedetti,  Vita  del  .  .  .  F.  Bernardo  da  Corlione  (1725),  the  first  edition  of 
which  biography  was  apparently  published  in  1679,  twelve  years  after  Bd  Bernard's  death  ; 
Father  Angelique's  complete  biography  (1901)  ;  Father  Dionigi,  Profilo  del  B.  Bernardo 
(1934),  with  bibliography  ;  and  L£on,  Aureole  Seraphique  (Eng.  trans.),  vol.  i,  pp.  97-98. 
For  an  illustration  of  the  abuses  to  which  the  privilege  of  sanctuary  lent  itself,  see  J.  B. 
Labat,  Voyage  en  Espagne  et  en  Italie,  1703  et  1707,  vol.  iv,  p.  19. 



ST  CHARLES  OF  SEZZE        (ad.  1670) 

There  is  not  much  which  calls  for  special  comment  in  the  life  of  Charles  of  Sezze, 
Franciscan  lay-brother  of  the  Observance.  Though  he  was  of  humble  birth,  his 
parents  hoped  that  he  might  be  educated  for  the  priesthood,  but  at  school  he  was 
found  a  very  dull  pupil,  and  beyond  learning  to  read  and  write  he  seems  to  have 
had  no  further  education.  He  was,  however,  extremely  responsive  to  all  that  spoke 
to  him  of  God.  Though  the  days  of  his  youth  were  spent  in  labouring  in  the  fields, 
he  practised  austere  penance  and  took  a  vow  of  chastity.  He  had  more  than  one 
serious  illness,  and  once,  when  he  was  twenty,  he  promised  to  become  a  religious 
if  he  was  cured.  The  friars  of  Naziano  eventually  accepted  him  as  a  lay-brother, 
and  there  in  the  noviceship  his  fervour  redoubled.  After  his  profession  he  begged 
to  join  some  of  his  brethren  who  were  going  to  the  Indies  as  missionaries,  but  he 
again  fell  seriously  ill,  and  after  convalescence  was  sent  to  live  in  Rome.  Here  he 
gave  a  wonderful  example  of  virtue  and  charity,  and,  despite  his  extreme  simplicity, 
his  company  was  sought  by  cardinals  and  other  eminent  ecclesiastics.  He  died  on 
January  6,  1670,  at  the  age  of  57,  beatified  in  1882,  and  canonized  in  1959. 

See  the  decree  of  beatification  in  the  Analecta  Juris  Pontificii,  1882  ;  L£on,  Aureole 
Seraphique  (Eng.  trans.),  vol.  ii,  pp.  64-68  ;  Imbert-Gourbeyre,  La  Stigmatisation  (1894), 
vol.  i,  pp.  315-316. 

BD    MARGARET    BOURGEOYS,  Virgin,   Foundress  of  the  Con- 
gregation of  Notre  Dame  of  Montreal        (a.d.  1700) 

Margaret  Bourgeoys  was  the  sixth  of  the  twelve  children  of  Abraham  Bourgeoys, 
wax-chandler,  and  his  wife,  Guillemette  Gamier,  and  was  born  at  Troyes,  the  chief 
town  of  Champagne,  in  1620.  When  she  was  twenty  years  old  she  offered  herself 
as  a  postulant  first  to  the  Carmelites  and  then  to  the  Poor  Clares,  and  was  refused — 
for  reasons  unknown — by  both.  She  was  well  known  in  Troyes  as  president  of  the 
sodality  of  our  Lady  attached  to  the  convent  of  the  Augustinian  canonesses  of  St 
Peter  Fourier  and  Bd  Alix  Le  Clercq  ;  and  the  Abbe  Gendret  took  these  refusals 
to  mean  that  Margaret  was  intended  to  lead  an  unenclosed  community  which  he 
had  long  been  considering.  Such  a  community  was  in  fact  begun  under  his  direc- 
tion by  Margaret  and  two  others,  but  it  came  to  nothing  and  she  returned  home. 
Amid  these  rebuffs  she  was  saved  from  discouragement  by  a  vision  of  the  Child 
Jesus,  which,  she  declared,  "  for  ever  turned  my  eyes  from  all  the  beauty  of  this 
world  ". 

In  1652  there  came  to  visit  his  sister  in  the  canonesses*  convent  at  Troyes  Paul 
de  Maisonneuve,  governor  of  the  French  settlement  at  Ville-Marie  (Montreal). 
He  wanted  a  schoolmistress  for  his  little  colony  ;  and  Margaret,  who  had  long  been 
interested  in  Canada  and  recognized  in  Maisonneuve  an  intimation  that  this  was 
her  call,  agreed  to  go.  She  landed  at  Quebec  on  September  22,  1653,  and  a  month 
later  was  at  Ville-Marie.  It  was  simply  a  fort,  wherein  the  couple  of  hundred  souls 
all  lived,  with  a  little  hospital  and  a  chapel  for  the  Jesuit  missionary  when  he  was 

For  over  four  years  Margaret  made  a  sort  of  "  uncanonical  novitiate  ".  She 
housekept  for  the  governor,  looked  after  the  few  children,  helped  Joan  Mance  at 
the  hospital  and  the  wives  of  the  garrison,  got  the  great  cross  restored  on  Mount 
Royal  (its  predecessor  had  been  destroyed  by  the  Indians),  and  had  a  new  chapel 


January  19]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

of  our  Lady  almost  ready  for  the  arrival  of  the  four  "  gentlemen  ecclesiastics  " 
from  Saint-Sulpice  in  1657.  In  the  following  year  the  first  school  of  Montreal 
was  opened,  in  a  stone  building  that  had  been  a  stable,  with  less  than  a  dozen  girls 
and  boys  and  one  assistant,  Margaret  Picart.  But  Margaret  Bourgeoys  was  looking 
ahead  :  Montreal  would  grow,  and  with  it  her  work — and  there  were  the  children 
of  the  Indians  to  be  kept  in  mind.  Where  could  she  get  helpers  ?  There  was 
only  one  answer  to  that  question  ;  and  in  the  same  year  she  sailed  with  Joan  Mance 
for  France.  Twelve  months  later  she  was  back,  with  her  old  friend  Catherine 
Crolo  and  three  other  young  women. 

During  the  years  that  followed,  years  full  of  disturbance  and  alarms  because  of 
the  Iroquois  war,  the  school  grew  and  Margaret  added  to  it  a  kindergarten  for  a  few 
adopted  Indian  children,  household  instruction  for  older  girls,  and  the  organization 
of  a  Marian  sodality.  Montreal  too  was  growing,  and  with  the  end  of  the  Iroquois 
war  in  1667  the  adumbration  of  a  town  began  to  appear.  During  1 670-1672 
Margaret  was  again  in  France.  She  was  given  civil  authorization  for  her  work  by 
King  Louis  XIV  ;  she  obtained  another  half-dozen  recruits  ;  and  it  seems  it  was 
now  that  she  definitely  determined  to  organize  a  religious  congregation.  On  her 
return  she  had  to  pilot  her  little  community  through  a  period  of  great  poverty  and 
difficulty  ;  but  her  trust  in  God's  providence  was  amply  rewarded,  and  in  1676 
the  Congregation  of  Notre  Dame  was  canonically  erected  by  the  first  bishop  of 
Quebec,  Mgr  de  Laval. 

But  troubled  times  again  followed.  Mgr  de  Laval  had  his  own  ideas  about  the 
future  of  the  congregation,  which  gave  Mother  Bourgeoys  a  third  and  fruitless 
journey  to  France,  and  in  1683  the  convent  was  destroyed  by  fire,  two  sisters  (one 
of  whom  was  Margaret's  niece)  losing  their  lives.  Mgr  de  Laval  thought  that  this 
was  the  moment  for  the  little  community  to  amalgamate  with  the  Ursulines,  who 
had  been  in  Quebec  since  1639.  Mother  Bourgeoys  humbly  represented  that 
monastic  enclosure  would  make  their  work  impossible  ;  and  the  bishop  did  not 
insist.  That  was  not  the  end  of  it,  however,  for  Mgr  de  Laval's  successor,  Mgr 
de  Saint- Vallier,  an  obstinate  and  quick-tempered  prelate,  raised  many  difficulties 
before  he  accepted  the  idea  of  the  first  unenclosed  foreign -missionary  community 
for  women  in  the  Church.  It  was  not  till  1698  that  twenty-four  sisters  were  able 
to  make  simple  vows,  Mother  Bourgeoys  by  then  having  ceased  to  be  superioress 
for  the  past  five  years. 

Montreal's  first  boarding-school  was  opened  in  1673,  and  the  first  mission- 
school  for  Indians  began  in  1676  ;  by  1679  there  were  two  Iroquois  girls  in  the 
community.*  Schools  for  French  children  were  started  outside  Ville-Marie  on 
the  island  of  Montreal  (where  in  1689  tne  Iroquois  massacred  every  man,  woman 
and  child  not  protected  by  the  fort),  then  farther  afield  near  Trois- Rivieres,  and 
in  1685  Mgr  de  Saint-Vallier  summoned  the  sisters  to  Quebec — seven  missions  in 
all.  Behind  these  humble  beginnings,  which  were  to  develop  into  over  200 
establishments  of  the  congregation  to-day,  facing  reverses  from  savages  and  from 
fire,  all  the  fierce  hardships  of  colonial  pioneering,  struggles  with  poverty  and  some 
lack  of  comprehension  from  superiors,  stands  the  indomitable  figure  of  Bd  Margaret 
Bourgeoys,  the  First  Schoolmistress  of  Montreal.  Like  not  a  few  other  foundresses, 
she  is  known  best  in  her  work,  in  those  undertakings  in  which  she  underwent  the 

*  There  were  two  New  Englanders  in  this  French  community  before  the  death  of  the 
foundress  :  captives  of  the  Abenakis,  ransomed  at  Montreal,  who  became  Catholics  there. 
Lydia  Langley,  of  Groton,  Massachusetts,  was  the  first  New  England  girl  to  become  a  nun. 


BD  THOMAS  OF  CORI  [January  19 

common  double  trial  of  doubt  of  her  own  capacity  for  the  work  and  a  gnawing  sense 
of  her  unworthiness  before  God.  But  courage  was  not  the  least  of  her  virtues,  and 
devotion  to  the  good  of  the  children  and  of  all  her  neighbours  urged  her  on,  "  I  want 
at  all  costs  ",  she  said,  "  not  only  to  love  my  neighbour,  but  to  keep  him  in  love 
for  me.  " 

C.  W.  Colby  wrote  in  his  Canadian  Types  of  the  Old  Regime  (New  York,  1908)  : 
From  the  moment  of  her  arrival  in  New  France  she  became  a  source  of 
inspiration  to  all  about  her.  Less  austere  than  Mile  Mance,  less  mystical  than 
Marie  de  1' Incarnation,  she  combined  fervour  with  an  abundance  of  those 
virtues  which  have  their  roots  in  human  affection.  It  is  not  too  much  to  say 
that  for  almost  half  a  century  she  was  by  influence  and  attainment  the  first 
woman  in  Montreal.  .  .  .  Goodness  radiated  from  her  benign  personality, 
and  her  work  bore  the  more  lasting  results  from  the  wisdom  of  her  methods. 
But  above  everything  else  Marguerite  Bourgeoys  was  a  teacher.  .  .  .  And 
when  the  biographer  has  finished  his  sketch  of  Marie  de  T Incarnation*  or 
Marguerite  Bourgeoys,  he  had  best  remain  content  with  his  plain  narrative. 
Women  like  those  do  not  ask  for  eulogy.  Their  best  praise  is  the  record  of 
their  deeds,  written  without  comment  in  the  impressive  simplicity  of  truth. 

From  the  time  that  she  resigned  her  superiorship  at  the  age  of  73,  Bd  Margaret's 
health  and  strength  gradually  waned,  but  the  end  came  rather  unexpectedly.  On 
the  last  day  of  1699  the  aged  foundress  offered  her  life  in  place  of  that  of  the 
novice-mistress,  who  was  very  ill ;  and  so  it  came  about :  the  young  nun  got  better, 
but  Mother  Bourgeoys  died,  on  January  12,  1700.  She  was  beatified  in  1950,  and 
her  feast-day  is  January  19. 

There  is  a  considerable  literature  about  this  beata.  A  manuscript  copy  of  her  own 
memoirs,  written  under  obedience  in  1698,  is  preserved  at  Montreal,  and  at  the  Quebec 
seminary  there  is  the  original  manuscript  of  the  unpublished  biography  of  Margaret  written 
by  Mgr  C.  de  Glandelet  in  171 5.  There  have  been  several  published  lives  in  French,  from 
M.  F.  Ransonnet's  (1728)  to  Dom  A.  Jamet's  two  volumes  (1942)  and  Father  Y.  Charron's 
Mere  Bourqeoys  (1950,  Eng.  trans.),  of  which  Canon  L.  Groulx  says  in  his  preface,  "  Rien 
done,  en  la  maniere  de  M.  Charron,  de  I'hagiographie  abstraite  et  d6shumanis£e  ".  There 
are  popular  biographies  in  English  by  E.  F.  Butler  (1932)  and  Sister  St  I.  Doyle  (1940). 

BD    THOMAS    OF    CORI        (a.d.  1729) 

This  holy  Franciscan  was  of  humble  birth,  a  native  of  Cori  in  the  Roman  Cam- 
pagna.  As  a  child  he  obtained  some  schooling  from  a  charitable  priest,  but  before 
long  his  parents  took  him  away  to  assist  them  in  their  work  of  pasturing  sheep.  As 
we  read  of  many  other  youthful  shepherds  of  both  sexes  who  figure  in  the  lives  of 
the  saints,  he  turned  this  time  of  solitude  spent  with  the  dumb  beasts  and  with 
God  under  the  open  sky  to  good  account.  He  acquired  such  a  habit  of  prayer  and 
contemplation  that  when  his  parents  both  died  he  applied  for  admission,  being  then 
aged  twenty-two,  among  the  Observant  friars  of  Cori.  He  was  received,  and  six 
years  after  was  ordained  priest.  Though  he  was  at  first  employed  as  master  of 
novices,  he  seems  always  to  have  retained  his  attraction  for  the  wilderness,  and  he 
obtained  leave  to  bury  himself  in  the  little  friary  of  Civitella,  among  the  mountains 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Subiaco.  Here  Thomas  spent  almost  all  the  rest  of  his 
life,  offering  himself  sweetly  and  joyously  for  the  meanest  of  occupations,  practising 

*  First  superioress  of  the  Ursulines  of  Quebec.  See  Father  James  Brodrick's  Procession 
of  Saints  (1949),  pp.  174-201. 


January  20]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

severe  penance,  preaching  to  the  scant  and  rude  populace,  many  of  them  brigands, 
who  dwelt  in  these  mountain  regions,  and  favoured  himself  with  many  ecstasies  and 
extraordinary  graces.  In  particular  it  is  recorded  of  him  that  once  when  he  was 
giving  communion  in  the  church,  he  fell  into  a  trance,  and  was  raised  up,  ciborium 
in  hand,  to  the  very  roof,  and  then  after  a  short  interval  sank  slowly  to  earth  again 
and  went  on  distributing  communion  as  before.  When  elected  guardian  Thomas's 
charity  and  trust  in  Providence  were  unbounded  ;  he  gave  away  to  the  poor  the 
loaves  which  remained  in  the  house,  but  as  the  community  assembled  to  sit  down 
at  a  table  bare  of  all  food,  a  wholly  unforeseen  donation  was  brought  to  supply  their 
needs.  Though  always  kindly  and  considerate  as  a  superior,  he  was  strict  in  those 
things  which  concerned  the  service  of  God,  insisting  in  particular  that  the  office 
should  be  recited  slowly  and  reverently  ;  Si  cor  non  or  at,  he  used  to  say,  in  vanum 
lingua  labor  at  (If  the  heart  does  not  pray,  the  tongue  works  in  vain).  He  died  at 
the  age  of  seventy-three  on  January  11,  1729,  and  was  beatified  in  1785. 

See   Luca   di   Roma,   Breve  compendio  della  vita  .   .   .   del  B.   Padre   Tommaso  da   Cori 
(1786)  ;    Leon,  Aureole  Seraphique  (Eng.  trans.),  vol.  i,  pp.  324-332. 


•  ST    FABIAN,  Pope  and  Martyr        (a.d.  250) 

POPE  ST  FABIAN  succeeded  St  Antherus  in  the  pontificate  about  the 
year  236.  Eusebius  relates  that  in  an  assembly  of  the  people  and  clergy 
held  to  elect  the  new  pope,  a  dove  flew  in  and  settled  on  the  head  of  St 
Fabian.  This  sign,  we  are  told,  united  the  votes  of  the  clergy  and  people  in  choosing 
Fabian,  though,  as  he  was  a  layman  and  a  stranger,  they  had  no  thought  of  him 
before.  He  governed  the  Church  fourteen  years,  brought  the  body  of  St  Pontian, 
pope  and  martyr,  from  Sardinia,  and  condemned  Privatus,  the  author  of  a  new 
heresy  which  had  given  trouble  in  Africa.  St  Fabian  died  a  martyr  in  the  perse- 
cution of  Deems,  in  250,  as  St  Cyprian  and  St  Jerome  bear  witness.  The  former, 
writing  to  his  successor,  St  Cornelius,  calls  Fabian  an  incomparable  man  ;  and 
says  that  the  glory  of  his  death  corresponded  with  the  purity  and  holiness  of  his 
life.  The  slab  which  closed  the  loculus  of  St  Fabian  in  the  cemetery  of  St  Callistus 
still  exists.  It  is  broken  into  four  fragments,  but  clearly  bears  the  words,  in  Greek 
characters,  "  Fabian,  bishop,  martyr  ". 

See  Duchesne,  Liber  Pontijicalis,  vol.  i,  pp.  148-149  ;  St  Cyprian,  Epistle  ix  ;  H.  Leclercq 
in  DAC,  vol.  v,  cc.  1057-1064  ;  Nuovo  Bullettino  di  arch,  crist.  (1916),  pp.  207-221  ; 
Wilpert,  La  cripta  dei  Papi  (1910),  p.  18.  The  body  was  afterwards  transferred  to  the 
church  of  St  Sebastian  :  see  Grossi-Gondi,  S.  Fabiano,  papa  e  martire  (1916)  and  Cheramy, 
Saint- Sebastian  hors  les  murs  (1925). 

ST    SEBASTIAN,  Martyr        (a.d.  288  ?) 

According  to  the  "  acts  ",  assigned  without  any  adequate  reason  to  the  authorship 
of  St  Ambrose,  St  Sebastian  was  born  at  Narbonne  in  Gaul,  though  his  parents 
had  come  from  Milan,  and  he  was  brought  up  in  that  city.  He  was  a  fervent 
servant  of  Christ,  and  though  his  natural  inclinations  were  averse  from  a  military 
life,  yet  to  be  better  able  to  assist  the  confessors  and  martyrs  in  their  sufferings 
without  arousing  suspicion,  he  went  to  Rome  and  entered  the  army  under  the 
Emperor  Carinus  about  the  year  283.      It  happened  that  the  martyrs,  Marcus  and 


ST  SEBASTIAN  [January  20 

Marcellian,  under  sentence  of  death,  appeared  in  danger  of  faltering  in  their 
resolution  owing  to  the  tears  of  their  friends  ;  Sebastian,  seeing  this,  intervened, 
and  made  them  a  long  exhortation  to  constancy,  which  he  delivered  with  an  ardour 
that  strongly  affected  his  hearers.  Zoe,  the  wife  of  Nicostratus,  who  had  for  six 
years  lost  the  use  of  speech,  fell  at  his  feet,  and  when  the  saint  made  the  sign  of  the 
cross  on  her  mouth,  she  spoke  again  distinctly.  Thus  Zoe,  with  her  husband, 
Nicostratus,  who  was  master  of  the  rolls  (primiscrinius),  the  parents  of  Marcus  and 
Marcellian,  the  gaoler  Claudius,  and  sixteen  other  prisoners  were  converted  ; 
and  Nicostratus,  who  had  charge  of  the  prisoners,  took  them  to  his  own  house, 
where  Polycarp,  a  priest,  instructed  and  baptized  them.  Chromatius,  governor 
of  Rome,  being  informed  of  this,  and  that  Tranquillinus,  the  father  of  Marcus 
and  Marcellian,  had  been  cured  of  the  gout  by  receiving  baptism,  desired  to 
follow  their  example,  since  he  himself  was  grievously  afflicted  with  the  same 
malady.  Accordingly,  having  sent  for  Sebastian,  he  was  cured  by  him,  and  bap- 
tized with  his  son  Tiburtius.  He  then  released  the  converted  prisoners,  made  his 
slaves  free,  and  resigned  his  prefectship. 

Not  long  after  Carinus  was  defeated  and  slain  in  Illyricum  by  Diocletian,  who 
the  year  following  made  Maximian  his  colleague  in  the  empire.  The  persecution 
was  still  carried  on  by  the  magistrates  in  the  same  manner  as  under  Carinus,  without 
any  new  edicts.  Diocletian,  admiring  the  courage  and  character  of  St  Sebastian, 
was  anxious  to  keep  him  near  his  person  ;  and  being  ignorant  of  his  religious 
beliefs  he  created  him  captain  of  a  company  cf  the  pretorian  guards,  which  was  a 
considerable  dignity.  When  Diocletian  went  into  the  East,  Maximian,  who 
remained  in  the  West,  honoured  Sebastian  with  the  same  distinction  and  respect. 
Chromatius  retired  into  the  country  in  Campania,  taking  many  new  converts  along 
with  him.  Then  followed  a  contest  of  zeal  between  St  Sebastian  and  the  priest 
Polycarp  as  to  which  of  them  should  accompany  this  troop  to  complete  their 
instruction,  and  which  should  remain  at  the  post  of  danger  in  the  city  to  encourage 
and  assist  the  martyrs.  Pope  Caius,  who  was  appealed  to,  judged  that  Sebastian 
should  stay  in  Rome.  In  the  year  286,  the  persecution  growing  fiercer,  the  pope 
and  others  concealed  themselves  in  the  imperial  palace,  as  the  place  of  greatest 
safety,  in  the  apartments  of  one  Castulus,  a  Christian  officer  of  the  court.  Zoe  was 
first  apprehended,  when  praying  at  St  Peter's  tomb  on  the  feast  of  the  apostles. 
She  was  stifled  with  smoke,  being  hung  by  the  heels  over  a  fire.  Tranquillinus, 
ashamed  to  show  less  courage  than  a  woman,  went  to  pray  at  the  tomb  of  St  Paul, 
and  there  was  seized  and  stoned  to  death.  Nicostratus,  Claudius,  Castorius  and 
Victor inus  were  taken,  and  after  being  thrice  tortured,  were  thrown  into  the  sea. 
Tiburtius,  betrayed  by  a  false  brother,  was  beheaded.  Castulus,  accused  by  the 
same  wretch,  was  twice  stretched  upon  the  rack,  and  afterwards  buried  alive. 
Marcus  and  Marcellian  were  nailed  by  the  feet  to  a  post,  and  having  remained  in 
that  torment  twenty-four  hours  were  shot  to  death  with  arrows. 

St  Sebastian,  having  sent  so  many  martyrs  to  Heaven  before  him,  was  himself 
impeached  before  Diocletian  ;  who,  after  bitterly  reproaching  him  with  his  in- 
gratitude, delivered  him  over  to  certain  archers  of  Mauritania,  to  be  shot  to  death. 
His  body  was  pierced  through  with  arrows,  and  he  was  left  for  dead.  Irene,  the 
widow  of  St  Castulus,  going  to  bury  him,  found  him  still  alive  and  took  him  to  her 
lodgings,  where  he  recovered  from  his  wounds,  but  refused  to  take  to  flight.  On 
the  contrary,  he  deliberately  took  up  his  station  one  day  on  a  staircase  where 
the  emperor  was  to  pass,  and  there  accosting  him,  he  denounced  the  abominable 


January  20]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

cruelties  perpetrated  against  the  Christians.  This  freedom  of  language,  coming 
from  a  person  whom  he  supposed  to  be  dead,  for  a  moment  kept  the  emperor 
speechless  ;  but  recovering  from  his  surprise,  he  gave  orders  for  him  to  be  seized 
and  beaten  to  death  with  cudgels,  and  his  body  thrown  into  the  common  sewer. 
A  lady  called  Lucina,  admonished  by  the  martyr  in  a  vision,  had  his  body  secretly 
buried  in  the  place  called  ad  catacumbas,  where  now  stands  the  basilica  of  St 

The  story  recounted  above  is  now  generally  admitted  by  scholars  to  be  no  more 
than  a  pious  fable,  written  perhaps  before  the  end  of  the  fifth  century.  All  that 
we  can  safely  assert  regarding  St  Sebastian  is  that  he  was  a  Roman  martyr,  that  he 
had  some  connection  with  Milan  and  was  venerated  there  even  in  the  time  of  St 
Ambrose,  and  that  he  was  buried  on  the  Appian  Way,  probably  quite  close  to  the 
present  basilica  of  St  Sebastian,  in  the  cemetery  ad  catacumbas.  Although  in 
late  medieval  and  renaissance  art  St  Sebastian  is  always  represented  as  pierced  with 
arrows,  or  at  least  as  holding  an  arrow,  this  attribute  does  not  appear  until  com- 
paratively late.  A  mosaic  dating  from  about  680  in  San  Pietro  in  Vincoli  shows 
him  as  a  bearded  man  carrying  a  martyr's  crown  in  his  hand,  and  in  an  ancient 
glass  window  in  Strasbourg  Cathedral  he  appears  as  a  knight  with  sword  and  shield, 
but  without  arrows.  St  Sebastian  was  specially  invoked  as  a  patron  against  the 
plague,  and  certain  writers  of  distinction  {e.g.  Male  and  Perdrizet)  urge  that 
the  idea  of  protection  against  contagious  disease  was  suggested,  in  close  accord 
with  a  well-known  incident  in  the  first  book  of  the  Iliad,  by  Sebastian's  undaunted 
bearing  in  face  of  the  clouds  of  arrows  shot  at  him  ;  but  Father  Delehaye  is  prob- 
ably right  in  urging  that  some  accidental  cessation  of  the  plague  on  an  occasion 
when  St  Sebastian  had  been  invoked  would  have  been  sufficient  to  start  the  tradi- 
tion. That  St  Sebastian  was  the  chosen  patron  of  archers,  and  of  soldiers  in  general, 
no  doubt  followed  naturally  from  the  legend. 

For  the  passio  of  St  Sebastian  see  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  20.  See  also  H.  Delehaye 
in  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  (nth  edn.),  and  in  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xxviii  (1909), 
p.  489  ;  and  K.  Loffler  in  the  Catholic  Encyclopedia,  vol.  xiii  ;  cf.  also  Che>amy,  Saint- 
Se'bastien  hors  les  murs  (1925),  and  the  Civilta  Cattolica,  January  and  February,  191 8. 

ST    EUTHYMIUS    THE    GREAT,  Abbot        (a.d.  473) 

The  birth  of  this  saint  was  the  fruit  of  the  prayers  of  his  parents  through  the 
intercession  of  the  martyr  Polyeuctus.  His  father  was  a  wealthy  citizen  of  Melitene 
in  Armenia,  and  Euthymius  was  educated  in  sacred  learning  under  the  care  of 
the  bishop  of  that  city,  who  ordained  him  priest  and  made  him  his  deputy  in  the 
supervision  of  the  monasteries.  The  saint  often  visited  that  of  St  Polyeuctus,  and 
spent  whole  nights  in  prayer  on  a  neighbouring  mountain,  as  he  also  did  continu- 
ously from  the  octave  of  the  Epiphany  till  towards  the  end  of  Lent.  The  love  of 
solitude  daily  growing  stronger,  he  secretly  left  his  own  country  at  twenty-nine 
years  of  age  ;  and,  after  offering  up  his  prayers  at  the  holy  places  in  Jerusalem, 
chose  a  cell  six  miles  from  that  city,  near  the  laura  *  of  Pharan.  He  made  baskets, 
and  earned  enough  by  selling  them  to  provide  a  living  for  himself  and  alms  for 
the  poor.  After  five  years  he  retired  with  one  Theoctistus  ten  miles  farther  towards 
Jericho,  where  they  both  lived  in  a  cave.  In  this  place  he  began  to  receive  disciples 
about  the  year  411.     He  entrusted  the  care  of  his  community  to  Theoctistus,  and 

*  A  laura  consisted  of  cells  at  a  little  distance  from  one  another. 


ST  EUTHYMIUS  THE  GREAT  [January  20 

himself  retired  to  a  remote  hermitage,  only  meeting  on  Saturdays  and  Sundays 
those  who  desired  spiritual  advice.  He  taught  his  monks  never  to  eat  so  much  as 
to  satisfy  their  hunger,  but  strictly  forbade  among  them  any  singularity  in  fasts  or 
any  other  uncommon  observances,  as  savouring  of  vanity  and  self-will.  Following 
his  example,  they  all  withdrew  into  the  wilderness  from  after  Epiphany  till  Palm 
Sunday,  when  they  met  again  in  their  monastery  to  celebrate  the  offices  of  Holy 
Week.  He  enjoined  constant  silence  and  plenty  of  manual  labour,  so  that  they 
not  only  earned  their  own  living,  but  also  a  surplus  which  they  devoted  as  first- 
fruits  to  God  in  the  relief  of  the  poor. 

By  making  the  sign  of  the  cross  and  a  short  prayer,  St  Euthymius  cured  a  young 
Arab,  one  half  of  whose  body  had  been  paralysed.  His  father,  who  had  vainly 
invoked  the  much-boasted  arts  of  physic  and  magic  among  the  Persians  to  procure 
some  relief  for  his  son,  at  the  sight  of  this  miracle  asked  to  be  baptized.  So  many 
Arabs  followed  his  example  that  Juvenal,  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  consecrated 
Euthymius  bishop  to  provide  for  the  spiritual  needs  of  these  converts,  and  in  that 
capacity  he  assisted  at  the  Council  of  Ephesus  in  431.  Juvenal  built  St  Euthymius 
a  laura  on  the  road  from  Jerusalem  to  Jericho  in  the  year  420.  Euthymius  could 
never  be  prevailed  upon  to  depart  from  his  rule  of  strict  solitude,  but  governed 
his  monks  by  vicars,  to  whom  he  gave  directions  on  Sundays.  His  humility  and 
charity  won  the  hearts  of  all  who  spoke  to  him.  He  seemed  to  surpass  the  great 
Arsenius  in  the  gift  of  perpetual  tears,  and  Cyril  of  Scythopolis  relates  many 
miracles  which  he  wrought,  usually  by  the  sign  of  the  cross.  In  the  time  of  a  great 
drought  he  exhorted  the  people  to  penance  to  avert  this  scourge  of  heaven.  Great 
numbers  came  in  procession  to  his  cell,  carrying  crosses,  singing  Kyrie  eleison,  and 
begging  him  to  offer  up  his  prayers  to  God  for  them.  He  said  to  them,  "  I  am  a 
sinner  ;  how  can  I  presume  to  appear  before  God,  who  is  angry  at  our  sins  ?  Let 
us  prostrate  ourselves  all  together  before  Him,  and  He  will  hear  us."  They  obeyed; 
and  the  saint  going  into  his  chapel  prayed  lying  on  the  ground.  The  sky  grew 
dark  on  a  sudden,  rain  fell  in  abundance,  and  the  year  proved  remarkably  fruitful. 

When  the  heretical  Empress  Eudoxia,  widow  of  Theodosius  II,  frightened  by 
the  afflictions  of  her  family,  consulted  St  Simeon  Stylites  he  referred  her  to  St 
Euthymius.  As  Euthymius  would  allow  no  woman  to  enter  his  laura  she  built  a 
lodge  some  distance  away,  and  asked  him  to  come  and  see  her  there.  His  advice 
to  her  was  to  forsake  the  Eutychians  and  to  receive  the  Council  of  Chalcedon.  She 
followed  his  counsel  as  the  command  of  God,  returned  to  orthodox  communion, 
and  many  followed  her  example.  In  459  Eudoxia  desired  St  Euthymius  to  meet 
her  at  her  lodge,  designing  to  settle  on  his  laura  sufficient  revenues  for  its  main- 
tenance. He  sent  her  word  to  spare  herself  the  trouble,  and  to  prepare  for  death. 
She  admired  his  disinterestedness,  returned  to  Jerusalem,  and  died  shortly  after. 
One  of  the  latest  disciples  of  Euthymius  was  the  young  St  Sabas,  whom  he  tenderly 
loved.  In  the  year  473,  on  January  13,  Martyrius  and  Elias,  to  both  of  whom  St 
Euthymius  had  foretold  that  they  would  be  patriarchs  of  Jerusalem,  came  with 
several  others  to  visit  him  and  accompany  him  to  his  Lenten  retreat.  But  he  said 
he  would  stay  with  them  all  that  week,  and  leave  on  the  Saturday  following,  giving 
them  to  understand  that  his  death  was  near  at  hand.  Three  days  after  he  gave 
orders  that  a  general  vigil  should  be  observed  on  the  eve  of  St  Antony's  festival,  on 
which  occasion  he  delivered  an  address  to  his  spiritual  children,  exhorting  them  to 
humility  and  charity.  He  appointed  Elias  his  successor,  and  foretold  to  Domitian, 
a  beloved  disciple,  that  he  would  follow  him  out  of  this  world  on  the  seventh  day, 

January  20]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

which  happened  exactly  as  he  had  prophesied.  Euthymius  died  on  Saturday, 
January  20,  being  ninety-five  years  old,  of  which  he  had  spent  sixty-eight  in  the 
desert.  Cyril  relates  that  he  appeared  several  times  after  his  death,  and  speaks  of 
the  miracles  which  were  wrought  by  his  intercession,  declaring  that  he  himself 
had  been  an  eye-witness  of  many.  St  Euthymius  is  named  in  the  preparation  of 
the  Byzantine  Mass. 

Almost  all  our  knowledge  of  Euthymius  is  derived  from  his  life  by  Cyril  of  Scythopolis, 
a  Latin  version  of  which  is  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  20,  and  a  critical  Greek 
text  in  E.  Schwartz,  Kyrillos  von  Skythopolis  (1939).  See  also  DCB.,  vol.  ii,  pp.  398-400  ; 
and  R.  Genier,  Vie  de  S.  Euthyme  le  Grand  (1909). 

ST    FECHIN,  Abbot        (a.d.  665) 

No  very  authentic  information  seems  to  be  available  regarding  St  Fechin,  though 
we  possess  a  Latin  life  of  him,  a  hymn  and  a  number  of  miscellaneous  notices.  He 
is  said  to  have  been  born  at  Luighne  (Leyney),  in  Connaught,  and  to  have  been 
trained  by  St  Nathy.  There  are  a  good  many  extravagant  miracles  attributed  to 
him,  but  two  definite  facts  stand  out  :  first,  that  he  founded  and  ruled  a  community 
of  monks,  probably  at  Fobhar  or  Fore,  in  Westmeath  ;  secondly,  that  he  perished 
in  the  terrible  plague  which  swept  over  Ireland  in  665.  So  far  as  bur  late  and 
unsatisfactory  materials  allow  us  to  draw  any  inference,  St  Fechin  never  quitted 
his  native  shores,  but,  as  such  a  name  as  Ecclefechan  ("  ecclesia  sancti  Fechani  " 
is  the  form  it  assumes  in  old  charters)  would  alone  suffice  to  prove,  the  saint  was 
certainly  honoured  outside  his  own  country.  At  Arbroath  we  hear  of  an  annual 
fair  being  held  on  January  20,  which  was  called  St  Vigean's  market,  sometimes 
corrupted  into  St  Virgin's  market. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  20  ;  LIS.,  vol.  i,  p.  356  ;  and  KSS.,  pp.  456-458. 
The  most  correct  text  of  his  life  is,  however,  that  of  Plummer,  printed  in  his  VSH.,  vol.  ii, 
pp.  76-86.      See  also  some  Irish  materials  in  Revue  Celtique,  vol.  xii,  pp.  318-353. 

BD    BENEDICT    OF    COLTIBONI         (c.  a.d.  1107) 

The  Benedictine  congregation  of  Vallombrosa,  which  developed  out  of  the  hermit- 
age established  before  1038  in  that  famous  valley  by  St  John  Gualbert,  numbered 
in  the  days  of  its  prime  more  than  fifty  communities,  and  eventually  spread  into 
France  and  the  Tirol.  The  most  characteristic  feature  of  the  new  organization 
was  an  attempt  to  combine  the  life  of  the  hermit  with  that  of  the  monk.  Bd 
Benedict  Ricasoli  was  the  son  of  parents  who  had  known  St  John  Gualbert  in 
person,  and  had  made  over  to  him  and  his  disciples  a  property  at  Coltiboni.  Here 
Benedict  was  received  at  an  early  age  by  Abbot  Azzo,  but  aspiring  after  greater 
perfection  and  solitude  than  seemed  possible  in  community  life,  he  took  up  his 
quarters  in  a  hut  on  the  mountain  side  at  some  little  distance  from  the  abbey. 
From  time  to  time  he  returned  to  keep  some  festival  of  the  Church  with  his  brethren, 
and  on  one  of  these  rare  visits,  remaining  from  Christmas  until  the  Epiphany,  he 
showed  special  earnestness  in  exhorting  the  monks  to  fervour  and  to  perseverance 
in  their  arduous  vocation.  Their  life,  he  told  them,  ought  to  be  nothing  else  but 
a  continual  preparation  for  death,  and  he  insistently  repeated  the  warning,  "  Be 
ye  ready,  for  the  Son  of  man  cometh  at  the  hour  ye  think  not."  Returning  to  his 
hermitage  he  himself  soon  afterwards  (apparently  on  January  20,  11 07)  wTas  sum- 
moned to  his  reward. 


ST  AGNES  [January  21 

Rumour  in  later  times  enlarged  upon  the  marvellous  occurrences  which  attended 
his  departure  from  this  world.  It  was  affirmed  that  his  death  was  made  known  by 
the  monastery  bell  ringing  of  its  own  accord  ;  that  a  path  was  miraculously  cleared 
through  the  snow  and  ice  to  enable  the  brethren  to  come  and  see  ;  that  he  was  found 
by  them  dead,  but  still  kneeling  in  the  act  of  prayer,  with  hands  joined  and  eyes 
raised  to  Heaven  ;  and  that  when  he  was  buried  within  the  monastic  enclosure  a 
light  rested  over  the  spot,  and  a  white  lily  grew  spontaneously  out  of  the  ground. 
The  cult  paid  to  him  on  account  of  his  repute  for  holiness  was  confirmed  in  1907. 
His  remains  are  said  still  to  repose  in  the  sanctuary  of  Galloro,  near  Riccia. 

See  the  decree  of  the  Congregation  of  Rites  in  Analecta  Ecclesiastica,  1907,  p.  247  ;  and 
the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  20. 

BD     DESIDERIUS,    or    DIDIER,    Bishop    of    Therouanne         (a.d. 
1 194) 

Although  there  seems  to  J?e  no  very  satisfactory  evidence  of  cultus,  Didier,  who 
is  said  to  have  been  the  thirty-third  bishop  of  Therouanne,  is  commonly  described 
as  Blessed  in  hagiographical  collections  like  those  of  De  Ram  and  Guerin,  and  his 
name  appears  in  some  Cistercian  and  other  calendars.  He  has  an  interest  for  many 
English  Catholics,  because  he  helped  to  found  near  Saint-Omer  the  Cistercian 
monastery  of  Blandecques,  or  "  Blandyke  ",  which  name  has  been  perpetuated  in 
English  Jesuit  schools  as  that  of  their  monthly  holiday,  for  in  the  old  Saint-Omer's 
days  the  boys  went  to  Blandyke  once  a  month  to  spend  the  day  in  country  air.  A 
statue  of  our  Lady  preserved  there  was  believed  to  work  miracles,  and  as  late  as 
the  eighteenth  century  medals  were  struck  of  our  Lady  of  Blandyke.  Bd  Didier 
became  bishop  in  1169,  and  is  said  to  have  been  remarkable  for  his  charity  and  his 
spirit  of  prayer.  He  resigned  his  see  three  years  before  his  death,  which  seems 
to  have  taken  place  on  January  20  (or  September  2),  1194  at  the  Cistercian  abbey 
of  Cambron,  where  he  had  been  professed  a  monk. 

See  Reussens  in  the  Biographie  nationale  (beige),  vol.  v  :  Gallia  Christiana  nova,  vol.  ii ; 
and  DHG.,  vol  ix,  c.  117,  and  xi,  585. 


•  ST   AGNES,  Virgin  and  Martyr        (c.  a.d.  304  ?) 

ST  AGNES  has  always  been  looked  upon  in  the  Church  as  a  special  patroness 
of  bodily  purity.  She  is  one  of  the  most  popular  of  Christian  saints,  and 
her  name  is  commemorated  every  day  in  the  canon  of  the  Mass.  Rome  was 
the  scene  of  her  triumph,  and  Prudentius  says  that  her  tomb  was  shown  within 
sight  of  that  city.  She  suffered  perhaps  not  long  after  the  beginning  of  the  perse- 
cution of  Diocletian,  whose  cruel  edicts  were  published  in  March  in  the  year  303. 
We  learn  from  St  Ambrose  and  St  Augustine  that  she  was  only  thirteen  years  of 
age  at  the  time  of  her  glorious  death.  Her  riches  and  beauty  excited  the  young 
noblemen  of  the  first  families  in  Rome  to  contend  as  rivals  for  her  hand.  Agnes 
answered  them  all  that  she  had  consecrated  her  virginity  to  a  heavenly  husband, 
who  could  not  be  beheld  by  mortal  eyes.  Her  suitors,  finding  her  resolution 
unshakable,  accused  her  to  the  governor  as  a  Christian,  not  doubting  that  threats 
and  torments  would  prove  more  effective  with  one  of  her  tender  years  on  whom 


January  21]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

allurements  could  make  no  impression.  The  judge  at  first  employed  the  mildest 
expressions  and  most  seductive  promises,  to  which  Agnes  paid  no  regard,  repeating 
always  that  she  could  have  no  other  spouse  but  Jesus  Christ.  He  then  made  use 
of  threats,  but  found  her  endowed  with  a  masculine  courage,  and  even  eager  to 
suffer  torment  and  death.  At  last  terrible  fires  were  made,  and  iron  hooks,  racks 
and  other  instruments  of  torture  displayed  before  her,  with  threats  of  immediate 
execution.  The  heroic  child  surveyed  them  undismayed,  and  made  good  cheer  in 
the  presence  of  the  fierce  and  cruel  executioners.  She  was  so  far  from  betraying 
the  least  symptom  of  terror  that  she  even  expressed  her  joy  at  the  sight,  and  offered 
herself  to  the  rack.  She  was  then  dragged  before  the  idols  and  commanded  to  offer 
incense,  but  could,  St  Ambrose  tells  us,  by  no  means  be  compelled  to  move  her 
hand,  except  to  make  the  sign  of  the  cross. 

The  governor,  seeing  his  measures  ineffectual,  said  he  would  send  her  to  a  house 
of  prostitution,  where  what  she  prized  so  highly  should  be  exposed  to  the  insults  of 
the  brutal  and  licentious  youth  of  Rome.*  Agnes  answered  that  Jesus  Christ  was 
too  jealous  of  the  purity  of  His  chosen  ones  to  suffer  it  to  be  violated  in  such  a 
manner,  for  He  was  their  defender  and  protector.  "  You  may  ",  said  she,  "  stain 
your  sword  with  my  blood,  but  you  will  never  be  able  to  profane  my  body,  conse- 
crated to  Christ.' '  The  governor  was  so  incensed  at  this  that  he  ordered  her  to  be 
immediately  led  to  the  place  of  shame  with  liberty  to  all  to  abuse  her  person  at 
pleasure.  Many  young  profligates  ran  thither,  full  of  wicked  desires,  but  were 
seized  with  such  awe  at  the  sight  of  the  saint  that  they  durst  not  approach  her ; 
one  only  excepted,  who,  attempting  to  be  rude  to  her,  was  that  very  instant,  by  a 
flash,  as  it  were  of  lightning  from  Heaven,  struck  blind,  and  fell  trembling  to  the 
ground.  His  companions,  terrified,  took  him  up  and  carried  him  to  Agnes,  who 
was  singing  hymns  of  praise  to  Christ,  her  protector.  The  virgin  by  prayer  restored 
his  sight  and  his  health. 

The  chief  accuser  of  the  saint,  who  had  at  first  sought  to  gratify  his  lust  and 
avarice,  now,  in  a  spirit  of  vindictiveness,  incited  the  judge  against  her,  his  passion- 
ate fondness  being  changed  into  fury.  The  governor  needed  no  encouragement, 
for  he  was  highly  exasperated  to  see  himself  set  at  defiance  by  one  of  her  tender 
age  and  sex.  Being  resolved  therefore  upon  her  death,  he  condemned  her  to  be 
beheaded.  Agnes,  filled  with  joy  on  hearing  this  sentence,  "  went  to  the  place  of 
execution  more  cheerfully  ",  says  St  Ambrose,  "  than  others  go  to  their  wedding  ". 
The  executioner  had  instructions  to  use  all  means  to  induce  her  to  give  way,  but 
Agnes  remained  constant ;  and  having  made  a  short  prayer,  bowed  down  her  neck 
to  receive  the  death  stroke.  The  spectators  shed  tears  to  see  this  beautiful  child 
loaded  with  fetters,  and  offering  herself  fearlessly  to  the  sword  of  the  executioner, 
who  with  trembling  hand  cut  off  her  head  at  one  stroke.  Her  body  was  buried  at 
a  short  distance  from  Rome,  beside  the  Nomentan  road. 

It  is  necessary  to  add  to  the  account  (based  mainly  on  Prudentius)  which  is 
given  above  by  Alban  Butler,  that  modern  authorities  incline  to  the  view  that  little 
reliance  can  be  placed  on  the  details  of  the  story.     They  point  out  that  the  "  acts  " 

*  On  such  vile  methods  of  breaking  down  the  constancy  of  Christian  maidenhood  Ter- 
tullian  in  his  Apologia  comments  as  follows  :  "By  condemning  the  Christian  maid  rather 
to  the  lewd  youth  than  to  the  lion,  you  have  acknowledged  that  a  stain  of  purity  is  more 
dreaded  by  us  than  any  torments  or  death.  Yet  your  cruel  cunning  avails  you  not,  but 
rather  serves  to  gain  men  over  to  our  holy  religion." 


ST  AGNES  [January  21 

of  St  Agnes,  attributed  unwarrantably  to  St  Ambrose,  can  hardly  be  older  than 
a.d.  415,  and  that  these  seem  to  represent  an  attempt  to  harmonize  and  embroider 
the  discordant  data  found  in  the  then  surviving  traditions.  St  Ambrose,  as  just 
quoted,  in  his  quite  genuine  sermon  De  virginibus  (a.d.  377),  says  of  St  Agnes's 
martyrdom  cervicem  inflexit*  "  she  bent  her  neck  ",  from  which  it  is  commonly 
inferred  that  she  was  decapitated.  This  view  is  supported  by  Prudentius's  explicit 
statement  that  her  head  was  struck  off  at  one  blow.  On  the  other  hand,  the  epitaph 
written  by  Pope  St  Damasus  speaks  of  "  flames  ",  and  beyond  this  says  nothing 
as  to  the  manner  of  her  death  ;  while  from  the  beautiful  hymn,  Agnes  beatae  virginis 
(which  Walpole,  Dreves  and  others  now  recognize  as  a  genuine  work  of  St  Ambrose), 
it  clearly  follows  that  she  was  not  beheaded,  otherwise  she  could  not  after  the  blow 
was  struck  (percussa)  have  drawn  her  cloak  modestly  around  her  and  have  covered 
her  face  with  her  hand.  It  seems  plain  that  in  the  writer's  view  she  was  stabbed 
in  the  throat  or  breast.  From  these  apparent  contradictions  many  critics  conclude 
that  already  in  the  second  half  of  the  fourth  century  all  memory  of  the  exact  circum- 
stances of  the  martyrdom  had  been  forgotten,  and  that  only  a  vague  tradition 

In  any  case,  however,  there  can  be  no  possible  doubt  of  the  fact  that  St  Agnes 
was  martyred,  and  that  she  was  buried  beside  the  Via  Nomentana  in  the  cemetery 
afterwards  called  by  her  name.  Here  a  basilica  was  erected  in  her  honour  before 
354  by  Constantina,  daughter  of  Constantine  and  wife  of  Gallus  ;  and  the  terms  of 
the  acrostic  inscription  set  up  in  the  apse  are  still  preserved,  but  it  tells  us  nothing 
about  St  Agnes  except  that  she  was  "  a  virgin  "  and  "  victorious  ".  Again,  the 
name  of  St  Agnes  is  entered  in  the  Depositio  martyrum  of  a.d.  354,  under  the  date 
January  21,  together  with  the  place  of  her  burial.  There  is  also  abundant  sub- 
sidiary evidence  of  early  cultus  in  the  frequent  occurrence  of  representations  of  the 
child  martyr  in  "  gold  glasses  ",  etc.,  and  in  the  prominence  given  to  her  name  in 
all  kinds  of  Christian  literature.  "  Agnes,  Thecla  and  Mary  were  with  me  ",  said 
St  Martin  to  Sulpicius  Severus,  where  he  seems  to  assign  precedence  to  Agnes  even 
above  our  Blessed  Lady.  St  Agnes  is,  as  remarked  above,  one  of  the  saints  named 
in  the  canon  of  the  Mass. 

It  is  quite  possible  that  Father  Jubaru  is  right  in  his  attempt  to  reconcile  the 
data  supplied  by  Pope  Damasus  and  St  Ambrose,  but  it  would  not  follow  as  a 
necessary  consequence  that  he  is  also  right  in  his  theory  that  in  the  Greek  "  acts  " 
we  have  an  amalgamation  of  the  story  of  two  different  St  Agneses.  With  regard 
to  the  great  St  Agnes,  he  contends  that  she  was  a  child  in  Rome,  that  she  con- 
secrated to  God  her  virginity,  that  she  turned  away  from  all  suitors,  and  when 
persecution  came  that  she  deliberately  left  her  parents'  house  and  offered  herself 
to  martyrdom,  that  she  was  threatened  with  death  by  fire  in  an  attempt  to  shake 
her  constancy,  but  that,  as  she  gave  no  sign  of  yielding,  she  was  in  fact  stabbed  in 
the  throat.  Father  Jubaru  in  his  elaborate  monograph  further  claims  to  have 
discovered  the  reliquary,  containing  the  greater  portion  of  the  skull  of  the  youthful 
martyr,  in  the  treasury  of  the  Sancta  sanctorum  at  the  Lateran.  This  treasury  was 
opened  in  1903  after  it  had  been  hidden  from  view  for  many  hundred  years, 

*  A.  S.  Walpole,  Early  Latin  Hymns  (1922),  p.  69,  urges  that  inflexit  "  may  mean  bent 
aside  in  order  to  admit  the  point  of  the  sword  ",  and  quotes  parallel  passages  from  the 
classics  in  support  of  this  view.  This  is  also  the  view  of  Father  Jubaru.  There  can  be  no 
question  that  stabbing  in  the  throat  was  a  common  way  of  despatching  the  condemned, 
and  was  regarded  as  the  most  merciful  form  of  coup  de  grace.  St  Ambrose  calls  the  execu- 
tioner "  percussor  ". 


January  21]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

permission  to  do  so  having  been  obtained  from  Pope  Leo  XIII.  The  relic  is 
considered  by  Father  Grisar,  s.j.,  and  by  many  other  archaeologists  to  be  in  all 
probability  authentic,  since  a  regular  custom  had  grown  up  in  the  ninth  century  of 
separating  the  head  from  the  rest  of  the  bones  when  entire  bodies  of  saints  were 
enshrined  in  the  churches.  It  also  seems  certain  that  the  body  of  St  Agnes  was  at 
that  date  preserved  under  the  altar  of  her  basilica,  and  further  that  on  opening  the 
the  case  in  1605  it  was  found  without  a  head.  From  a  medical  examination  of  the 
fragments  of  the  skull  in  the  Sancta  sanctorum,  Dr  Lapponi  pronounced  that  the 
teeth  showed  conclusively  that  the  head  was  that  of  a  child  about  thirteen  years  of 
age.  The  more  extravagant  miracles  which  occur  in  the  so-called  "  acts  "  are  now 
admitted  by  all  to  be  a  fiction  of  the  biographer.  The  case  of  St  Agnes  is,  therefore, 
typical,  and  affords  conclusive  proof  that  the  preposterous  legends  so  often  invented 
by  later  writers  who  wish  to  glorify  the  memory  of  a  favourite  saint  cannot  in 
themselves  be  accepted  as  proof  that  the  martyrdom  is  fabulous  and  that  the  saint 
never  existed. 

In  art  St  Agnes  is  commonly  represented  with  a  lamb  and  a  palm,  the  lamb,  no 
doubt,  being  originally  suggested  by  the  resemblance  of  the  word  agnus  (a  lamb) 
to  the  name  Agnes.  In  Rome  on  the  feast  of  St  Agnes  each  year,  while  the  choir 
in  her  church  on  the  Via  Nomentana  are  singing  the  antiphon  Starts  a  dextris  ejus 
agnus  nive  candidior  (On  her  right  hand  a  lamb  whiter  than  snow),  two  white  lambs 
are  offered  at  the  sanctuary  rails.  They  are  blessed  and  then  cared  for  until  the 
time  comes  for  shearing  them.  Out  of  their  wool  are  woven  the  pallia  which,  on 
the  vigil  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  are  laid  upon  the  altar  in  the  Confessio  at  St  Peter's 
immediately  over  the  body  of  the  Apostle.  These  pallia  are  sent  to  archbishops 
throughout  the  Western  church,  "  from  the  body  of  Blessed  Peter  ",  in  token  of 
the  jurisdiction  which  they  derive  ultimately  from  the  Holy  See,  the  centre  of 
religious  authority. 

Until  the  feast  of  St  Peter  Nolasco,  displaced  by  that  of  St  John  Bosco,  was 
fixed  for  January  28,  there  was  in  the  general  Western  calendar  on  that  day  a 
"  second  feast  "  of  St  Agnes  (she  still  has  a  commemoration  in  the  Mass  and  Office 
of  the  28th).  This  observance  can  be  traced  back  to  the  Gelasian  and  Gregorian 
Sacramentaries,  and  is  not  altogether  easy  to  explain.  The  addition  of  the  words 
de  nativitate  or  in  genuinum,  which  meets  us  in  certain  liturgical  texts  of  the  seventh 
or  eighth  centuries,  would  seem  to  suggest  that  January  28  was  the  day  on  which 
St  Agnes  actually  died,  while  the  feast  of  January  21 — de  passione,  as  it  is  sometimes 
described — marks  the  day  when  the  martyr  wTas  brought  to  trial  and  threatened  with 
torture.  In  view,  however,  of  the  prominence  which  the  "  octave  "  has  in  later 
times  acquired  in  our  Christian  liturgy,  it  is  curious  that  the  one  feast  should  occur 
exactly  a  week  after  the  other.  We  have  evidence  that  the  Circumcision  was  called 
"  Octavas  Domini  "  already  in  the  sixth  century,  and  it  must  be  remembered  that 
our  present  Missal,  following  usages  still  more  ancient,  which  were  in  fact  pre- 
Christian  in  their  origin,  provides  a  special  commemoration  for  the  departed  in  die 
septimoy  trigesimo  et  anniversario — in  other  words,  the  week  day,  the  month  day  and 
the  year  day.  It  does  not,  therefore,  seem  by  any  means  impossible  that  we  have 
here  a  vestige  of  some  primitive  form  of  octave.  Dom  Baumer  has  called  atten- 
tion to  the  fact  that  the  primitive  octave  implied  no  more  than  a  commemoration 
of  the  feast  at  the  week-end  without  any  reference  to  it  upon  the  intermediate  days. 

The  "  acts  "  of  St  Agnes  are  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  21.  The  Greek 
"  acts  "  were  first  edited  by  P.  Franchi  de  Cavalieri,  S.  Agnese  nella  tradizione  e  nella  legenda 



(1899),  together  with  a  valuable  discussion  of  the  whole  question.  See  also  the  monograph 
of  F.  Jubaru,  Sainte  Agnes  d'apres  de  nouvelles  recherches  (1907)  and  further  Sainte  Agnes, 
vierge  et  martyre  (1909)  ;  DAC,  vol.  i,  cc.  905-965  ;  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xix  (1900), 
pp.  227-228  ;  P.  Franchi  in  Studi  e  Testi,  vol.  xix,  pp.  141-164  ;  Bessarione,  vol.  viii  (191 1), 
pp.  218-245  ;  the  Liber  Pontificalis  (ed.  Duchesne),  vol.  i,  p.  196  ;  CMH.,  pp.  52-53,  66  ; 
S.  Baumer,  Geschichte  des  Breviers  (1895),  p.  325  ;  and,  for  the  relics,  Grisar,  Die  romische 
Kapelle  Sancta  Sanctorum  und  ihr  Schatz  (1908),  p.  103.  And  cf.  St  Ambrose,  De  virginibus 
in  Migne,  PL.,  vol.  xvi,  cc.  200-202  ;   and  Prudentius,  Peristephanon,  14. 

ST    FRUCTUOSUS,  Bishop  of  Tarragona,  Martyr        (a.d.  259) 

St  Fructuosus  was  the  zealous  and  truly  apostolic  bishop  of  Tarragona,  then  the 
capital  city  of  Spain.  When  the  persecution  of  Valerian  and  Gallienus  was  raging 
in  the  year  259,  he  was  arrested  by  order  of  Emilian  the  governor,  along  with  two 
deacons,  Augurius  and  Eulogius,  on  Sunday,  January  16.  He  was  then  lying  down 
in  his  bed,  and  only  asked  time  to  put  on  his  shoes  ;  after  which  he  cheerfully 
followed  the  guards,  who  committed  him  and  his  two  companions  to  prison. 
Fructuosus  gave  his  blessing  to  the  faithful  who  visited  him,  and  on  Monday  he 
baptized  in  gaol  a  catechumen  named  Rogatian.  On  Wednesday  he  kept  the  usual 
fast  of  the  stations*  till  three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  On  Friday,  the  sixth  day 
after  their  commitment,  the  governor  ordered  them  to  be  brought  before  him,  and 
asked  Fructuosus  if  he  knew  the  contents  of  the  edict  of  the  emperors.  The  saint 
answered  that  he  did  not,  but  that  whatever  they  were  he  was  a  Christian.  "  The 
emperors  ",  said  Emilian,  "  command  all  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods."  Fructuosus 
answered,  "  I  worship  one  God,  who  made  heaven  and  earth  and  all  things  therein." 
Emilian  said,  "  Do  you  not  know  that  there  are  other  gods  ?  "  "  No  ",  replied 
the  saint.  The  proconsul  said,  "  I  will  make  you  know  it  shortly.  What  is  left 
to  any  man  to  fear  or  worship  on  earth  if  he  despises  the  worship  of  the  immortal 
gods  and  of  the  emperors  ?  "  Then,  turning  to  Augurius,  he  bade  him  pay  no 
regard  to  what  Fructuosus  had  said,  but  the  deacon  assured  him  that  he  worshipped 
the  same  Almighty  God.  Emilian  addressed  himself  to  the  other  deacon,  Eulpgius, 
asking  him  if  he  too  worshipped  Fructuosus.  The  holy  man  answered,  "  I  do  not 
worship  Fructuosus,  but  the  same  God  whom  he  worships  ".  Emilian  asked 
Fructuosus  if  he  were  a  bishop,  and  added  upon  his  confessing  it,  "  Say,  rather, 
you  have  been  one  ",  meaning  that  he  was  about  to  lose  that  dignity  along  with  his 
life  ;   and  immediately  he  condemned  them  to  be  burnt  alive. 

The  pagans  themselves  could  not  refrain  from  tears  on  seeing  them  led  to 
the  amphitheatre,  for  they  loved  Fructuosus  on  account  of  his  rare  virtues. 
The  Christians  accompanied  them,  overwhelmed  by  a  sorrow  mixed  with  joy. 
The  martyrs  exulted  to  be  hold  themselves  on  the  verge  of  a  glorious  eternity.  The 
faithful  offered  St  Fructuosus  a  cup  of  wine,  but  he  would  not  taste  it,  saying  it  was 
not  yet  the  hour  for  breaking  the  fast,  which  was  observed  on  Fridays  till  three 
o'clock  and  it  was  then  only  ten  in  the  morning.  The  holy  man  hoped  to  end  the 
station  or  fast  of  that  day  with  the  patriarchs  and  prophets  in  Heaven.  When  they 
were  come  into  the  amphitheatre,  Augustalis,  the  bishop's  lector,  came  to  him 
weeping,  and  begged  he  would  permit  him  to  pull  off  his  shoes.  The  martyr  said 
he  could  easily  put  them  off  himself,  which  he  did.  Felix,  a  Christian,  stepped 
forward  and  desired  he  would  remember  him  in  his  prayers.  Fructuosus  said 
aloud,  "  I  am  bound  to  pray  for  the  whole  Catholic  Church  spread  over  the  world 

*  Wednesdays  and  Fridays  were  fast-days  at  that  time  ;  but  only  till  none,  that  is,  three 
in  the  afternoon.      This  was  called  the  fast  of  the  stations. 


January  21]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

from  the  east  to  the  west,"  as  if  he  had  said,  observes  St  Augustine,  who  much 
applauds  this  utterance,  "  If  you  wish  that  I  should  pray  for  you,  do  not  leave  her 
for  whom  I  pray  ".  Martial,  one  of  his  flock,  desired  him  to  speak  some  words  of 
comfort  to  his  desolate  church.  The  bishop,  turning  to  the  Christians,  said, 
"  My  brethren,  the  Lord  will  not  leave  you  as  a  flock  without  a  shepherd.  He  is 
faithful  to  His  promises.  The  hour  of  our  suffering  is  short."  The  martyrs  were 
fastened  to  stakes  to  be  burnt,  but  the  flames  seemed  at  first  to  respect  their  bodies, 
consuming  only  the  bands  with  which  their  hands  were  tied  and  giving  them  liberty 
to  stretch  out  their  arms  in  prayer.  It  was  thus,  on  their  knees,  that  they  gave  up 
their  souls  to  God  before  the  fire  had  touched  them.  Babylas  and  Mygdonius, 
two  Christian  servants  of  the  governor,  saw  the  heavens  open  and  the  saints  carried 
up  with  crowns  on  their  heads  ;  but  Emilian  himself,  summoned  to  see  too,  was 
not  accounted  worthy  to  behold  them.  The  faithful  came  in  the  night,  extinguished 
the  fire  with  wine,  and  took  out  the  half-burnt  bodies.  Everyone  carried  some  part 
of  their  remains  home  with  him,  but  being  admonished  from  Heaven,  brought  them 
back  and  laid  them  in  the  same  sepulchre.  St  Augustine  has  left  us  a  panegyric 
on  St  Fructuosus,  pronounced  on  the  anniversary  day  of  his  martyrdom. 

This  account  of  the  passion  of  St  Fructuosus  belongs  to  that  comparatively  small  class 
of  the  acts  of  the  martyrs  which  all  critics  agree  in  regarding  as  authentic.  Even  Harnack 
says  (Chronologie  bis  Eusebius,  vol.  ii,  p.  473)  that  the  document  "  awakens  no  suspicion  ". 
It  is  printed  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  21,  in  Ruinart  and  elsewhere.  See  Delehaye, 
Les passions  des  martyrs  .  .  .  (1921),  p.  144,  and  also  his  Oriqines  du  culte  des  martyrs  (1933), 
pp.  66-67.  What  more  especially  establishes  the  authenticity  of  the  Acts  of  St  Fructuosus 
is  the  fact  that  both  St  Augustine  and  Prudentius  were  evidently  acquainted  with  them. 

ST    PATROCLUS,  Martyr        (a.d.  259  ?) 

Concerning  the  martyr  St  Patroclus,  St  Gregory  of  Tours  comments  that  the 
popular  devotion  to  him  was  greatly  increased  by  the  discovery  of  a  copy  of  his 
passto.  He  was  buried  at  or  near  Troyes,  where  he  suffered,  and  over  his  tomb 
was  a  little  oratory,  but  the  only  cleric  who  served  it  was  a  lector  (one  of  the  minor 
orders),  and  we  may  fairly  infer  from  Gregory's  language  that  no  great  interest 
was  taken  in  the  shrine.  One  fine  day,  however,  this  lector  went  to  the  bishop  and 
showed  him  a  hastily  written  manuscript  which  professed  to  be  a  copy  of  the  Acts 
of  St  Patroclus.  The  account  he  gave  of  it  was  that  a  stranger  had  asked  for 
hospitality,  who  had  in  his  possession  a  manuscript  containing  the  Passion  of  St 
Patroclus.  The  lector  said  he  had  borrowed  it,  and  by  sitting  up  all  night  had 
copied  the  document,  but  had,  of  course,  returned  the  original  to  the  owner  who 
went  away  next  morning.  It  is  an  extremely  significant  fact,  well  worthy  of  the 
attention  of  every  student  of  Merovingian  hagiography,  that  the  Bishop  of  Troyes 
only  scolded  and  cuffed  him  well,  declaring  that  the  lector  had  invented  the  whole 
story  and  that  there  had  been  no  traveller  and  no  manuscript.  Obviously  the  rulers 
of  the  Church  at  that  period  were  well  aware  that  the  fabrication  of  fictitious  acts 
was  going  on  freely. 

St  Gregory,  however,  declares  that  in  this  case,  when  a  military  expedition 
invaded  Italy  a  short  time  afterwards,  some  of  the  members  brought  back  with 
them  a  Passion  of  St  Patroclus  identical  with  that  which  the  lector  had  copied.  The 
result  was  an  immense  revival  of  devotion  to  the  saint.  He  was  a  prominent 
Christian  of  exceptional  charity  and  holiness.  He  was  arrested  either  when  a 
certain  governor  called  Aurelian  (259)  or  when  the  Emperor  Aurelian  himself  came 


ST  MEINRAD  [January  21 

to  Troyes  (275).  Answering  fearlessly  and  defiantly,  he  was  sentenced  to  death. 
In  an  attempt  to  drown  him  in  the  Seine  he  escaped  from  the  executioners,  but 
was  recaptured  and  then  beheaded.  His  relics  were  eventually  carried  to  Soest  in 
Westphalia,  where  they  still  repose. 

See  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  21  ;  Allard,  Histoire  des  persecutions,  vol.  iii,  pp.  101  seq.  ; 
Giefers,  Acta  S.  Patrocli  (1857). 

ST   EPIPHANIUS,  Bishop  of  Pavia        (a.d.  496) 

The  reputation  of  Epiphanius  for  holiness  and  miracles  gave  him  the  highest  credit 
with  the  weak  Roman  emperors  of  his  time,  and  with  the  Kings  Odoacer  and  Theo- 
doric,  though  all  of  opposite  interests.  By  his  eloquence  and  charity  he  tamed 
savage  barbarians,  won  life  and  liberty  for  whole  armies  of  captives,  and  secured  the 
abolition  of  many  oppressive  laws,  with  the  mitigation  of  heavy  public  imposts  and 
taxes.  By  his  profuse  charities  he  preserved  many  of  the  famine-stricken  from 
perishing,  and  by  his  zeal  he  stemmed  the  torrent  of  iniquity  in  times  of  universal 
disorder.  Epiphanius  undertook  an  embassy  to  the  Emperor  Anthemius,  and 
another  to  King  Euric  at  Toulouse  :  both  in  the  hope  of  averting  war.  He  rebuilt 
Pavia,  which  had  been  destroyed  by  Odoacer,  and  mitigated  the  fury  of  Theodoric 
in  the  heat  of  his  victories.  He  set  out  on  a  journey  into  Burgundy  to  redeem  the 
captives  detained  by  Gondebald  and  Godegisilus,  but  on  his  return  died  of  cold 
and  fever  at  Pavia,  in  the  fifty-eighth  year  of  his  age.  His  death  was  really  that  of 
a  martyr  of  charity,  and  during  his  lifetime  he  seems  to  have  been  honoured  by  his 
flock  with  a  profusion  of  endearing  and  complimentary  names.  They  called  him 
the  "  peacemaker  ",  the  "  glory  of  Italy  ",  the  "  light  of  bishops  ",  and  also  Papa 
— i.e.  the  Father.  His  body  was  translated  to  Hildesheim  in  Lower  Saxony,  in 
963  ;   Brower  thinks  it  lies  in  a  silver  coffin  near  the  high  altar. 

See  his  panegyric  in  verse  by  Ennodius,  his  successor,  reputed  to  be  the  masterpiece  of 
that  author,  edited  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  as  also  in  MGH.,  Auctores  antiquissimi,  vol.  vii, 
pp.  84-110.      Cf.  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xvii  (1898),  pp.  124-127. 

ST    MEINRAD,  Martyr        (a.d.  861) 

As  the  patron  and  in  some  sense  the  founder  of  the  famous  abbey  of  Einsiedeln 
in  Switzerland,  one  of  the  few  which  have  preserved  unbroken  continuity  since 
Carolingian  times,  St  Meinrad  (Meginrat)  cannot  here  be  passed  over.  By  birth 
he  is  supposed  to  have  been  connected  with  the  family  of  the  Hohenzollerns.  He 
became  a  priest,  entered  the  Benedictine  abbey  at  Reichenau,  and  later  on  was  given 
some  teaching  work  beside  the  upper  Lake  of  Zurich.  His  soul,  however,  pined 
for  solitude,  and  for  the  opportunity  of  devoting  himself  entirely  to  contemplation. 
He  consequently  sought  out  a  spot  in  a  forest,  and  there,  with  the  permission  of 
his  superiors,  he  settled  about  the  year  829.  The  fame  of  his  sanctity,  however, 
brought  him  many  visitors,  and  seven  years  later  he  found  it  necessary  to  move  still 
farther  south  and  farther  from  the  abodes  of  men.  The  place  where  he  finally 
took  up  his  abode  is  now  called  Einsiedeln  (i.e.  Hermitage).  There  he  lived  for 
twenty-five  years,  carrying  on  a  constant  warfare  with  the  Devil  and  the  flesh,  but 
favoured  by  God  with  many  consolations. 

On  January  21,  861,  he  was  visited  by  two  ruffians  who  had  conceived  the  idea 
that  he  had  treasure  somewhere  stored  away.  Though  he  knew  their  purpose,  he 
courteously  offered  them  food  and  hospitality.      In  the  evening  they  smashed  in 


January  21]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

his  skull  with  clubs,  but  finding  nothing,  took  to  flight.  The  legend  says  that  two 
ravens  pursued  them  with  hoarse  croakings  all  the  way  to  Zurich.  By  this  means 
the  crime  was  eventually  discovered,  and  the  two  murderers  burnt  at  the  stake. 
The  body  of  the  saint  was  conveyed  to  Reichenau  and  there  preserved  with  great 
veneration.  Some  forty  years  later  Bd  Benno,  a  priest  of  noble  Swabian  family, 
went  to  take  up  his  abode  in  St  Meinrad's  hermitage  at  Einsiedeln.  Though 
forced,  much  against  his  inclination,  in  927  to  accept  the  archbishopric  of  Metz, 
he  returned  to  Einsiedeln  later  on,  gathering  round  him  a  body  of  followers  who 
eventually  became  the  founders  of  the  present  Benedictine  abbey. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  21,  also  the  Life  of  St  Meinrad  in  MGH.,  Scriptores, 
vol.  xv,  pp.  445  sej.  There  are  many  modern  accounts  of  St  Meinrad  ;  see  e.g.  O.  Ringholz, 
Wallfahrtsgeschichte  von  U.  L.  Frau  von  Einsiedeln,  pp.  1-6.  The  two  ravens  appear  in  the 
arms  of  Einsiedeln  and  are  also  used  as  the  emblems  of  the  saint. 

BD    EDWARD    STRANSHAM,  Martyr        (ad.  1586) 

Edward  Stransham,  or  Transham  (alias  Edmund  Barber),  was  born  at  or  near 
Oxford  about  1554,  went  to  St  John's  College,  and  there  took  the  degree  of  bachelor 
of  arts.  He  was  at  Douay  and  Rheims  in  1577— 1578,  came  home  for  a  time  on 
account  of  ill-health,  and  then  returned  to  Rheims.  He  was  ordained  priest 
at  Soissons  in  1580,  and  in  the  summer  of  the  following  year  came  on  the 
English  mission  with  another  priest,  Nicholas  Woodfen,  who  was  to  suffer  martyr- 
dom too. 

Challoner  quotes  high  commendation  for  both  priests  from  Rishton  and  Dr 
Bridge  water,  and  Stransham  laboured  with  such  effect  that  in  1583  he  was  able  to 
cross  over  to  Rheims  with  twelve  converts  from  Oxford  for  the  college  there.  He 
was  in  France  for  two  years,  being  delayed  for  months  in  Paris  where  consumption 
threatened  to  put  an  end  to  his  life.  But  what  illness  failed  to  do,  the  laws  of  his 
country  did.  He  had  been  back  in  England  only  a  short  time  when  he  was  arrested 
while  celebrating  Mass,  at  a  house  in  Bishopsgate  Street  Without  in  London. 
At  the  next  assizes  he  and  Mr  Woodfen  were  condemned  for  their  priesthood,  and 
they  were  hanged,  drawn  and  quartered  at  Tyburn  on  January  21,  1586,  six 
months  after  their  arrest.  Bd  Edward  Stransham  was  among  those  beatified 
in  1929.  The  case  of  Mr  Woodfen  (alias  Devereux,  vere  Wheeler)  is  still  under 

Further  particulars  may  be  found  in  an  article  contributed  by  J.  B.  Wainewright  to  the 
Downside  Review,  volume  of  191 1,  at  p.  205,  which  cites  the  relevant  authorities. 

BB.    THOMAS    REYNOLDS  and    ALBAN    ROE,    Martyrs        (ad. 

Thomas  Reynolds,  whose  name  was  really  Green,  was  a  native  of  Oxford,  born 
there  about  1560.  He  was  educated  and  made  his  ecclesiastical  studies  at  Rheims, 
Valladolid  and  Seville,  and  although  he  was  already  over  thirty  when  he  was  made 
priest  he  laboured  for  nearly  fifty  years  on  the  English  mission.  He  was  among 
the  forty-seven  priests  who  were  exiled  in  the  summer  of  1606  ;  but,  like  many 
others  of  them,  he  came  back  again  in  secret  and  continued  his  devoted  and  danger- 
ous ministry  for  years,  until  eventually  he  was  "  laid  by  the  heels  "  and  sentenced 
to  death  for  his  priesthood  :  but  he  was  kept  in  prison  for  fourteen  years  before  the 
sentence  was  carried  out.     A  contemporary  account  of  this  venerable  old  man  (he 



was  about  eighty)  says  he  "for  a  long  course  of  years  had  preached  virtue  and 
godliness  to  his  countrymen,  no  less  by  his  example  than  by  his  words.  ...  He 
was  fat  and  corpulent,  yet  very  infirm  through  past  labours  and  sufferings.  .  .  . 
He  was  remarkably  mild  and  courteous,  and  .  .  .  had  reaped  much  fruit  in  gaining 
many  souls  to  God." 

For  all  his  long  experience — or  perhaps  because  of  it — Mr  Reynolds  was  of  a 
timorous  disposition,  and  in  dread  of  the  awful  manner  of  death  with  which  he  was 
faced.  But  he  was  encouraged  and  upheld  by  one  who  suffered  with  him  at  Tyburn, 
namely  Dom  Bartholomew  Roe  (alias  Rouse,  Rolfe,  etc.).  This  Benedictine  monk, 
whose  name  in  religion  was  Alban,  had  been  born,  probably  at  Bury  St  Edmunds, 
fifty-nine  years  previously.  In  consequence  of  meeting  with  a  man  imprisoned 
for  his  faith  in  the  abbey  gatehouse  at  Saint  Albans,  Roe,  who  was  then  at  Cambridge 
University,  became  a  Catholic,  and  in  due  course  a  monk  of  St  Laurence's  at 
Dieulouard  in  Lorraine  (now  St  Laurence's,  Ampleforth).  He  was  evidently  a 
man  of  lively  disposition,  for  before  going  to  St  Laurence's  he  had  been  dismissed 
from  the  English  college  at  Douay  for  indiscipline,  and  later  on  in  England  he  gave 
offence  to  some  over  strait-laced  people.  He  laboured  on  the  mission  successfully 
nevertheless,  for  the  few  years  that  he  was  free.  His  second  imprisonment  began 
about  1627  in  that  very  Saint  Albans  gatehouse  (it  still  stands)  where  he  had 
received  the  grace  of  faith  ;  then  he  was  for  some  fourteen  years  in  the  Fleet  prison 
(he  was  sometimes  let  out  on  parole),  where  he  suffered  from  an  agonizing  disease, 
and  he  there  translated  St  John  Fisher's  treatise  on  prayer  and  other  works  into 
English.  At  last  release  came.  On  January  19,  1642,  he  was  tried  and  sentenced 
for  his  priesthood,  and  two  days  later  he  and  Thomas  Reynolds  set  out  for  Tyburn 

"  Well,  how  do  you  find  yourself  now  ?  "  asked  the  monk. 

"  In  very  good  heart,"  replied  Mr  Reynolds.  "  Blessed  be  God  for  it,  and 
glad  I  am  to  have  for  my  comrade  in  death  a  man  of  your  undaunted  courage." 

At  the  scaffold  they  gave  one  another  absolution,  and  Roe  helped  the  aged 
Reynolds  on  to  the  cart,  who  then  addressed  the  people,  expressing  forgiveness 
for  his  enemies  and  much  moving  the  sheriff  by  invoking  for  that  official  "  grace 
to  be  a  glorious  saint  in  Heaven  ".  When  Roe's  turn  came  he,  who  had  been 
ministering  to  three  felons  who  also  were  to  die,  turned  to  the  people  and  began 
with  a  cheerful  "  Here's  a  jolly  company  !  "  He  then  spoke  to  them,  finally 
pointing  out  that  his  religion  was  his  only  treason,  since  if  he  would  abandon  it  he 
would  be  at  once  reprieved.  His  last  word  to  men  was  a  joking  remark  to  one  of 
the  turnkeys  from  the  Fleet  prison.  Then  the  two  martyrs  said  the  psalm 
"  Miserere  "  in  alternate  verses,  and  as  they  dropped  they  cried  out  the  name  of 
Jesus,  in  which  one  of  the  felons  joined.  They  were  allowed  to  hang  until  they 
were  dead,  before,  in  the  words  of  a  Frenchman  present,  the  Sieur  de  Marsys,  "  the 
hangman  opened  those  loving  and  burning  breasts,  as  if  to  give  air  to  that  furnace 
of  charity  which  consumed  their  hearts  ". 

Nine  Martyr  Monks  (193 1),  by  Bede  Camm,  contains  a  good  account  of  Roe  and  of  the 
martyrdom  of  both  priests.  He  relies  mainly  on  the  rare  Histoire  de  la  persecution  .  .  .  en 
Angleterre  of  Marsys  ;  a  manuscript  used  by  Challoner,  and  now  at  Oscott  ;  and  some 
letters  of  Father  John  (Bede)  Hiccocks,  a  Carmelite  who  was  present,  as  well  as  MMP. 
(pp.  407-411).  See  also  D.  Timothy  Horner's  article  in  Ampleforth  and  Its  Origins  (1952), 
pp.  181-195.  For  Reynolds  see  MMP.,  pp.  402-407,  and  Pollen's  Acts  of  English  Martyrs. 
He  probably  came  from  the  families  of  Green  of  Great  Milton,  Oxon.,  and  Reynolds  of  Old 
Stratford,  Warwickshire. 


January  22]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

BD   JOSEPHA    OF   BENIGANIM,  Virgin        (ad.  1696) 

Bd  Ines,  to  use  the  name  by  which  she  is  best  remembered  amongst  her  own 
countrymen,  was  born  in  a  village  near  Valencia  in  Spain  in  1625.  Her  parents, 
Luis  Albinana  and  Vincentia  Gomar,  were  of  good  family  but  poor  in  this  world's 
goods.  From  earliest  childhood  Ines  gave  herself  to  God,  shunning  even  the 
childish  pastimes  of  her  companions,  and  her  modesty  and  simplicity  of  heart 
compelled  the  respect  even  of  those  who  had  little  regard  for  virtue.  In  spite  of 
many  trials  which  came  upon  her  after  her  father's  early  death,  she  eventually 
accomplished  her  purpose  of  consecrating  herself  to  God  in  a  convent  of  barefooted 
Augustinian  hermitesses  at  Beniganim.  Here  Sister  Josepha-Maria-of- St- Agnes, 
as  she  was  called  in  religion,  made  great  strides  in  perfection,  regarding  herself  as 
the  meanest  of  all,  ready  at  every  moment  to  render  a  service  to  the  youngest  of  her 
religious  sisters.  Her  bodily  austerities  were  very  severe,  and  she  often  contrived 
to  spend  much  of  the  night  before  the  Blessed  Sacrament.  After  long  periods  of 
desolation  and  temptation  most  patiently  borne,  she  was  endowed  by  God  with  a 
remarkable  gift  of  prophecy  and  of  the  discernment  of  spirits,  which  led  to  her 
being  consulted  in  spiritual  matters,  much  to  her  own  confusion,  by  some  of  the 
highest  grandees  of  Spain.  She  lived  until  the  age  of  seventy-one,  dying  on  the 
feast  of  her  patron  St  Agnes  in  1696.     She  was  beatified  in  1888. 

See  the  brief  of  beatification  ;   and  Kirchliches  Handlexikon,  under  "  Josepha-Maria  ". 


.  ST   VINCENT    OF    SARAGOSSA,  Martyr        (ad.  304) 

THE  glorious  martyr  St  Vincent  was  instructed  in  the  sacred  sciences  and 
Christian  piety  by  St  Valerius,  Bishop  of  Saragossa,  who  ordained  him  his 
deacon,  and  appointed  him,  though  very  young,  to  preach  and  instruct  the 
people.  Dacian,  a  cruel  persecutor,  was  then  governor  of  Spain.  The  Emperors 
Diocletian  and  Maximian  published  their  second  and  third  edicts  against  the 
Christian  clergy  in  the  year  303,  which  in  the  following  year  were  put  in  force 
against  the  laity.  It  seems  to  have  been  before  these  last  that  Dacian  put  to  death 
eighteen  martyrs  at  Saragossa,  who  are  mentioned  by  Prudentius  and  in  the  Roman 
Martyrology  for  January  16,  and  that  he  apprehended  Valerius  and  Vincent.  They 
were  soon  after  transferred  to  Valencia,  where  the  governor  let  them  lie  long  in 
prison,  suffering  extreme  famine  and  other  miseries.  The  proconsul  hoped  that 
this  lingering  torture  would  shake  their  constancy,  but  when  they  were  at  last 
brought  before  him  he  was  surprised  to  see  them  still  intrepid  in  mind  and  vigorous 
in  body,  so  that  he  reprimanded  his  officers  for  not  having  treated  the  prisoners 
according  to  his  orders.  Then  he  employed  alternately  threats  and  promises  to 
induce  the  prisoners  to  sacrifice.  Valerius,  who  had  an  impediment  in  his  speech, 
making  no  answer,  Vincent  said  to  him,  "  Father,  if  you  order  me,  I  will  speak." 
"  Son,"  said  Valerius,  "  as  I  committed  to  you  the  dispensation  of  the  word  of  God, 
so  I  now  charge  you  to  answer  in  vindication  of  the  faith  which  we  defend."  The 
deacon  then  informed  the  judge  that  they  were  ready  to  suffer  everything  for  the 
true  God,  and  that  in  such  a  cause  they  could  pay  no  heed  either  to  threats  or 
promises.  Dacian  contented  himself  with  banishing  Valerius.  As  for  St  Vincent, 
he  was  determined  to  assail  his  resolution  by  every  torture  which  his  cruel  temper 



could  suggest.  St  Augustine  assures  us  that  he  suffered  torments  beyond  what 
any  man  could  have  endured  unless  supported  by  a  supernatural  strength  ;  and 
that  in  the  midst  of  them  he  preserved  such  peace  and  tranquillity  as  astonished  his 
very  persecutors.  The  rage  and  chagrin  felt  by  the  proconsul  were  manifest  in 
the  twitching  of  his  limbs,  the  angry  glint  in  his  eyes  and  the  unsteadiness  of  his 

The  martyr  was  first  stretched  on  the  rack  by  his  hands  and  feet,  and  whilst  he 
hung  his  flesh  was  torn  with  iron  hooks.  Vincent,  smiling,  called  the  executioners 
weak  and  faint-hearted.  Dacian  thought  they  spared  him,  and  caused  them  to  be 
beaten,  which  afforded  Vincent  an  interval  of  rest ;  but  they  soon  returned  to  him, 
resolved  fully  to  satisfy  the  cruelty  of  their  master.  But  the  more  his  body  was 
mangled,  the  more  did  the  divine  presence  cherish  and  comfort  his  soul  ;  and  the 
judge,  seeing  the  blood  which  flowed  from  his  body  and  the  frightful  condition  to 
which  it  was  reduced,  was  obliged  to  confess  that  the  courage  of  this  young  cleric 
had  vanquished  him.  He  ordered  a  cessation  of  the  torments,  telling  Vincent  that 
if  he  could  not  be  prevailed  upon  to  offer  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  he  could  at  least  give 
up  the  sacred  books  to  be  burnt,  according  to  the  edicts.  The  martyr  answered 
that  he  feared  torments  less  than  false  compassion.  Dacian,  more  incensed  than 
ever,  condemned  him  to  the  most  cruel  of  tortures — that  of  fire  upon  a  kind  of 
gridiron,  called  by  the  acts  quaestio  legitima,  "  the  legal  torture  ".  Vincent  mounted 
cheerfully  the  iron  bed,  in  which  the  bars  were  full  of  spikes  made  red-hot  by  the 
fire  underneath.  On  this  dreadful  gridiron  the  martyr  was  stretched  at  full  length, 
and  his  wounds  were  rubbed  with  salt,  which  the  activity  of  the  fire  forced  the 
deeper  into  his  flesh.  The  flames,  instead  of  tormenting,  seemed,  as  St  Augustine 
says,  to  give  the  martyr  new  vigour  and  courage,  for  the  more  he  suffered,  the  greater 
seemed  to  be  the  inward  joy  and  consolation  of  his  soul.  The  rage  and  confusion 
of  the  tyrant  exceeded  all  bounds  :  he  completely  lost  his  self-command,  and  was 
continually  inquiring  what  Vincent  did  and  said,  but  was  always  answered  that  he 
seemed  every  moment  to  acquire  new  strength  and  resolution. 

At  last  he  was  thrown  into  a  dungeon,  and  his  wounded  body  laid  on  the  floor 
strewed  with  potsherds,  which  opened  afresh  his  ghastly  wounds.  His  legs  were 
set  in  wooden  stocks,  stretched  very  wide,  and  orders  were  given  that  he  should 
be  left  without  food  and  that  no  one  should  be  admitted  to  see  him.  But  God  sent 
His  angels  to  comfort  him.  The  gaoler,  observing  through  the  chinks  the  prison 
filled  with  light,  and  Vincent  walking  and  praising  God,  was  converted  upon  the 
spot  to  the  Christian  faith.  At  this  news  Dacian  even  wept  with  rage,  but  he 
ordered  that  the  prisoner  should  be  allowed  some  repose.  The  faithful  were  then 
permitted  to  see  him,  and  coming  they  dressed  his  wounds,  and  dipped  cloths  in 
his  blood,  which  they  kept  for  themselves  and  their  posterity.  A  bed  was  prepared 
for  him,  on  which  he  was  no  sooner  laid  than  his  soul  was  taken  to  God.  Dacian 
commanded  his  body  to  be  thrown  out  upon  a  marshy  field,  but  a  raven  defended 
it  from  beasts  and  birds  of  prey.  The  "  acts  "  and  a  sermon  attributed  to  St  Leo 
add  that  it  was  then  cast  into  the  sea  in  a  sack,  but  was  carried  to  the  shore  and 
revealed  to  two  Christians. 

The  story  of  the  translations  and  diffusion  of  the  relics  of  St  Vincent  is  confused 
and  not  very  trustworthy.  We  hear  of  them  not  only  in  Valencia  and  Saragossa, 
but  also  in  Castres  (Aquitaine),  Le  Mans,  Paris,  Lisbon,  Bari  and  other  places. 
What  is  quite  certain  is  that  his  cultus  spread  widely  through  the  Christian  world 
at  a  very  early  date,  penetrating  even  to  certain  Eastern  regions  ;  and  he  is  named 


January  22]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

in  the  canon  of  the  Milanese  Mass.  In  early  art  the  most  characteristic  emblem 
of  St  Vincent  is  the  raven  which  is  sometimes  represented  as  perched  upon  a 
millstone.  When  we  only  have  an  image  with  a  deacon's  dalmatic  and  a  palm- 
branch,  it  is  almost  impossible  to  decide  whether  it  is  intended  for  St  Vincent,  St 
Laurence  or  St  Stephen.  Vincent  is  honoured  in  Burgundy  as  the  patron  of 
vine-dressers,  the  explanation  for  which  is  probably  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that 
his  name  suggests  some  connection  with  wine. 

In  the  above  account  Alban  Butler  has  mainly  followed  the  narrative  of  the  poet  Pruden- 
ius  (Peristephanon,  5).  The  so-called  "  acts  ",  though  included  by  Ruinart  among  his 
Acta  sincera,  have  unquestionably  been  embroidered  rather  freely  by  the  imagination  of  the 
compiler,  who  lived,  it  seems,  centuries  after  the  event.  At  the  same  time  St  Augustine  in 
one  of  his  sermons  on  St  Vincent  speaks  of  having  the  acts  of  his  martyrdom  before  him, 
and  it  may  possibly  be  that  a  much  more  concise  summary,  printed  in  the  Analecta  Bollandiana, 
vol.  i  (1882),  pp.  259-262,  represents  in  substance  the  document  to  which  St  Augustine 
refers.  We  can  at  least  be  assured  of  his  name  and  order,  the  place  and  epoch  of  his  martyr- 
dom, and  his  place  of  burial.  See  P.  Allard,  Histoire  des  persecutions,  vol.  iv,  pp.  237-250  ; 
Delehaye,  Les  origines  du  culte  des  martyrs  (1933),  pp.  367-368  ;  H.  Leclercq,  Les  martyrs, 
vol.  ii,  pp.  437-439  ;  Romische  Quartalschrift,  vol.  xxi  (1907),  pp.  135-138.  There  is  a  good 
historical  summary  by  L.  de  Lacger,  St  Vincent  de  Saragosse  (1927)  ;  and  a  study  of  the 
passio  by  the  Marquise  de  Maill£,  Vincent  d}Agen  et  Vincent  de  Saragosse  (1949),  on  which 
cf.  various  papers  by  Fr  B.  de  Gaiffier  in  Analecta  Bollandiana.  For  the  bishop  St 
Valerius,  see  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  28. 

ST    BLESILLA,  Widow        (a.d.  383) 

But  for  the  letters  of  St  Jerome,  very  little  would  be  known  of  the  youthful  widow 
St  Blesilla,  daughter  of  St  Paula.  On  the  death  of  her  husband,  after  seven  months 
of  married  life,  Blesilla  was  attacked  by  fever.  Yielding  to  the  promptings 
of  grace,  she  determined  to  devote  herself  to  practices  of  devotion.  After  her 
sudden  recovery  she  spent  the  rest  of  her  short  life  in  great  austerity.  St  Jerome, 
writing  to  her  mother,  speaks  in  very  high  terms  of  her.  She  herself  began 
to  study  Hebrew,  and  it  was  at  her  request  that  Jerome  began  his  translation 
of  the  book  of  Ecclesiastes.  St  Blesilla  died  at  Rome  in  383  at  the  early  age  of 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  22  ;  and  St  Jerome's  letters  nos.  37,  38  and  39.  St 
Blesilla  is  of  course  referred  to  in  the  more  detailed  lives  of  St  Jerome  and  St  Paula. 

ST   ANASTASIUS    THE    PERSIAN,  Martyr        (a.d.  628) 

The  wood  of  the  cross  of  Christ  when  it  was  carried  away  into  Persia  by  Chosroes 
in  614,  after  he  had  taken  and  plundered  Jerusalem,  nevertheless  had  its  victories. 
Of  one  such  victory  Anastasius  was  the  visible  trophy.  He  was  a  young  soldier  in 
the  Persian  army.  Upon  hearing  the  news  of  the  taking  of  the  cross  by  his  king, 
he  grew  inquisitive  concerning  the  Christian  religion,  and  its  truths  made  such  an 
impression  on  his  mind  that  when  he  came  back  to  Persia  from  an  expedition  he 
left  the  army  and  retired  to  Hierapolis.  He  lodged  with  a  devout  Persian  Christian, 
a  silversmith,  with  whom  he  often  went  to  prayer.  The  sacred  pictures  which  he 
saw  made  a  great  impression,  and  gave  him  occasion  to  inquire  more,  and  to  admire 
the  courage  of  the  martyrs  whose  sufferings  were  painted  in  the  churches.  At 
length  he  went  to  Jerusalem,  where  he  received  baptism  from  the  bishop  Modestus. 
In  baptism  he  changed  his  Persian  name  Magundat  into  that  of  Anastasius,  to 



remind  him,  according  to  the  meaning  of  that  Greek  word,  that  he  had  risen  from 
death  to  a  new  and  spiritual  life.  The  better  to  fulfil  his  baptismal  vows  and 
obligations,  he  asked  to  become  a  monk  in  a  monastery  near  Jerusalem.  The 
abbot  made  him  first  study  Greek  and  learn  the  psalter  by  heart ;  then,  cutting  off 
his  hair,  he  gave  him  the  monastic  habit  in  the  year  621. 

The  future  martyr's  first  experiences  of  monastic  life  were  not  untroubled.  He 
was  assailed  by  all  kinds  of  temptations,  and  by  the  recollection  of  the  practices 
and  superstitions  which  his  father  had  taught  him.  He  met  these  by  a  frank 
disclosure  to  his  confessor  of  all  his  difficulties,  and  by  extreme  earnestness  in 
prayer  and  monastic  duties.  He  was  haunted,  however,  by  an  intense  desire  to 
give  his  life  for  Christ,  and  after  a  time  he  went  to  Caesarea,  then  under  Persian 
rule.  Having  boldly  denounced  their  religious  rites  and  superstitions,  he  was 
arrested  and  brought  before  Marzabanes  the  governor,  when  he  confessed  his  own 
Persian  birth  and  conversion  to  Christianity.  Marzabanes  sentenced  him  to  be 
chained  by  the  foot  to  another  criminal,  and  his  neck  and  one  foot  to  be  also  linked 
together  by  a  heavy  chain,  and  condemned  him  in  this  condition  to  carry  stones. 
The  governor  sent  for  him  a  second  time,  but  could  not  prevail  with  him  to 
renounce  his  faith.  The  judge  then  threatened  he  would  write  to  the  king  if  he 
did  not  comply.  "  Write  what  you  please  ",  said  the  saint,  "  I  am  a  Christian  : 
I  repeat  it,  I  am  a  Christian."  Marzabanes  ordered  him  to  be  beaten.  The 
executioners  were  preparing  to  bind  him  on  the  ground,  but  the  saint  declared  that 
he  had  courage  enough  to  lie  down  under  the  punishment  without  moving  ;  he 
only  begged  leave  to  put  off  his  monk's  habit,  lest  it  should  be  treated  with  con- 
tempt, which  only  his  body  deserved.  Having  removed  his  outer  garment  he 
stretched  himself  on  the  ground,  and  did  not  stir  all  the  time  the  cruel  forment 
continued.  The  governor  again  threatened  to  inform  the  king  of  his  obstinacy. 
"  Whom  ought  we  rather  to  fear,"  said  Anastasius,  "  a  mortal  man,  or  God  who 
made  all  things  out  of  nothing  ?  "  The  judge  pressed  him  to  sacrifice  to  fire,  and 
to  the  sun  and  moon.  The  saint  answered  he  could  never  acknowledge  as  gods 
creatures  which  God  had  made  only  for  our  use  :  upon  which  he  was  remanded 
to  prison. 

His  old  abbot,  hearing  of  his  sufferings,  sent  two  monks  to  assist  him,  and 
ordered  prayers  for  him.  The  confessor,  after  carrying  stones  all  the  day,  spent 
the  greater  part  of  the  night  in  prayer,  to  the  surprise  of  his  companions,  one  of 
whom,  a  Jew,  saw  and  showed  him  to  others  at  prayer  in  the  night,  shining  in 
brightness  like  a  blessed  spirit,  and  angels  praying  with  him.  As  Anastasius  was 
chained  to  a  man  condemned  for  a  public  crime,  he  prayed  always  with  his  neck 
bowed  downwards,  keeping  his  chained  foot  near  his  companion  not  to  disturb 
him.  Marzabanes  let  the  martyr  know  that  the  king  would  be  satisfied  on  condition 
he  would  only  by  word  of  mouth  abjure  the  Christian  faith,  after  which  he  might 
choose  whether  he  would  be  an  officer  in  the  royal  service  or  still  remain  a  Christian 
and  a  monk,  adding  that  he  might  in  his  heart  always  adhere  to  Christ,  provided  he 
would  but  for  once  renounce  Him  in  words  privately,  in  his  presence,  "  in  which  ", 
he  declared,  "  there  could  be  no  harm,  nor  any  great  injury  to  his  Christ  ".  Anas- 
tasius answered  firmly  that  he  would  never  dissemble  or  seem  to  deny  God.  Then 
the  governor  told  him  that  he  had  orders  to  send  him  bound  into  Persia  to  the  king. 
"  There  is  no  need  of  binding  me,"  said  the  saint.  "  I  go  willingly  and  cheerfully 
to  suffer  for  Christ."  On  the  day  appointed,  the  martyr  left  Caesarea  with-  two 
other  Christian  prisoners,  under  guard,  and  was  followed  by  one  of  the  monks 


January  22]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

whom  the  abbot  had  sent.      The  acts  of  his  martyrdom  were  afterwards  written 
by  this  monk. 

Being  arrived  at  Bethsaloe  in  Assyria,  near  the  Euphrates,  where  the  king  then 
was,  the  prisoners  were  thrown  into  a  dungeon  till  his  pleasure  was  known.  An 
officer  came  from  Chosroes  to  interrogate  the  saint,  who  made  answer  to  his 
magnificent  promises,  "  My  poor  religious  habit  shows  that  I  despise  from  my 
heart  the  gaudy  pomp  of  the  world.  The  honours  and  riches  of  a  king,  who  must 
shortly  die  himself,  are  no  temptation  to  me."  Next  day  the  officer  returned  and 
endeavoured  to  intimidate  him  by  threats  and  upbraidings.  But  the  saint  said 
calmly,  "  Sir,  do  not  give  yourself  so  much  trouble  about  me.  By  the  grace  of 
Christ  I  am  not  to  be  moved,  so  execute  your  pleasure  without  more  ado."  The 
officer  caused  him  to  be  unmercifully  beaten  with  staves,  after  the  Persian  manner. 
This  punishment  was  inflicted  on  three  days  ;  on  the  third  the  judge  commanded 
him  to  be  laid  on  his  back,  and  a  heavy  beam  pressed  down  by  the  weight  of  two 
men  on  his  legs,  crushing  the  flesh  to  the  very  bone.  The  martyr's  tranquillity 
and  patience  astonished  the  officer,  who  went  again  to  make  his  report  to  Chosroes. 
In  his  absence  the  gaoler,  being  a  Christian  by  profession,  though  too  weak  to  resign 
his  place  rather  than  detain  such  a  prisoner,  gave  everyone  access  to  the  martyr. 
The  Christians  immediately  filled  the  prison  ;  everyone  sought  to  kiss  his  feet  or 
chains,  and  kept  as  relics  whatever  had  been  sanctified  by  contact  with  him.  The 
saint,  confused  and  indignant,  strove  to  hinder  them,  but  could  not.  After  further 
torments,  Chosroes  ordered  that  Anastasius  and  all  the  Christian  captives  should 
be  put  to  death.  Anastasius's  two  companions,  with  three  score  and  six  other 
Christians,  were  strangled  one  after  another,  on  the  banks  of  the  river,  before  his 
face.  He  himself  with  eyes  lifted  to  Heaven,  gave  thanks  to  God  for  bringing  his 
life  to  so  happy  an  end,  and  said  he  looked  for  a  more  lingering  death,  but  seeing 
that  God  granted  him  one  so  easy,  he  embraced  with  joy  this  ignominious  punish- 
ment of  slaves.  He  was  accordingly  strangled,  and  after  his  death  his  head  was 
cut  ofT. 

This  happened  in  the  year  628,  on  January  22.  Anastasius's  body,  among  the 
other  dead,  was  exposed  to  be  devoured  by  dogs,  but  it  was  the  only  one  they  left 
untouched.  It  was  afterwards  redeemed  by  the  Christians,  who  laid  it  in  the 
monastery  of  St  Sergius,  a  mile  from  the  place  of  his  triumph,  which  from  that 
monastery  was  later  on  called  Sergiopolis  (now  Rasapha,  in  Iraq).  The  monk  who 
attended  him  brought  back  his  colobium,  a  linen  tunic  without  sleeves.  The  saint's 
body  was  afterwards  carried  to  Palestine  ;  later  it  was  removed  to  Constantinople, 
and  lastly  to  Rome,  where  the  relics  were  enshrined  in  the  church  of  St  Vincent. 
It  is  for  this  reason  that  these  two  quite  unconnected  martyrs  are  celebrated 
together  in  one  feast. 

The  seventh  general  council  convened  against  the  Iconoclasts  proved  the  use  of 
sacred  pictures  from  the  miraculous  image  of  this  martyr,  then  kept  at  Rome  and 
venerated  together  with  his  head.  These  are  said  to  be  still  in  the  church  which 
bears  the  name  of  SS.  Vincent  and  Anastasius. 

The  Greek  text  of  the  Life  of  St  Anastasius  was  published  by  H.  Usener  in  1894,  and 
an  early  Latin  version  is  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  22.  A  brief  summary  of  the 
extracts  read  at  the  fourth  session  of  the  seventh  oecumenical  council  in  787  will  be  found 
in  Hefele-Leclercq,  Conciles,  vol.  iii,  p.  766,  and  the  whole  in  Mansi,  Concilia,  vol.  xiii, 
pp.  21-24  ;  BHG.,  n.  6  ;  BHL.,  n.  68.  It  is  very  difficult  to  understand  upon  what  grounds 
St  Anastasius  is  stated  in  the  Carmelite  Martyrology  to  have  been  "  a  monk  of  the  Carmelite 
Order  ". 


BD  WILLIAM  PATENSON  [January  22 

ST   DOMINIC    OF    SORA,  Abbot        (a.d.  103 i) 

In  the  archives  of  Foligno  in  Etruria,  the  birthplace  of  this  saint,  it  is  stated  that 
St  Dominic's  intercession  was  frequently  invoked  as  a  protection  against  thunder- 
storms. There  seems  to  be  no  indication  of  the  origin  of  this  practice.  It  may 
be  due  to  some  incident  in  his  early  life  of  which  the  record  is  lost,  for  authentic 
documents  take  up  the  story  of  his  career  from  the  time  that  he  became  a  monk. 
The  whole  of  St  Dominic's  activities  were  devoted  to  the  founding  of  Benedictine 
monasteries  and  churches  in  various  parts  of  Italy,  at  Scandrilia,  Sora,  Sangro  and 
in  other  towns.  Each  monastery  that  he  founded  was  apparently  given  its  own 
abbot,  so  that  Dominic  himself  might  be  free  to  begin  work  in  another  place.  The 
intervals  between  the  various  foundations  were  devoted  to  solitary  prayer,  until 
the  saint  received  an  intimation  from  God  as  to  where  he  was  to  establish  his  next 
monastery.  Yet  in  the  midst  of  this  busy  life  he  found  time  to  work  for  souls,  and 
not  infrequently  the  efforts  he  made  to  convert  sinners  were  attended  by  striking 
miracles.  Several  of  these  are  related  by  one  who  was  probably  an  eye-witness, 
a  monk  named  John,  the  disciple  and  constant  companion  of  St  Dominic.  He  died 
at  the  age  of  eighty  in  103 1  at  Sora  in  Campania. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum,  January,  vols,  ii  and  iii  ;    Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  i  (1882), 
pp.  279-322  ;  and  A.  M.  Zimmermann,  Kalendarium  benedictinum,  vol.  i  (1933),  pp.  114-117. 

ST    BERHTWALD,  Bishop  of  Ramsbury        (a.d.  1045) 

St  Berhtwald  had  been  a  monk  of  Glastonbury,  and  in  1005  ne:  was  consecrated 
bishop  of  Ramsbury,  or,  as  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  phrases  it,  "  he  succeeded 
to  the  bishop's  stool  of  Wiltshire  ".  He  was,  in  fact,  the  last  bishop  of  Ramsbury, 
for  in  the  time  of  his  successor  the  see  was  removed  to  Old  Sarum.  Berhtwald,  if 
we  may  trust  the  brief  notices  left  us  by  William  of  Malmesbury  and  Simeon  of 
Durham,  seems  to  have  been  specially  remembered  by  his  contemporaries  on 
account  of  his  visions  and  prophecies,  in  which  the  Apostle  St  Peter  was  associated 
with  the  succession  to  the  throne  of  St  Edward  the  Confessor  in  1042.  St  Berht- 
wald was  a  great  benefactor  to  the  abbey  of  Malmesbury  as  well  as  to  his  own  abbey 
of  Glastonbury,  in  which  last  he  was  buried  after  his  death  in  1045. 

See  Stanton,  Menology,  pp.  31-32  ;    DNB.,  vol.  vi,  p.  344.      There  seems  to  have  been 
no  public  cultus. 

BD    WILLIAM    PATENSON,  Martyr        (a.d.  1592) 

William  Patenson  was  a  native  of  Durham.  He  studied  for  the  priesthood  at 
Rheims,  where  he  was  ordained  in  1587  and  was  sent  on  the  English  mission  fifteen 
months  later.  He  ministered  for  a  time  in  the  western  counties,  but  it  was  in 
London  that  he  was  arrested,  just  before  the  Christmas  of  159 1.  He  had  celebrated 
Mass  at  a  house  in  Clerkenwell,  and  was  breaking  his  fast  with  another  priest  when 
the  pursuivants  broke  in.  The  other  priest,  Mr  Young,  got  away,  but  Mr  Patenson 
was  taken,  and  brought  up  and  condemned  at  the  Old  Bailey  for  being  a  seminary 
priest.  There  are  two  accounts  of  his  zeal  for  the  criminals  with  whom  he  was 
during  his  short  time  in  prison  :  according  to  one  of  them  he  spent  his  last  night 
in  the  condemned  cell  with  seven  convicted  felons,  and  of  these  he  brought  six  to 
repentance  and  the  Church,  so  that  they  died  publicly  professing  the  Catholic  faith. 
In  consequence  of  this  Bd  William  Patenson's  execution  at  Tyburn  was  carried 


January  22]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

out  deliberately  without  any  mitigation  of  its  atrocious  cruelties,  on  January  22, 

See   MMP.,  pp.    185-186  ;    Pollen's   Acts   of  English   Martyrs  ;   and    Catholic   Record 
Society's  publications,  vol.  v. 

ST     VINCENT   PALLOTTI,  Founder  of  the  Society  of  Catholic 
Apostolate        (a.d.  1850) 

St  Vincent  Pallotti  anticipated  by  a  century  the  ideas  of  organized  Catholic 
Action  as  set  forth  by  Pope  Pius  XI,  who  called  him  its  "  pioneer  and  forerunner  ". 
At  a  time  when  anything  approaching  an  active  apostolate  was  deemed  to  be  purely 
the  concern  of  clergy  and  religious,  Don  Pallotti  envisaged  a  programme  under 
three  heads  :  A  world-wide  apostolate  of  all  Catholics  for  the  spreading  of  the 
faith  among  those  who  have  it  not ;  a  similar  apostolate  for  the  confirming  and 
deepening  of  the  faith  of  Catholics  themselves  ;  a  world-wide  exercise  of  the  works 
of  mercy,  spiritual  and  temporal.  His  own  contribution  to  this  programme  was 
first  of  all  his  own  life  ;  secondly,  his  inspiration  of  others  with  his  ideas  and 
aspirations  ;  thirdly,  the  establishment  of  a  society  of  priests  and  brothers  living 
the  common  life  without  vows,  helped  by  an  institute  of  sisters  and  by  affiliated 
clergy  and  lay  people.  This  organization  he  called  the  Society  of  Catholic 

Vincent  Pallotti  was  born  in  Rome,  son  of  a  well-to-do  grocer,  in  1795,  and  his 
vocation  to  the  priesthood  was  foreshadowed  at  an  early  age,  His  beginnings  at 
school  were  disappointing  :  "  He's  a  little  saint  ",  said  his  master,  Don  Ferri, 
"  but  a  bit  thick-headed  ".  However,  he  soon  picked  up,  and  was  ordained  priest 
when  he  was  only  twenty-three.  He  took  his  doctorate  in  theology  soon  after,  and 
became  an  assistant  professor  at  the  Sapienza.  Pallotti's  close  friendship  with 
St  Caspar  del  Bufaio  increased  his  apostolic  zeal,  and  he  eventually  resigned  his 
post  to  devote  himself  to  active  pastoral  work. 

Don  Pallotti  was  in  very  great  repute  as  a  confessor,  and  filled  this  office  at 
several  Roman  colleges,  including  the  Scots,  the  Irish  and  the  English,  where  he 
became  a  friend  of  the  rector,  Nicholas  Wiseman.  But  he  was  not  appreciated 
everywhere.  When  he  was  appointed  to  the  Neapolitan  church  in  Rome  he 
endured  persecution  from  the  other  clergy  there  of  which  the  particulars  pass 
belief.  Equally  astonishing  is  it  that  this  went  on  for  ten  years  before  the  author- 
ities took  official  notice  and  brought  the  scandal  to  an  end.  Bd  Vincent's  most 
implacable  tormentor,  the  vice-rector  of  the  church,  lived  to  give  evidence  for  him 
at  the  informative  process  of  his  beatification.  "  Don  Pallotti  never  gave  the  least 
ground  for  the  ill-treatment  to  which  he  was  subjected  ",  he  declared,  "  He  always 
treated  me  with  the  greatest  respect ;  he  bared  his  head  when  he  spoke  to  me,  he 
even  several  times  tried  to  kiss  my  hand." 

St  Vincent  began  his  organized  work  for  conversion  and  social  justice  with  a 
group  of  clergy  and  lay  people,  from  whom  the  Society  of  Catholic  Apostolate 
developed  in  1835.  He  wrote  to  a  young  professor  :  "  You  are  not  cut  out  for 
the  silence  and  austerities  of  Trappists  and  hermits.  Be  holy  in  the  world,  in  your 
social  relationships,  in  your  work  and  your  leisure,  in  your  teaching  duties  and  your 

*  Exception  was  taken  to  this  name  and  it  was  changed  to  "  Pious  Society  of  Missions  "  ; 
in  1947  the  original  name  was  revived.  The  work  of  the  Pallottini  among  immigrants  is 
specially  notable.     They  serve  the  English  church  at  Rome,  San  Silvestro  in  Capite. 


ST  RAYMUND  OF  PENAFORT  [January  23 

contacts  with  publicans  and  sinners.  Holiness  is  simply  to  do  God's  will,  always 
and  every  where. "  Pallotti  himself  organized  schools  for  shoemakers,  tailors, 
coachmen,  joiners  and  market-gardeners,  to  improve  their  general  education  and 
pride  in  their  trade  ;  he  started  evening  classes  for  young  workers,  and  an  institute 
to  teach  better  methods  to  young  agriculturalists.  But  he  never  lost  sight  of  the 
wider  aspects  of  his  mission.  In  1836  he  inaugurated  the  observance  of  the 
Epiphany  octave  by  the  celebration  of  the  Mysteries  each  day  with  a  different  rite, 
in  special  supplication  for  the  reunion  of  Eastern  dissidents  :  this  was  settled  at  the 
church  of  Sant'  Andrea  delle  Valle  in  1847,  and  has  continued  there  annually  ever 

It  was  well  said  that  in  Don  Pallotti  Rome  had  a  second  Philip  Neri.  How 
many  times  he  came  home  half  naked  because  he  had  given  his  clothes  away  ;  how 
many  sinners  did  he  reconcile,  on  one  occasion  dressing  up  as  an  old  woman  to  get 
to  the  bedside  of  a  man  who  threatened — and  meant  it — to  shoot  the  first  priest 
who  came  near  him  ;  he  was  in  demand  as  an  exorcist,  he  had  knowledge  beyond 
this  world's  means,  he  healed  the  sick  with  an  encouragement  or  a  blessing.  St 
Vincent  foresaw  all  Catholic  Action,  even  its  name,  said  Pius  XI  ;  and  Cardinal 
Pellegrinetti  added,  "  He  did  all  that  he  could  ;  as  for  what  he  couldn't  do— well, 
he  did  that  too." 

St  Vincent  Pallotti  died  when  he  was  only  fifty-five,  on  January  22,  1850.  The 
chill  that  developed  into  pleurisy  was  perhaps  brought  on  by  giving  away  his  cloak 
before  a  long  sitting  in  a  cold  confessional.  When  viaticum  was  brought  he 
stretched  out  his  arms  and  murmured,  "  Jesus,  bless  the  congregation  :  a  blessing 
of  goodness,  a  blessing  of  wisdom.  .  .  ."  He  had  not  the  strength  to  finish,  "  a 
blessing  of  power".  He  wTas  beatified  one  hundred  years  later  to  the  day,  and 
canonized  in  1963  during  the  Second  Vatican  Council. 

There  are  biographies  in  Italian  by  Orlandi  and  others,  and  a  useful  sketch  in  French  by 
Maria  Winowska  (1950).  The  life  by  Lady  Herbert  was  revised  and  reissued  in  America 
in   1942. 


.  ST    RAYMUND    OF    PENAFORT        (ad.  1275) 

THE  family  of  Pefiafort  claimed  descent  from  the  counts  of  Barcelona,  and 
was  allied  to  the  kings  of  Aragon.  Raymund  was  born  in  1 175,  at  Pefiafort 
in  Catalonia,  and  made  such  rapid  progress  in  his  studies  that  at  the  age 
of  twenty  he  taught  philosophy  at  Barcelona.  This  he  did  gratis,  and  with  great 
reputation.  When  he  was  about  thirty  he  went  to  Bologna  to  perfect  himself  in 
canon  and  civil  law.  He  took  the  degree  of  doctor,  and  taught  with  the  same 
disinterestedness  and  charity  as  he  had  done  in  his  own  country.  In  1219  Beren- 
garius,  Bishop  of  Barcelona,  made  Raymund  his  archdeacon  and  "  official  ".  He 
was  a  perfect  model  to  the  clergy  by  his  zeal,  devotion  and  boundless  liberalities  to 
the  poor.  In  1222  he  assumed  the  habit  of  St  Dominic  at  Barcelona,  eight  months 
after  the  death  of  the  holy  founder,  and  in  the  forty-seventh  year  of  his  age.  No 
one  of  the  young  novices  was  more  humble,  obedient  or  fervent  than  he.  He 
begged  of  his  superiors  that  they  would  enjoin  him  some  severe  penance  to  expiate 
the  complacency  which  he  said  he  had  sometimes  taken  in  his  teaching.  They, 
indeed,  imposed  on  him  a  penance,  but  not  quite  such  as  he  expected.  It  was  to 
write  a  collection  of  cases  of  conscience  for  the  convenience  of  confessors  and 


January  23]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

moralists.      This  led  to  the  compilation  of  the  Summa  de  casibus  poenitentialibus , 
the  first  work  of  its  kind. 

Raymund  joined  to  the  exercises  of  his  solitude  an  apostolic  life  by  labouring 
without  intermission  in  preaching,  instructing,  hearing  confessions,  and  converting 
heretics,  Jews  and  Moors  ;  and  he  was  commissioned  to  preach  the  war  of  the 
Spaniards  against  the  last-named.  He  acquitted  himself  of  his  new  duties  with 
much  prudence,  zeal  and  charity,  and  in  this  indirect  manner  paved  the  way  for 
the  ultimate  overthrow  of  the  infidel  in  Spain.  His  labours  were  no  less  successful 
in  the  reformation  of  the  morals  of  the  Christians  detained  in  servitude  under  the 
Moors,  which  had  been  corrupted  by  their  long  slavery  and  intercourse  with  these 
infidels.  Raymund  showed  them  that  to  triumph  over  their  political  foes  they 
must  first  conquer  their  spiritual  enemies,  and  subdue  sin  in  themselves.  Incul- 
cating these  and  the  like  spiritual  lessons,  he  journeyed  through  Catalonia,  Aragon, 
Castile  and  other  countries.  So  general  a  change  was  wrought  hereby  in  the 
manners  of  the  people  that  it  seemed  incredible  to  all  but  those  who  were  witnesses 
of  it. 

It  is  commonly  said  that  St  Raymund  of  Pefiafort  was  associated  with  St  Peter 
Nolasco  in  the  foundation  of  the  Order  of  Our  Lady  of  Ransom,  usually  called 
the  Mercedarians,  who  were  particularly  concerned  with  ransoming  captives  among 
the  Moors.  This  has  given  rise  to  keen  controversy.  The  representatives  of  the 
order,  and  notably  Father  Gazulla,  in  several  works  contend  that  the  Mercedarian 
Order  was  founded  in  12 18,  at  a  date  earlier  than  that  at  which  St  Raymund 
became  a  Dominican.  They  allege  further  that  a  vision  of  our  Lady  was  vouch- 
safed to  St  Peter  Nolasco,  their  founder,  and  also  simultaneously  to  King  James  of 
Aragon  and  to  St  Raymund,  and  that  the  institute  which  came  into  existence  in 
consequence  of  this  vision  was  originally  a  military  order  which  owed  nothing  to 
Dominican  influences.  All  these  points  have  been  strongly  contested,  more 
particularly  in  the  works  of  Father  Vacas  Galindo,  O.P.  This  writer  urges  that 
the  Mercedarians,  at  first  simply  a  confraternity,  were  not  organized  as  a  religious 
congregation  before  1233,  that  St  Raymund  had  founded  the  confraternity  in  1222 
and  had  given  it  rules  based  upon  the  Dominican  constitutions  and  office,  that  the 
supposed  triple  vision  of  our  Lady  was  never  heard  of  until  two  or  three  hundred 
years  later,  and  so  on. 

Pope  Gregory  IX,  having  called  St  Raymund  to  Rome  in  1230,  nominated  him 
to  various  offices  and  took  him  likewise  for  his  confessor,  in  which  capacity 
Raymund  enjoined  the  pope,  for  a  penance,  to  receive,  hear  and  expedite  im- 
mediately all  petitions  presented  by  the  poor.  Gregory  also  ordered  the  saint 
to  gather  into  one  body  all  the  scattered  decrees  of  popes  and  councils  since 
the  collection  made  by  Gratian  in  1150.  In  three  years  Raymund  completed  his 
task,  and  the  five  books  of  the  "  Decretals  "  were  confirmed  by  the  same  Pope 
Gregory  in  1234.  Down  to  the  publication  of  the  new  Codex  Juris  Canonici  in 
1 91 7  this  compilation  of  St  Raymund  was  looked  upon  as  the  best  arranged  part 
of  the  body  of  canon  law,  on  which  account  the  canonists  usually  chose  it  for 
the  text  of  their  commentaries.  In  1235  tne  P°Pe  named  St  Raymund  to  the 
archbishopric  of  Tarragona,  the  capital  of  Aragon  :  the  humble  religious  was 
not  able  to  avert  the  blow,  as  he  called  it,  by  tears  and  entreaties  ;  but  the 
anxiety  brought  on  a  serious  illness.  To  restore  him  to  health  his  Holiness  was 
obliged  to  consent  to  excuse  him,  but  required  that  he  should  recommend  a 
proper  person. 


ST  RAYMUND  OF  PENAFORT  [January  23 

For  the  recovery  of  his  health  St  Raymund  returned  to  his  native  country,  and 
was  received  with  as  much  joy  as  if  the  safety  of  the  kingdom  depended  on  his 
presence.  Being  restored  again  to  his  dear  solitude  at  Barcelona  he  continued  his 
former  contemplation,  preaching  and  work  in  the  confessional.  The  number  of 
conversions  of  which  he  was  the  instrument  is  known  only  to  Him  who  by  His 
grace  was  the  author  of  them.  Raymund  was  employed  frequently  in  important 
commissions,  both  by  the  Holy  See  and  by  the  king.  In  1238,  however,  he  was 
thunderstruck  by  the  arrival  of  deputies  from  the  general  chapter  of  his  order  at 
Bologna  with  the  news  that  he  had  been  chosen  third  master  general,  Bd  Jordan  of 
Saxony  having  lately  died.  He  wept  and  entreated,  but  at  length  acquiesced  in 
obedience.  He  made  the  visitation  of  his  order  on  foot  without  discontinuing  any 
of  his  austerities  or  religious  exercises.  He  instilled  into  his  spiritual  children  a 
love  of  regularity,  solitude,  studies  and  the  work  of  the  ministry,  and  reduced  the 
constitutions  of  his  order  into  a  clearer  method,  with  notes  on  the  doubtful  passages. 
The  code  which  he  drew  up  was  approved  in  three  general  chapters.  In  one  held 
at  Paris  in  1239  ne  procured  the  establishment  of  this  regulation,  that  the  voluntary 
resignation  of  a  superior,  founded  upon  just  reasons,  should  be  accepted.  This 
he  contrived  in  his  own  favour,  for  in  the  year  following  he  resigned  the  generalship 
which  he  had  held  only  two  years.  He  grounded  his  action  on  the  fact  that  he  was 
now  sixty-five  years  old. 

But  St  Raymund  still  had  thirty-four  years  to  live,  and  he  spent  them  in  the 
main  opposing  heresy  and  working  for  the  conversion  of  the  Moors  in  Spain. 
With  this  end  in  view,  he  engaged  St  Thomas  to  write  his  work  Against  the  Gentiles  ; 
he  contrived  to  have  Arabic  and  Hebrew  taught  in  several  convents  of  his  order  ; 
and  he  established  friaries,  one  at  Tunis,  and  another  at  Murcia,  among  the  Moors. 
In  1256  he  wrote  to  his  general  that  ten  thousand  Saracens  had  received  baptism. 
He  was  active  in  getting  the  Inquisition  established  in  Catalonia  ;  and  on  one 
occasion  he  was  accused — it  is  to  be  feared  not  without  some  reason — of  com- 
promising a  Jewish  rabbi  by  a  trick. 

A  famous  incident  in  St  Raymund' s  life  is  said  to  have  taken  place  when  he 
accompanied  King  James  to  the  island  of  Majorca.  The  king,  very  loose  in  his 
relations  with  women,  promised  amendment,  but  failed  to  implement  his  promise  ; 
whereupon  Raymund  asked  leave  to  go  back  to  Barcelona.  The  king  not  only 
refused,  but  threatened  to  punish  with  death  any  person  who  attempted  to  convey 
him  out  of  the  island.  Full  of  confidence  in  God,  Raymund  said  to  his  companion, 
"  An  earthly  king  withholds  the  means  of  flight,  but  the  King  of  Heaven  will 
supply  them."  He  then  walked  to  the  sea  and,  we  are  told,  spread  his  cloak 
upon  the  water,  tied  up  one  corner  of  it  to  a  staff  for  a  sail,  and  having  made 
the  sign  of  the  cross,  stepped  upon  it  without  fear  whilst  his  companion  stood 
trembling  on  the  shore.  On  this  new  kind  of  vessel  the  saint  was  wafted  with  such 
rapidity  that  in  six  hours  he  reached  the  harbour  of  Barcelona,  sixty  leagues  distant 
from  Majorca.  Those  who  saw  him  arrive  in  this  manner  met  him  with  acclama- 
tions. But  he,  gathering  up  his  cloak  dry,  put  it  on,  stole  through  the  crowd  and 
entered  his  monastery.  A  chapel  and  a  tower,  built  on  the  place  where  he  is 
supposed  to  have  landed,  transmitted  the  memory  of  this  miracle  to  posterity. 
During  the  saint's  last  illness,  Alphonsus,  King  of  Castile,  and  James  of  Aragon 
visited  him,  and  received  his  final  blessing.  St  Raymund  gave  up  his  soul  to  God 
on  January  6  in  the  year  1275,  the  hundredth  of  his  age.  The  two  kings,  with  all 
the  princes  and  princesses  of  their  royal  families,  honoured  his  funeral  with  their 

January  23]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

presence  ;  but  his  tomb  was  rendered  far  more  illustrious  by  miracles.  Several 
(including  the  one  related  above)  are  recorded  in  the  bull  of  his  canonization, 
published  in  1601. 

The  principal  materials  for  the  life  of  St  Raymund  of  Penafort  have  been  printed  by 
Fathers  Balme  and  Paban  under  the  title  Raymandiana  in  the  Monumenta  Historic  a  O.P., 
vols,  iv  and  vi,  and  an  excellent  general  summary  will  be  found  in  Mortier,  Histoire  des 
maitres  generaux  O.P.,  especially  vol.  i,  pp.  225-272  and  400.  The  best  life  is  said  to  be 
by  F.  Vails  Taberner,  San  Ramon  de  Penyafort  (1936).  As  for  the  connection  of  the  saint 
with  the  Order  of  Our  Lady  of  Ransom,  whatever  be  the  truth  of  the  case  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  a  large  number  of  spurious  documents,  mysteriously  found  at  the  right  moment 
in  an  iron  casket  at  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century,  have  been  made  use  of  in  support 
of  the  Mercedarian  thesis.  The  evidence  upon  many  points  is  so  unsatisfactory  that  it 
becomes  extremely  difficult  to  give  unreserved  credence  to  such  incidents  in  St  Raymund's 
life  as  his  miraculous  voyage  from  Majorca.  See  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xxxix  (1921), 
pp.  209  seq.  and  vol.  xl  (1922),  pp.  442  seq.      Cf.  St  Peter  Nolasco,  on  January  28. 

ST   ASCLAS,  Martyr        (Third  Century  ?) 

The  fame  of  St  Asclas  was  great  in  Egypt  and  throughout  the  East,  and  he  is 
commemorated  in  the  Roman  Martyrology.  F;s  story,  as  epitomized  in  the 
synaxaries,  runs  as  follows  :  "  Asclas,  a  native  of  the  Thebaid,  was  denounced  for 
his  faith  in  Christ  and  brought  before  Arrian  the  governor.  Boldly  confessing 
his  belief,  he  was  strung  up,  scourged  until  the  flesh  was  torn  in  strips  from  his 
ribs,  and  then  cast  into  prison.  But  the  governor  had  to  pass  over  the  River  Nile 
in  a  boat,  and  the  saint  prayed  that  he  might  never  reach  the  opposite  shore  until 
he  expressly  acknowledged  in  writing  the  divinity  of  Christ.  Arrian  embarked,  but 
the  boat  was  held  up  and  he  could  get  no  farther  ;  whereupon  the  saint,  learning 
of  this,  sent  him  word  that  only  by  confessing  the  divinity  of  Christ  could  he  reach 
dry  land  once  more.  Then  the  governor  called  for  paper,  and  he  wrote  down  that 
mighty  was  the  God  of  the  Christians  and  that  there  was  no  other  beside  Him. 
Straightway  the  boat  made  the  passage,  the  governor  landed,  and  sending  for  the 
saint  caused  his  ribs  to  be  burnt  with  torches.  Then  he  had  a  great  stone  tied  to 
him  and  cast  him  into  the  river.  Thus  it  was  that  Asclas  gained  his  crown  of 
martyrdom."  It  can  hardly  be  disputed  from  the  very  form  of  the  story  that  a 
considerable  legendary  element  is  present. 

In  the  above  quoted  Synaxary  of  Constantinople  (ed.  H.  Delehaye,  p.  698)  the  feast  is 
commemorated  on  May  20,  but  in  the  West  on  January  23.  See  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum 
for  this  day,  and  Cheneau  d'Orleans,  Les  saints  d'Egypte,  vol.  i,  pp.   183  seq. 

ST   EMERENTIANA,  Virgin  and  Martyr        (c.  a.d.  304  ?) 

According  to  the  Roman  Martyrology  and  the  Breviary  lesson  for  this  day,  St 
Emerentiana  was  the  foster-sister  of  St  Agnes,  and  consequently  was  of  much  the 
same  age,  but  as  yet  only  a  catechumen.  She  was  stoned  to  death  two  days  after 
St  Agnes's  martyrdom,  when  praying  beside  her  grave,  and  in  this  way  received  the 
baptism  of  blood.  This  story,  which  forms  a  kind  of  supplement  to  the  "  acts  " 
of  St  Agnes,  cannot  be  accepted  as  it  stands,  but  there  is  evidence  that  there  was 
a  St  Emerentiana,  martyr,  who  was  originally  buried  in  the  Coemeterium  majus,  a 
little  farther  along  the  Via  Nomentana  than  the  spot  where  the  basilica  dedicated 
to  St  Agnes  was  erected.  Emerentiana  was  apparently  honoured  on  September  16 
with  SS.  Victor,  Felix  and  Alexander,  but  for  some  reason  her  remains  were  later 

ST   JOHN   THE   ALMSGIVER  [January  23 

transferred  to  the  basilica  just  mentioned,  and  her  story  by  means  of  legendary 
embellishments  became  entwined  with  that  of  St  Agnes. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  21  and  23  ;  and  F.  Jubaru,  St  Agnes  (1909),  pp. 

SS.   CLEMENT  and  AGATHANGELUS,  Martyrs        (a.d.  308  ?) 

Concerning  these  two  martyrs,  although  they  are  held  in  high  honour  in  some 
oriental  churches,  and  are  commemorated  on  this  day  in  the  Roman  Martyrology, 
we  have  no  reliable  knowledge  of  any  sort.  Clement  is  supposed  to  have  devoted 
himself  to  the  instruction  of  children  and  of  the  poor,  to  have  been  made  bishop 
of  Ancyra  in  Galatia  at  the  age  of  twenty,  and  then,  after  arrest,  to  have  been  dragged 
from  city  to  city,  enduring  incredible  torments  for  years  together,  but  repeatedly 
saved  from  death  by  a  series  of  stupendous  miracles.  Agathangelus  was  a  convert 
whom  Clement  made  when  he  was  brought  to  Rome.  Having  been  ordained 
deacon  Agathangelus  shared  the  subsequent  sufferings  of  his  master.  Both  are 
said  ultimately  to  have  perished  by  the  sword  at  Ancyra.  The  quite  untrustworthy 
character  of  their  "  acts  "  has  been  recognized  by  all  critics  from  Baronius  and 
Tillemont  downwards. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  23,  and  DHG.(  vol.  i,  c.  906. 

ST    JOHN    THE    ALMSGIVER,  Patriarch  of  Alexandria         (a.d. 

St  John  was  of  noble  family,  rich,  and  a  widower,  at  x\mathus  in  Cyprus  where, 
having  buried  all  his  children,  he  employed  his  income  in  the  relief  of  the  poor,  and 
won  the  respect  of  all  by  his  personal  holiness.  His  reputation  raised  him  to  the 
patriarchal  chair  of  Alexandria,  about  the  year  608,  at  which  time  he  was  upwards 
of  fifty  years  of  age.  St  John  came  to  this  patriarchal  chair  when  for  generations 
Egypt  had  been  torn  by  fierce  ecclesiastical  strife  and  Monophysism  was  every- 
where in  the  ascendant.  "  That  is  the  background  which  the  reader  of  St  John's 
life  must  keep  in  mind  ",  writes  Dr  Baynes,  "  As  patriarch  he  chose  a  better  way — 
he  would  recommend  orthodoxy  to  Egypt  by  a  sympathy  and  charity  that  knew 
no  limits."  On  his  arrival  in  Alexandria  St  John  ordered  an  exact  list  to  be  taken 
of  his  "  masters  ".  Being  asked  who  these  were,  he  explained  that  he  meant  the 
poor,  because  they  had  such  power  in  the  court  of  Heaven  to  help  those  who  had 
been  good  to  them  on  earth.  Their  number  amounted  to  seven  thousand  five 
hundred,  and  all  these  he  took  under  his  special  protection.  He  published  severe 
ordinances,  but  in  the  most  humble  terms,  commanding  all  to  use  just  weights  and 
measures,  in  order  to  protect  the  poor  from  a  very  cruel  form  of  oppression.  He 
rigorously  forbade  all  his  officers  and  servants  to  take  presents,  seeing  that  these 
are  no  better  than  bribes,  which  bias  the  most  impartial.  Every  Wednesday  and 
Friday  he  sat  the  whole  day  on  a  bench  before  the  church,  that  all  might  have  free 
access  to  lay  their  grievances  before  him,  and  make  known  their  necessities. 

One  of  his  first  actions  at  Alexandria  was  to  distributt  the  eighty  thousand 
pieces  of  gold  which  he  found  in  the  treasury  of  his  church  among  the  hospitals 
and  monasteries.  He  consecrated  to  the  service  of  the  poor  the  great  revenues  of 
his  see,  then  the  first  in  all  the  East  both  in  riches  and  dignity.  Besides  these,  a 
continual  stream  of  contributions  flowed  through  his  hands  representing  the  alms 


January  23]  THE  LIVES  OF  THE  SAINTS 

of  those  who  were  kindled  by  his  example.  When  his  stewards  complained  that 
he  impoverished  his  church,  his  answer  was  that  God  would  provide  for  them.  To 
vindicate  his  action,  he  told  them  the  story  of  a  vision  he  had  had  in  his  youth,  when 
a  beautiful  woman  had  appeared  to  him,  with  an  olive  garland  on  her  head.  This 
maiden,  he  was  given  to  understand,  represented  Charity,  or  compassion  for  the 
poor,  and  she  said  to  him  :  "  I  am  the  oldest  daughter  of  the  King.  If  you  will 
be  my  friend,  I  will  lead  you  to  Him.  No  one  has  so  much  influence  with  Him 
as  myself,  since  it  was  for  me  that  He  came  down  from  Heaven  to  become  man  for 
the  redemption  of  mankind. " 

When  the  Persians  plundered  Syria,  and  sacked  Jerusalem,  St  John  entertained 
the  refugees  who  fled  terror-stricken  into  Egypt,  and  sent  to  Jerusalem  for  the  poor 
there,  besides  a  large  sum  of  money,  corn,  pulse,  iron,  fish,  wine,  and  Egyptian 
workmen  to  assist  in  rebuilding  the  churches  ;  adding,  in  his  letter  to  Modestus  the 
bishop,  that  he  wished  it  had  been  in  his  power  to  come  in  person  and  contribute 
by  the  labour  of  his  hands  to  the  carrying  on  of  that  work.  No  number  of  neces- 
sitous objects,  no  losses,  no  straits  to  which  he  saw  himself  often  reduced,  discour- 
aged him  or  made  him  lose  his  confidence  in  the  divine  providence,  and  resources 
never  failed  him  in  the  end.  When  an  unfortunate  debtor,  whom  he  had  relieved 
with  bountiful  alms,  expressed  his  gratitude  over-warmly,  the  saint  cut  him  short, 
saying,  "  Brother,  I  have  not  yet  shed  my  blood  for  you,  as  Jesus  Christ,  my  Master 
and  my  God,  commands  me  to  do."  A  certain  merchant,  who  had  been  twice 
ruined  by  shipwrecks,  had  as  often  obtained  help  from  the  good  patriarch,  who  the 
third  time  gave  him  a  ship  laden  with  corn.  This  vessel  was  driven  by  a  storm  to 
the  British  islands,  and  a  famine  raging  there,  the  owners  sold  their  cargo  to  great 
advantage,  and  brought  back  a  handsome  equivalent  in  exchange,  one  half  in  money, 
the  other  in  tin.  Silver  was  found  in  the  tin,  and  this  was  attributed  to  the  virtues 
of  the  saint. 

The  patriarch  lived  himself  in  the  greatest  austerity  and  poverty.  A  person 
of  distinction  being  informed  that  he  had  but  one  blanket  on  his  bed,  and  this  a 
sorry  one,  sent  him  a  valuable  rug,  asking  that  he  would  make  use  of  it  for  the  sake 
of  the  donor.  He  accepted  it  and  put  it  to  the  intended  use,  but  it  was  only  for 
one  night,  and  this  he  passed  in  great  uneasiness,  with  self-reproach  for  reposing 
in  luxury  while  so  many  of  his  "  masters  "  were  miserably  lodged.  The  next 
morning  he  sold  it  and  gave  the  price  to  the  poor.  The  friend,  learning  what  had 
happened,  bought  it  and  gave  it  him  a  second  and  a  third  time,  for  the  saint  always 
disposed  of  it  in  the  same  way,  saying  with  a  smile,  "  We  shall  see  who  will  get  tired 
first  ".  Nor  did  St  John  spoil  his  approach  to  the  problem  of  the  indigent  poor 
by  too  much  finesse.  He  enjoyed  getting  money  out  of  the  wealthy,  "  and  used 
to  say  that  if  with  the  object  of  giving  to  the  poor  anybody  were  able,  without  ill- 
will,  to  strip  the  rich  right  down  to  their  shirts,  he  would  do  no  wrong,  more 
especially  if  they  were  heartless  skinflints  ". 

Nicetas,  the  governor,  projected  a  new  tax,  which  bore  very  harshly  upon  the 
poor.  The  patriarch  modestly  spoke  in  their  defence.  The  governor  in  a  passion 
left  him  abruptly.  St  John  sent  him  this  message  towards  evening,  "  The  sun  is 
going  to  set,"  putting  him  in  mind  of  the  advice  of  the  apostle,  "  Let  not  the  sun 
go  down  upon  your  anger  ".  This  admonition  had  its  intended  effect.  The 
governor  came  at  once  to  the  patriarch,  asked  his  pardon,  and  by  way  of  atonement 
promised  never  more  to  give  ear  to  informers  and  tale-bearers.  St  John  confirmed 
him  in  that  resolution,  adding  that  he  never  believed  any  man  whatever  against 


ST    ILDEPHONSUS  [January  23 

another  till  he  himself  had  examined  the  party  accused,  and  that  he  made  it  a  rule 
to  punish  all  calumniators  with  such  severity  as  would  serve  as  a  warning  to  others. 
Having  in  vain  exhorted  a  certain  nobleman  to  forgive  one  with  whom  he  was  at 
variance,  he  invited  him  to  his  private  chapel  to  assist  at  Mass,  and  there  desired 
him  to  recite  with  him  the  Lord's  Prayer.  The  saint  stopped  at  that  petition, 
"  Forgive  us  our  trespasses,  as  we  forgive  them  that  trespass  against  us  ".  When 
the  nobleman  had  recited  it  alone,  John  conjured  him  to  reflect  on  what  he  had  been 
saying  to  God  in  the  hour  of  the  tremendous  mysteries,  begging  to  be  pardoned  in 
the  same  manner  as  he  forgave  others.  The  other,  deeply  moved,  fell  at  his  feet, 
and  from  that  moment  was  sincerely  reconciled  with  his  adversary.  The  saint 
often  exhorted  men  against  rash  judgement,  saying,  "  Circumstances  easily  deceive 
us  :  magistrates  are  bound  to  examine  and  judge  criminals  ;  but  what  have  private 
persons  to  do  with  the  delinquencies  of  their  neighbours,  unless  it  be  to  vindicate 
them  ?  "  Observing  that  many  amused  themselves  outside  the  church  during  part 
of  divine  service,  St  John  followed  them  out  and  seated  himself  among  them,  saying, 
"  My  children,  the  shepherd  must  be  with  his  flock  ".  They  were  so  abashed,  we 
are  told,  by  this  gentle  rebuke  that  they  were  never  afterwards  guilty  of  the  same 
irreverence.  And  as  he  was  one  day  going  to  church  he  was  accosted  on  the  road 
by  a  woman  who  demanded  justice  against  her  son-in-law,  who  had  injured  her. 
The  woman  being  ordered  by  some  standers-by  to  await  the  patriarch's  return  from 
church,  he,  overhearing  them,  said,  "  How  can  I  expect  that  God  will  hear  my  own 
prayers  if  I  disregard  the  petition  of  this  woman  !  "  Nor  did  he  stir  from  the  place 
till  he  had  redressed  the  grievance  complained  of. 

Nicetas  persuaded  the  saint  to  accompany  him  to  Constantinople  to  visit  the 
Emperor  Heraclius  on  the  approach  of  the  Persians  in  619.  At  Rhodes,  while  on 
their  way,  St  John  was  admonished  from  Heaven  that  his  death  was  near  at  hand, 
and  he  said  to  Nicetas,  "  You  invite  me  to  the  emperor  of  the  earth  ;  but  the  King 
of  Heaven  calls  me  to  Himself  ".  He  therefore  sailed  back  to  his  native  Cyprus, 
and  soon  after  died  happily  at  Amathus,  in  619  or  620.  The  body  of  St  John  was 
afterwards  carried  to  Constantinople,  where  it  was  a  long  time.  The  Turkish 
sultan  made  a  present  of  it  to  Matthias,  King  of  Hungary,  who  constructed  a  shrine 
for  it  in  his  chapel  at  Buda.  In  1530  it  was  translated  to  Tall,  near  Bratislava  ; 
and,  in  1632,  to  Bratislava  itself,  where  it  may  still  remain.  The  Greeks  honour 
this  saint  on  November  1 1 ,  the  day  of  his  death  ;  but  the  Roman  Martyrology  on 
January  23,  the  anniversary  of  the  translation  of  his  relics. 

A  life  of  St  John  the  Almsgiver  was  written  by  two  contemporaries,  John  Moschus  and 
Sophronius  ;  this  is  lost.  A  supplementary  life  by  another  contemporary,  Bishop  Leontius 
of  Neapolis  in  Cyprus,  survives.  These  two  sources,  however,  were  reduced  by  an  early 
editor  to  a  single  text,  which  was  published  by  Father  Delehaye  in  1927  (Analecta  Bollandiana, 
vol.  xlv,  pp.  5-74).  It  was  this  version  that  was  used  by  Simeon  Metaphrastes  for  his 
tenth-century  biography.  N.  H.  Baynes  and  Elizabeth  Dawes  in  Three  Byzantine  Saints 
(1948)  give  an  English  translation  of  the  Moschus  and  Sophronius  part  of  this  text  and  of 
the  original  text  of  Leontius.  Greek  text  of  Leontius  edited  by  H.  Gelzer  (1893)  ;  Latin 
translation  by  Anastasius  the  Librarian  in  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  23  ;  Father  P.  Bedjan 
edited  a  Syriac  version  in  vol.  iv  of  his  Acta  martyrum  et  sanctorum. 

ST   ILDEPHONSUS,  Archbishop  of  Toledo        (a.d.  667) 

The  name  Ildephonsus,  or  Hildephonsus,  seems  to  be  the  original  form  from  which 
the  variants  Alphonsus,  Alfonso  and  Alonzo  have  subsequently  developed.  After 
St  Isidore  of  Seville,  St  Ildephonsus,  who  in  accordance  with  a  somewhat  unreliable 


January  23]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

tradition  is  said  to  have  been  his  pupil,  has  always  been  looked  upon  as  one  of  the 
greatest  glories  of  the  Spanish  church,  which  honours  him  liturgically  as  a  doctor 
of  the  Church.  He  was  of  distinguished  birth,  the  nephew  of  St  Eugenius, 
Archbishop  of  Toledo,  to  whose  office  he  afterwards  succeeded.  At  an  early  age 
he  became  a  monk  in  spite  of  parental  opposition,  and,  joining  the  community  of 
Agli  (Agalia)  near  Toledo,  he  was  eventually  elected  abbot,  of  that  monastery.  We 
know  that  he  was  ordained  deacon  about  the  year  630,  and  that,  though  only  a 
simple  monk,  he  founded  and  endowed  a  community  of  nuns  in  the  neighbourhood. 
Whilst  he  held  the  office  of  abbot  he  attended  the  eighth  and  ninth  councils  of 
Toledo,  held  respectively  in  the  years  653  and  655.  His  elevation  to  the  archiepis- 
copal  dignity  seems  to  have  taken  place  in  657.  The  enthusiastic  encomiums  of 
Julian,  his  contemporary  and  successor  in  the  see,  as  well  as  the  testimony  of  other 
eminent  churchmen  and  the  evidence  afforded  by  the  ardent  devotion  conspicuous 
in  his  own  writings,  prove  abundantly  that  the  choice  was  a  worthy  one,  and  that 
Ildephonsus  possessed  all  the  virtues  which  became  his  high  office.  He  governed 
the  church  of  Toledo  for  a  little  more  than  nine  years,  and  died  on  January  23,  667. 
One  feature  which  stands  out  very  prominently  in  the  literary  work  of  St 
Ildephonsus,  and  more  particularly  in  his  tractate  De  virginitate  perpetua  sanctae 
Mariae,  is  the  remarkable  glow  of  enthusiasm,  almost  bordering  upon  extravagance, 
in  the  language  he  uses  concerning  our  Blessed  Lady.  Edmund  Bishop  laid  stress 
upon  this  trait  in  his  valuable  papers  on  "  Spanish  Symptoms  ",  and  we  may  well 
believe  it  to  be  characteristic  of  the  devotion  of  the  saint  as  well  as  typical  of  the 
atmosphere  in  which  he  lived.  It  is  not,  therefore,  surprising  that  a  century  after 
his  death  two  legends  grew  up,  both  implying  a  recognition  of  his  privileged  position 
in  relation  to  the  Mother  of  God.  According  to  one  of  these  the  martyr  St 
Leocadia,  who  is  one  of  the  patrons  of  Toledo,  rose  out  of  her  tomb  when  Ilde- 
phonsus was  praying  before  it  to  thank  him  in  the  name  of  the  Queen  of  Heaven 
for  having  vindicated  the  honour  of  her  glorious  mistress.  The  most  salient  feature 
of  the  other  legend  is  that  our  Lady  showed  her  gratitude  to  the  saint  by  appearing 
to  him  in  person  seated  upon  his  own  episcopal  throne,  and  by  presenting  him  with 
a  chasuble.  This  last  story,  with  many  embellishments,  appears  in  nearly  all  the 
great  collections  of  Marienlegenden  which  had  such  immense  vogue  in  the  twelfth 
and  thirteenth  centuries.  There  seems,  in  any  case,  good  reason  to  believe  that  the 
Marian  element  in  certain  Spanish  liturgical  documents  was  strongly  coloured  by 
the  language  which  became  prevalent  at  Toledo  in  the  time  of  St  Ildephonsus. 

The  brief  summary  of  the  saint's  career  drafted  by  Julian,  as  well  as  the  account  by 
Cixila,  will  be  found  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  23,  as  also  in  the  second  vol.  of 
Mabillon.  See  also  the  Dictionnaire  de  Theologie,  vol.  vii,  cc.  739-744  ;  the  article  by 
Herwegen  in  the  Kirchliches  Handlexikon  ;  E.  Bishop,  Liturgica  Hisiorica,  pp.  165-210  ; 
and  A.  Braegelmann,  Life  and  Writings  of  St  Ildephonsus  of  Toledo  (1942),  which  summarizes 
the  material. 

ST    BERNARD,  Archbishop  of  Vienne        (a.d.  842) 

This  St  Bernard  (often  written  Barnard)  was  born  of  a  distinguished  family  about 
the  year  778  ;  in  due  course  he  entered  the  service  of  Charlemagne  and  married. 
About  800  he  founded  the  abbey  of  Ambronay  and  later  became  a  monk  there, 
succeeding  to  the  dignity  of  abbot.  In  810  he  was  made  archbishop  of  Vienne. 
Though  our  biographical  materials  are  slight  and  of  late  date,  everything  points  to 
the  conclusion  that  he  was  one  of  the  most  influential  as  well  as  one  of  the  most 


BD   MARGARET   OF   RAVENNA  [January  23 

saintly  prelates  of  that  age.  Although  he  does  not  seem  always  to  have  acted 
wisely  in  the  political  disturbances  which  followed  in  the  time  of  Louis  the  Debonair, 
his  zeal  for  the  purity  of  the  faith  and  for  the  maintenance  of  ecclesiastical  discipline 
was  never  called  in  question.  Two  very  complimentary  letters  which  are  supposed 
to  have  been  addressed  to  him  by  Popes  Paschal  I  and  Eugenius  II  are,  however, 
of  doubtful  authenticity.  About  the  year  837  he  founded  the  abbey  of  Romans, 
and  there,  after  his  death  on  January  23,  842,  he  was  buried,  a  highly  eulogistic 
epitaph,  which  is  still  preserved  to  us,  being  engraved  upon  his  tomb. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  23  ;  Analecta  Boliandiana,  vol.  xi  (1892),  pp.  402 
seq.  ;  Duchesne,  Fastes  fipiscopaux,  vol.  i,  pp.  148,  158,  201,  210  ;  and  DHG.,  vol.  vi, 
cc.  858-859. 

ST   LUFTHILDIS,  Virgin        (c.  a.d.  850  ?) 

St  Lufthildis,  whose  name  is  written  in  many  varying  forms — Leuchteldis, 
Liuthild,  Lufthold,  etc. — is  one  of  those  saints  who  seem  to  have  inspired  con- 
siderable local  popular  devotion,  which  is  evidenced  by  place-names  and  folk 
traditions,  but  who  have  found  no  contemporary  biographer  to  chronicle  their  acts. 
The  principal  feature  in  the  story  told  concerning  her  by  writers  many  centuries 
later  in  date  was  that  in  her  youth  she  had  much  to  suffer  from  a  very  cruel  step- 
mother, who  was  provoked  to  fury  by  the  child's  love  of  giving  to  the  poor.  Even- 
tually Lufthildis  left  home  to  lead  the  life  of  a  hermit,  consecrating  all  her  time  to 
God  in  contemplation  and  the  practice  of  penance.  Popular  devotion  was  excited 
by  the  miracles  wrought  after  her  death,  and  she  is  still  honoured  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Cologne.  Her  tomb  was  opened  to  inspect  the  relics  in  1623  and  again 
in  1901. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  23  (appendix),  and  A.  Steffens,  Die  heilige  Lufthildis 

ST   MAIMBOD,  Martyr        (a.d.  880  ?) 

St  Maimbod,  or  Mainboeuf,  is  venerated  on  this  day  in  the  diocese  of  Besancon, 
and  a  church  has  been  dedicated  in  his  honour  at  Montbeliard  in  comparatively 
recent  times.  He  is  said  to  have  been  an  Irishman  by  birth,  and  seems  to  have 
belonged  to  that  class  of  peregrini,  or  wandering  missionaries,  of  whom  Dom  L. 
Gougaud  wrote  in  his  Gaelic  Pioneers  of  Christianity.  We  possess  very  little 
reliable  information  regarding  him,  but  he  is  said  to  have  been  killed  by  a  band  of 
pagans  when  preaching  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Kaltenbrunn  in  Alsace. 
When  miracles  began  to  be  worked  by  his  remains,  Berengarius,  Archbishop  of 
Besancon,  and  a  certain  Count  of  Montbeliard,  translated  the  relics  to  the  chapel  of 
Montbeliard,  where  they  were  destroyed  in  the  sixteenth  century  during  the  wars 
of  religion. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  23  ;   and  LIS.,  vol.  i,  p.  405. 

BD    MARGARET    OF    RAVENNA,  Virgin        (a.d.  1505) 

Although  the  cultus  of  Bd  Margaret  does  not  seem  to  have  been  formally  con- 
firmed, her  biography  occupies  several  pages  in  the  Bollandist  Acta  Sanctorum. 
Margaret,  a  native  of  Russi,  near  Ravenna,  is  said  to  have  lost  her  sight  a  few  months 
after  birth,  but  whether  she  was  totally  blind  is  not  clear,  for  she  was  always  able 


January  24]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

to  find  her  way  into  a  church,  a  fact  upon  which  her  biographer  comments  naively, 
"  This  induces  me  to  believe  that,  although  blind,  she  saw  what  she  wished  to  see  ". 
Her  early  life  seems  to  have  been  full  of  trials  and  sufferings,  partly  due  to  continued 
ill-health,  partly  to  the  offence  given  by  her  ascetical  practices  and  love  of  retire- 
ment. She  was  accused  of  hypocrisy  and  in  many  ways  persecuted,  but  in  the 
end  she  gained  the  esteem  of  most  of  those  who  had  most  bitterly  opposed  her.  In 
fact,  some  two  or  three  hundred  came  at  last  to  place  themselves  under  her  guidance 
and  to  form  a  religious  association  of  persons  living  in  the  world  which  included 
both  sexes,  and  admitted  the  married  as  well  as  the  single.  With  the  assistance  of 
the  Venerable  Jerome  Maluselli  and  others  she  drafted  constitutions,  but  the 
organization  as  she  conceived  it  did  not  take  permanent  root  in  Italy.  On  the  other 
hand,  after  Margaret's  death,  Father  Maluselli,  discarding  the  rules  which  admitted 
laymen  and  women,  founded  on  the  same  basis  an  order  of  clerks  regular  which 
was  known  as  the  Priests  of  the  Good  Jesus.  Margaret  herself  always  set  an 
admirable  example  of  the  continual  prayer,  humility  and  cheerful  patience  which 
she  wished  to  be  characteristic  of  the  institute  which  she  had  projected,  and  she 
was  famous  both  for  her  miracles  and  for  her  prophecies.  She  died  at  the  age  of 
sixty-three  on  January  23,  1505. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  23  ;   Kirchenlexikon,  vol.  vi,  cc.  1462-1463  ;    Heim- 
bucher,  Die  Orden  und  Kongregationen,  vol.  ii,  pp.  35  seq. 


•  ST    TIMOTHY,  Bishop  and  Martyr        (c.  a.d.  97) 

ST  TIMOTHY,  the  beloved  disciple  of  St  Paul,  was  probably  a  native  of 
Lystra  in  Lycaonia.  His  father  was  a  Gentile,  but  his  mother  Eunice  a 
Jewess.  She,  with  Lois,  his  grandmother,  embraced  the  Christian  religion, 
and  St  Paul  commends  their  faith.  Timothy  had  made  the  Holy  Scriptures  his 
study  from  early  youth.  When  St  Paul  preached  in  Lycaonia  the  brethren  of 
Iconium  and  Lystra  gave  Timothy  so  good  a  character  that  the  apostle,  being 
deprived  of  St  Barnabas,  took  him  for  his  companion,  but  first  circumcised  him  at 
Lystra.  St  Paul  refused  to  circumcise  Titus,  born  of  Gentile  parents,  in  order  to 
assert  the  liberty  of  the  gospel,  and  to  condemn  those  who  affirmed  circumcision 
to  be  still  of  precept  in  the  New  Law.  On  the  other  hand,  he  circumcised  Timothy, 
born  of  a  Jewess,  that  he  might  make  him  more  acceptable  to  the  Jews,  and  might 
show  that  he  himself  was  no  enemy  of  their  law.  Chrysostom  here  commends 
the  prudence  of  Paul  and,  we  may  add,  the  voluntary  obedience  of  the  disciple. 
Then  St  Paul,  by  the  imposition  of  hands,  committed  to  him  the  ministry  of 
preaching,  and  from  that  time  regarded  him  not  only  as  his  disciple  and  most 
dear  son,  but  as  his  brother  and  the  companion  of  his  labours.  He  calls  him  a 
man  of  God,  and  tells  the  Philippians  that  he  found  no  one  so  truly  united  to  him  in 
spirit  as  Timothy. 

St  Paul  travelled  from  Lystra  over  the  rest  of  Asia,  sailed  to  Macedonia,  and 
preached  at  Philippi,  Thessalonica  and  Berea.  Being  compelled  to  quit  this  last 
city  by  the  fury  of  the  Jews,  he  left  Timothy  behind  him  to  confirm  the  new  converts 
there.  On  arriving  at  Athens,  however,  St  Paul  sent  for  him,  but  learning  that  the 
Christians  of  Thessalonica  lay  under  a  very  heavy  persecution,  he  soon  after  deputed 
Timothy  to  go  in  his  place  to  encourage  them,  and  the  disciple  returned  to  St  Paul, 


ST    TIMOTHY  [January  24 

who  was  then  at  Corinth,  to  give  him  an  account  of  his  success.  Upon  this  the 
apostle  wrote  his  first  epistle  to  the  Thessalonians.  From  Corinth  St  Paul  went 
to  Jerusalem,  and  thence  to  Ephesus,  where  he  spent  two  years.  In  58  he  seems 
to  have  decided  to  return  to  Greece,  and  sent  Timothy  and  Erastus  before  him 
through  Macedonia  to  apprise  the  faithful  of  his  intention,  and  to  prepare  the  alms 
he  wished  to  send  to  the  Christians  of  Jerusalem. 

Timothy  was  afterwards  directed  to  visit  Corinth.  His  presence  was  needed 
there  to  revive  in  the  minds  of  the  faithful  the  doctrine  which  the  apostle  had  taught 
them.  The  warm  commendation  of  the  disciple  in  1  Corinthians  xvi  10  no  doubt 
has  reference  to  this.  Paul  waited  in  Asia  for  his  return,  and  then  went  with  him 
into  Macedonia  and  Achaia.  St  Timothy  left  him  at  Philippi,  but  rejoined  him 
at  Troas.  The  apostle  on  his  return  to  Palestine  was  imprisoned,  and  after  a  two 
years'  incarceration  at  Caesarea  was  sent  to  Rome.  Timothy  seems  to  have  been 
with  him  all  or  most  of  this  time,  and  is  named  by  him  in  the  title  of  his  epistle  to 
Philemon  and  in  that  to  the  Philippians.  St  Timothy  himself  suffered  imprison- 
ment for  Christ,  and  confessed  His  name  in  the  presence  of  many  witnesses, 
but  was  set  at  liberty.  He  was  ordained  bishop,  it  seems,  as  the  result  of  a 
special  inspiration  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  St  Paul  having  returned  from  Rome  to 
the  East,  left  St  Timothy  at  Ephesus  to  govern  that  church,  to  oppose  false 
teachers,  and  to  ordain  priests,  deacons  and  even  bishops.  At  any  rate, 
Chrysostom  and  other  fathers  assume  that  the  apostle  committed  to  him  the 
care  of  all  the  churches  of  Asia,  and  St  Timothy  is  always  described  as  the  first 
bishop  of  Ephesus. 

St  Paul  wrote  his  first  letter  to  Timothy  from  Macedonia,  and  his  second  from 
Rome,  while  there  in  chains,  to  press  him  to  come  to  Rome,  that  he  might  see  him 
again  before  he  died.  It  is  an  out-pouring  of  his  heart,  full  of  tenderness  towards 
this  his  dearest  son.  In  it  he  encourages  him  in  his  many  trials,  seeks  to  revive  in 
his  soul  that  spirit  of  intrepidity  and  that  fire  of  the  Holy  Ghost  with  which  he  was 
filled  at  his  ordination,  gives  him  instructions  concerning  the  false  brethren  of  the 
time,  and  predicts  still  further  disorders  and  troubles  in  the  Church. 

We  learn  that  St  Timothy  drank  only  water,  but  his  austerities  having  prejudiced 
his  health,  St  Paul,  on  account  of  his  frequent  infirmities,  directed  him  to  take  a 
little  wine.  Upon  which  Chrysostom  observes,  "  He  did  not  say  simply  '  take 
wine  '  but  '  a  little  wine  ',  and  this  not  because  Timothy  stood  in  need  of  that 
advice  but  because  we  do  ".  St  Timothy,  it  seems,  was  still  young — perhaps  about 
forty.  It  is  not  improbable  that  he  went  to  Rome  to  confer  with  his  master.  We 
must  assume  that  Timothy  was  made  by  St  Paul  bishop  at  Ephesus  before  St  John 
arrived  there.  There  is  a  strong  tradition  that  John  also  resided  in  that  city  as 
an  apostle,  and  exercised  a  general  inspection  over  all  the  churches  of  Asia.  St 
Timothy  is  styled  a  martyr  in  the  ancient  matyrologies. 

The  "  Acts  of  St  Timothy  ",  which  are  in  some  copies  ascribed  to  the  famous 
Polycrates,  Bishop  of  Ephesus,  but  which  seem  to  have  been  written  at  Ephesus  in 
the  fourth  or  fifth  century,  and  abridged  by  Photius,  relate  that  under  the  Emperor 
Nerva  in  the  year  97  St  Timothy  was  slain  with  stones  and  clubs  by  the  heathen  ; 
he  was  endeavouring  to  oppose  their  idolatrous  ceremonies  on  a  festival  called  the 
Katagogia,  kept  on  January  22,  on  which  day  they  walked  in  troops,  everyone 
carrying  in  one  hand  an  idol  and  in  the  other  a  club.  We  have  good  evidence  that 
what  purported  to  be  his  relics  were  translated  to  Constantinople  in  the  reign  of 
Constantius.      The  supernatural  manifestations  said  to  have  taken  place  at  the 


January  24]  THE   LIVES   OF   THE    SAINTS 

shrine  are  referred  to  as  a  matter  of  common  knowledge  both  by  Chrysostom  and 
St  Jerome. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  24.  The  Greek  text  of  the  so-called  Acts  of  St 
Timothy  has  been  edited  by  H.  Usener,  who,  in  view  of  the  small  admixture  of  the  miraculous 
element,  inclines  to  regard  them  as  reproducing  a  basis,  derived  perhaps  from  some  Ephesian 
chronicle,  of  historical  fact.  The  absence  of  any  reference  to  the  translation  of  St  Timothy's 
relics  to  Constantinople  in  356  induces  him  to  pronounce  the  composition  of  these  "  acts  " 
to  be  earlier  than  that  date.  Cf.  R.  Lipsius,  Die  apokryphen  Apostelgeschichten,  vol.  ii, 
pt.  2,  pp.  372  seq.  ;   and  BHL.,  n.  1200  ;    BHG.,  n.  135. 

ST   BABYLAS,  Bishop  of  Antioch,  Martyr        (c.  a.d.  250) 

The  most  celebrated  of  the  ancient  bishops  of  Antioch  after  St  Ignatius  was  St 
Babylas,  who  succeeded  Zebinus  about  the  year  240,  but  regrettably  little  is  known 
about  him.  According  to  St  John  Chrysostom  he  was  the  bishop  who,  Eusebius 
reports,  refused  admittance  to  the  church  on  Easter  day  in  244  to  Philip  the  Arabian 
— alleged  to  be  a  Christian — till  he  had  done  penance  for  the  murder  of  his  pre- 
decessor the  Emperor  Gordian.  St  Babylas  died  a  martyr  during  the  persecution 
of  Decius,  probably  in  prison  as  Eusebius  says,  but  Chrysostom  states  he  was 

St  Babylas  is  the  first  martyr  of  whom  a  translation  of  relics  is  recorded.  His 
body  was  buried  at  Antioch  ;  but  in  351  the  caesar  Gallus  removed  it  to  a  church 
at  Daphne  a  few  miles  away  to  counteract  the  influence  there  of  a  famous  shrine 
of  Apollo,  where  oracles  were  given  and  the  licentiousness  was  notorious.  The 
oracles  were  indeed  silenced,  and  in  362  Julian  the  Apostate  ordered  that  the  relics 
of  the  martyr  be  removed.  Accordingly  they  were  taken  back  to  their  former 
resting-place,  the  Christians  accompanying  them  in  procession,  singing  the  psalms 
that  speak  of  the  powerlessness  of  idols  and  false  gods.  The  following  evening,  we 
are  told,  the  temple  of  Apollo  was  destroyed  by  lightning.  A  little  later  there  was 
a  third  translation,  made  by  the  bishop  St  Meletius,  to  a  basilica  he  built  across 
the  Orontes  ;   Meletius  himself  was  buried  next  to  St  Babylas. 

See  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xix  (1901),  pp.  5-8,  and  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for 
January  24,  where  two  passions  of  St  Babylas  are  printed,  admittedly  of  no  authority. 
Neither  can  the  two  panegyrics  preached  by  Chrysostom  be  regarded  as  trustworthy  historical 
sources,  as  Delehaye  has  shown  in  chap,  ii  of  Les  passions  des  martyrs  .  .  .  (1921),  especially 
pp.  209  and  232.  St  Babylas,  however,  not  only  figures  in  the  earliest  Syriac  martyrology, 
but  was  widely  celebrated  even  in  the  West,  and  we  have  an  account  of  him  both  in  prose 
and  verse  written  by  St  Aldhelm  of  Sherborne  in  the  seventh  century.  These  have  been 
edited  with  the  rest  of  Aldhelm's  works  by  R.  Ehwald  in  MGH.,  Auctores  antiquissimi , 
vol.  xv,  pp.  274,  397.  Cf.  Tillemont,  Memoires  .  .  .,  vol.  iii,  pp.  400-408  ;  and  Delehaye, 
Origines  du  culte  v  .  .  (1933),  pp.  54,  58,  etc. 

ST   FELICIAN,  Bishop  of  Foligno,  Martyr        (c.  a.d.  254) 

The  Roman  Martyrology  commemorates  on  this  day  an  early  bishop  and  patron 
of  Foligno,  St  Felician,  who  is  also  regarded  as  the  original  apostle  of  Umbria.  It 
is  difficult  to  say  how  much  foundation  of  fact  may  underlie  the  two  Latin  bio- 
graphies which  have  been  preserved  of  him.  He  is  represented  as  having  always 
been  given  up  to  missionary  labours,  as  a  trusted  disciple  of  Pope  St  Eleutherius, 
who  ordained  him  priest,  and  then  as  the  friend  of  Pope  St  Victor  I,  who  conse- 
crated him  bishop  of  Foligno.      If  we  could  trust  the  details  given  in  the  longer 


BD    MARCOL1NO    OF    FORL1  [January  24 

of  the  two  lives,  we  should  be  able  to  claim  that  the  earliest  trace  of  the  use  of  the 
pallium  is  met  with  in  the  account  of  the  episcopal  consecration  of  this  saint :  for 
the  pope,  we  are  told,  granted  to  him  as  a  privilege  that  he  might  wear  a  woollen 
wrap  outwardly  round  his  neck,*  and  with  this  is  associated  in  the  same  context 
the  duty  of  consecrating  bishops  outside  of  Rome. 

Felician  was  bishop  for  more  than  fifty  years,  but  in  the  persecution  of  Decius 
he  was  arrested  and,  refusing  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  was  tortured  by  the  rack  and 
repeated  scourgings.  While  he  lay  in  prison  he  was  tended  by  a  maiden,  St 
Messalina,  who  in  consequence  of  the  devotion  she  showed  to  him  was  herself 
accused  and  required  to  offer  sacrifice  ;  but  remaining  steadfast  in  the  faith,  was 
then  tortured  until  released  by  death.  Orders  were  given  that  Felician  should  be 
conveyed  to  Rome  that  he  might  suffer  martyrdom  there,  but  he  died  on  the  way, 
only  three  miles  from  Foligno,  as  a  result  of  the  torments  and  imprisonment  he 
had  undergone.  He  was  ninety-four  years  of  age,  and  had  been  fifty-six  years  a 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  24  ;  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  ix  (1890),  pp. 
379-392  ;  and  A  San  Feliciano,  protettore  di  Foligno  (1933),  short  essays,  with  many  pictures, 
ed.  Mgr  Faloci-Pulignani. 

ST    MACEDONIUS  {c.  ad.  430) 

This  Syrian  ascetic  is  said  to  have  lived  for  forty  years  on  barley  moistened  in  water 
till,  finding  his  health  impaired,  he  ate  bread,  reflecting  that  it  tsus  not  lawful  for 
him  to  shorten  his  life  in  order  to  shun  labours  and  conflicts.  This  also  was  the 
direction  he  gave  to  the  mother  of  Theodoret,  persuading  her,  when  in  a  poor  state 
of  health,  to  use  proper  food,  which  he  said  was  a  form  of  medicine.  Theodoret 
relates  many  miraculous  cures  of  sick  persons,  and  of  his  own  mother  among  them, 
wrought  by  water  over  which  Macedonius  had  made  the  sign  of  the  cross.  He 
adds  that  his  own  birth  was  the  effect  of  the  anchoret's  prayers  after  his  mother 
had  lived  childless  in  marriage  thirteen  years.  The  saint  died  when  ninety  years 
old,  and  is  named  in  the  Greek  menologies. 

Practically  all  our  information  comes  from  Theodoret's  Historia  religiosa  (see  Migne, 
PO.,  vol.  lxxxii,  1399),  but  Macedonius' also  has  a  paragraph  in  the  Synaxary  of  Constanti- 
nople (ed.  Delehaye,  pp.  457-458),  under  date  February  11.  Cf.  also  DCB.,  vol.  iii,  p.  778  ; 
and  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  24. 

BD    MARCOLINO    OF    FORLI        (ad.  1397) 

The  family  name  of  Bd  Marcolino  was  Amanni,  and  he  is  said  to  have  entered 
the  Dominican  noviceship  when  only  ten  years  old.  The  qualities  most  remarked 
in  him  were  his  exact  observance  of  rule,  his  love  of  poverty  and  obedience,  but 
especially  a  spirit  of  great  humility  which  led  him  to  avoid  all  occasions  of  drawing 
notice  upon  himself  and  to  find  his  supreme  contentment  in  undertaking  the  lowliest 
and  most  menial  offices.  We  are  told  also  that  he  practised  rigorous  bodily 
penance,  that  he  was  a  lover  of  the  poor  and  of  little  children,  and  that  he  was 
favoured  with  continual  ecstasies.  He  spent  so  much  time  in  praying  upon  his 
knees  that  calluses  had  formed  there,  as  was  discovered  after  his  death.  Bd 
Raymund  of  Capua,  master  general  of  the  Dominicans,  had  a  high  opinion  of 

*  "  Concessit  ut  extrinsecus  lineo  [probably  an  error  for  laneo]  sudario  circumdaretur 
collo  ejus  "  (Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  ix,  p.  383). 


January  25]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

Father  Marcolino,  though  he  was  unable  to  make  use  of  him  in  carrying  out  the 
reform  of  the  Order  of  Preachers  after  the  ravages  of  the  Black  Death  and  the 
troubles  which  followed  on  the  Great  Schism,  because  of  his  retiring  disposition. 
Father  Marcolino,  who  is  said  to  have  foretold  the  time  of  his  own  death,  passed 
away  at  Forli  on  January  2,  1397,  at  the  age  of  eighty.  To  the  surprise  of  his 
brethren,  who  had  failed  to  appreciate  his  holiness,  a  great  concourse  attended  his 
funeral,  drawn  thither,  we  are  told,  by  an  angel  who  in  the  guise  of  a  child  gave 
notice  of  it  in  all  the  surrounding  district.      The  cultus  was  confirmed  in  1750. 

Our  knowledge  of  Bd.  Marcolino  is  largely  based  on  certain  letters  of  Bd  John  Dominici. 
See  Mortier,  Histoire  des  Maitres  Generaux  O.P.,  vol.  iii,  pp.  564-568  ;  and  Procter,  Short 
Lives,  pp.  13-15. 


I  THE    CONVERSION    OF    ST    PAUL        (ad.  34) 

THE  Apostle  of  the  Gentiles  was  a  Jew  of  the  tribe  of  Benjamin.  At  his 
circumcision  on  the  eighth  day  after  his  birth  he  received  the  name  of  Saul, 
and  being  born  at  Tarsus  in  Cilicia  he  was  by  privilege  a  Roman  citizen. 
His  parents  sent  him  when  young  to  Jerusalem,  and  there  he  was  instructed  in 
the  law  of  Moses  by  Gamaliel,  a  learned  and  noble  Pharisee.  Thus  Saul  became 
a  scrupulous  observer  of  the  law,  and  he  appeals  even  to  his  enemies  to  bear  witness 
how  conformable  to  it  his  life  had  always  been.  He  too  embraced  the  party  of 
the  Pharisees,  which  was  of  all  others  the  most  severe,  even  while  it  was,  in  some 
of  its  members,  the  most  opposed  to  the  humility  of  the  gospel.  It  is  probable 
that  Saul  learned  in  his  youth  the  trade  which  he  practised  even  after  his  apostleship 
— namely,  that  of  making  tents.  Later  on  Saul,  surpassing  his  fellows  in  zeal  for 
the  Jewish  law  and  traditions,  which  he  thought  the  cause  of  God,  became  a  perse- 
cutor and  enemy  of  Christ.  He  was  one  of  those  who  took  part  in  the  murder 
of  St  Stephen,  and  by  looking  after  the  garments  of  those  who  stoned  that  holy 
martyr  he  is  said  by  St  Augustine  to  have  stoned  him  by  the  hands  of  all  the  rest. 
To  the  martyr's  prayers  for  his  enemies  we  may  ascribe  Saul's  conversion.  "  If 
Stephen  ",  St  Augustine  adds,  "  had  not  prayed,  the  Church  would  never  have 
had  St  Paul." 

As  our  Saviour  had  always  been  represented  by  the  leading  men  of  the  Jews  as 
an  enemy  to  their  law,  it  was  no  wonder  that  this  rigorous  Pharisee  fully  persuaded 
himself  that  "  he  ought  to  do  many  things  contrary  to  the  name  of  Jesus  of 
Nazareth  ",  and  his  name  became  everywhere  a  terror  to  the  faithful,  for  he 
breathed  nothing  but  threats  and  slaughter  against  them.  In  the  fury  of  his  zeal 
he  applied  to  the  high  priest  for  a  commission  to  arrest  all  Jews  at  Damascus  who 
confessed  Jesus  Christ,  and  bring  them  bound  to  Jerusalem.  But  God  was  pleased 
to  show  forth  in  him  His  patience  and  mercy.  Saul  was  almost  at  the  end  of  his 
journey  to  Damascus  when,  about  noon,  he  and  his  company  were  on  a  sudden 
surrounded  by  a  great  light  from  Heaven.  They  all  saw  this  light,  and  being  struck 
with  amazement  fell  to  the  ground.  Then  Saul  heard  a  voice  which  to  him  was 
articulate  and  distinct,  though  not  understood  by  the  rest :  "  Saul,  Saul,  why  dost 
thou  persecute  me  ?  "  Saul  answered,  "  Who  art  thou,  Lord  ?  "  Christ  said, 
"  Jesus  of  Nazareth,  whom  thou  persecutest.  It  is  hard  for  thee  to  kick  against 
the  goad."      In  other  words,  by  persecuting  My  church  you  only  hurt  yourself. 


THE    CONVERSION    OF    ST    PAUL  [January  25 

Trembling  and  astonished,  he  cried  out,  "  Lord,  what  wilt  thou  have  me  to  do  ?  " 
Christ  told  him  to  arise  and  proceed  on  his  journey  to  his  destination,  where  he 
would  learn  what  was  expected  of  him.  When  he  got  up  from  the  ground  Saul 
found  that  though  his  eyes  were  open  he  could  see  nothing.  He  was  led  by  the 
hand  like  a  child  to  Damascus,  and  was  lodged  in  the  house  of  a  Jew  named  Judas, 
and  there  he  remained  three  days,  blind,  and  without  eating  or  drinking. 

There  was  a  Christian  in  Damascus  much  respected  for  his  life  and  virtue, 
whose  name  was  Ananias.  Christ  appeared  to  this  disciple  and  commanded  him 
to  go  to  Saul,  who  was  then  in  the  house  of  Judas  at  prayer.  Ananias  trembled 
at  the  name  of  Saul,  being  no  stranger  to  the  mischief  he  had  done  in  Jerusalem, 
or  to  the  errand  on  which  he  had  travelled  to  Damascus.  But  our  Redeemer 
overruled  his  fears,  and  charged  him  a  second  time  to  go,  saying,  "  Go,  for  he  is 
a  vessel  of  election  to  carry  my  name  before  Gentiles  and  kings  and  the  children 
of  Israel  :  and  I  will  show  him  how  much  he  has  to  suffer  for  my  name."  Saul 
in  the  meantime  sjb.w  in  a  vision  a  man  entering,  and  laying  his  hands  upon  him  to 
restore  his  sight.  Ananias  arose,  went  to  Saul,  and  laying  his  hands  upon  him 
said,  "  Brother  Saul,  the  Lord  Jesus,  who  appeared  to  thee  on  thy  journey,  hath 
sent  me  that  thou  mayest  receive  thy  sight,  and  be  filled  with  the  Holy  Ghost." 
Immediately  something  like  scales  fell  from  his  eyes,  and  he  recovered  his  sight. 
Ananias  went  on,  "  The  God  of  our  fathers  hath  chosen  thee  that  thou  shouldst 
know  His  will  and  see  the  Just  One  and  hear  the  voice  from  His  mouth  :  and  thou 
shalt  be  His  witness  to  all  men  of  what  thou  hast  seen  and  heard.  Why  dost  thou 
tarry  ?  Arise,  be  baptized  and  washed  from  thy  sins,  invoking  the  name  of  the 
Lord."  Saul  arose,  wras  baptized,  and  ate.  He  stayed  some  days  with  the  disciples 
at  Damascus,  and  began  immediately  to  preach  in  the  synagogues  that  Jesus  was 
the  Son  of  God,  to  the  great  astonishment  of  all  that  heard  him,  who  said,  "  Is  not 
this  he  who  at  Jerusalem  persecuted  those  who  called  on  the  name  of  Jesus,  and 
who  is  come  hither  to  carry  them  away  prisoners  ?  "  Thus  a  blasphemer  and  a 
persecutor  was  made  an  apostle,  and  chosen  to  be  one  of  the  principal  instruments 
of  God  in  the  conversion  of  the  world. 

St  Paul  can  never  have  recalled  to  mind  this  his  conversion  without  the  deepest 
gratitude  and  without  extolling  the  divine  mercy.  The  Church,  in  thanksgiving 
to  God  for  such  a  miracle  of  His  grace  and  to  propose  to  penitents  a  perfect  model 
of  true  conversion,  has  instituted  this  festival,  which  was  for  some  time  a  holiday 
of  obligation  in  most  churches  in  the  West  ;  and  we  find  it  particularly  mentioned 
as  such  in  England  in  the  thirteenth  century,  an  observance  possibly  introduced 
by  Cardinal  Langton. 

It  is  difficult  to  assign  any  reason  for  the  keeping  of  a  feast  of  the  conversion 
of  St  Paul  on  this  particular  day.  The  earliest  text  of  the  "  Hieronymianum  " 
mentions  on  January  25,  not  the  conversion,  but  the  "  translation  of  St  Paul  ". 
The  translation  in  question  could  hardly  be  other  than  the  bringing  of  the  relics 
of  the  apostle  to  his  own  basilica  after  their  sojourn  of  nearly  a  century  in  their 
resting-place  ad  Catacumbas.  But  this  commemoration  of  St  Paul  on  January  25 
does  not  appear  to  be  a  Roman  feast.  There  is  no  mention  of  it  either  in  the  early 
Gelasian  or  Gregorian  sacramentaries.  On  the  other  hand,  we  find  a  proper 
Mass  in  the  Missale  Gothicum,  and  the  festival  is  entered  in  the  martyrologies  of 
Gellone  and  Rheinau.  Some  texts,  like  the  Berne  MS.  of  the  Hieronymianum, 
show  traces  of  a  transition  from  "  translation  "  to  "  conversion  ".  The  calendar 
of  the  English  St  Willibrord,  wTitten  before  the  year  717,  has  the  entry,  Conversio 


January  25]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

Pauli  in  Damasco  ;  while  the  Martyrologies  of  Oengus  and  Tallaght  (both  early 
ninth  century)  refer  explicitly  to  baptism  and  conversion. 

See  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles,  chaps,  ix,  xxii  and  xxvi.  For  the  translation  of  St  Paul's 
remains  from  St  Sebastian's  to  his  basilica,  see  De  Waal  in  the  Romische  Quartalschrift, 
1 90 1,  pp.  244  seq.,  and  Styger,  77  monumento  apostolico  delta  Via  Appia  (191 7).  For  a 
reference  to  the  feast,  see  Christian  Worship  (191 9),  p.  281,  where  Mgr  Duchesne  points 
out  that  the  Mass  for  Sexagesima  Sunday  is  really  in  honour  of  St  Paul.  And  cf.  CMH., 
pp.  61-62,  and  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xlv  (1927),  pp.  306-307. 

ST   ARTEMAS,  Martyr        (Date  Unknown) 

We  may  fairly  be  satisfied  that  St  Artemas  has  a  just  claim  to  be  honoured  as  a 
saint.  He  was  depicted  and  his  name  was  inscribed  in  the  mosaics  which  adorned 
the  cupola  of  the  ancient  basilica  of  San  Prisco  near  Capua.  These  mosaics,  now 
unfortunately  destroyed,  were  believed  to  date  from  about  the  year  500.  We  know 
also  from  the  "  Hieronymianum  "  that  St  Artemas  was  venerated,  and  is  supposed 
to  have  suffered,  at  Pozzuoli,  which  is  not  very  far  from  Capua.  Beyond  this  we 
have  no  trustworthy  information.  But  at  a  late  date  a  story  seems  to  have  been 
connected  with  his  name  that  Artemas,  though  hardly  more  than  a  boy  himself, 
was  teaching  other  boys,  that  he  was  denounced  as  a  Christian,  and  that  he  was 
stabbed  to  death  by  his  pupils  with  their  styluses  (sharp-pointed  instruments  used 
for  writing  on  wax  tablets).  But  this  story  is  also  told  of  St  Cassian  of  Imola, 
and  still  earlier  of  St  Mark  of  Arethusa  ;  and  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  it  has 
been  borrowed  from  these  sources  and  adapted  to  St  Artemas  in  default  of  any 
more  authentic  details  concerning  him. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  25  ;  and  Pio  Franchi  de'  Cavalieri  in  Studi  e 
Testi,  vol.  ix,  p.  68. 

SS.    JUVENTINUS  and  MAXIMINUS,  Martyrs        (a.d.  363) 

These  martyrs  were  two  officers  of  distinction  in  the  foot-guards  of  Julian  the 
Apostate.  When  he  was  on  the  march  in  his  campaign  against  the  Persians,  they 
let  fall  at  table  certain  free  reflections  on  the  impious  laws  made  against  the  Chris- 
tians, wishing  rather  for  death  than  to  see  the  profanation  of  holy  things.  The 
emperor  being  informed  of  this,  sent  for  them,  and  finding  that  they  could  not  be 
prevailed  upon  to  retract  what  they  had  said  or  to  sacrifice  to  idols,  he  confiscated 
their  estates,  ordered  them  to  be  scourged,  and  some  days  after  had  them  beheaded 
in  prison  at  Antioch,  January  25,  363.  Christians,  at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  stole 
away  the  bodies,  and  after  the  death  of  Julian,  who  was  slain  in  Persia  on  June  26 
following,  erected  a  magnificent  tomb  to  do  them  honour.  On  their  festival 
Chrysostom  delivered  a  panegyric,  in  which  he  says  of  these  martyrs  :  "  They 
support  the  Church  as  pillars,  defend  it  as  towers  and  are  as  unyielding  as  rocks. 
Let  us  visit  them  frequently,  let  us  touch  their  shrine  and  embrace  their  relics 
with  confidence,  that  we  may  obtain  from  thence  some  benediction.  For  as 
soldiers,  showing  to  the  king  the  wounds  which  they  have  received  in  his  battles, 
speak  with  confidence,  so  they,  by  a  humble  representation  of  their  past  sufferings 
for  Christ,  obtain  whatever  they  ask  of  the  King  of  Heaven." 

The  scanty  details  recorded  concerning  these  martyrs  are  mainly  furnished  by  St  John 
Chrysostom's  panegyric.  In  the  above  quoted  passage,  which  Butler  has  translated  very 
freely,  the  orator  rather  quaintly  pictures  them  pleading  before  the  throne  of  God  by  holding 


ST    APOLLO  [January  25 

up  before  Him  in  their  hands  the  heads  which  had  been  cut  off.  Severus  of  Antioch,  in  a 
hymn  composed  in  their  honoui,  mentions  a  third  martyr,  Longinus,  who  perished  in  their 
company  (Patrologia  Orientalis,  vol.  vii,  p.  611).  See  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January 
25  ;  and  cf.  Delehaye,  Les  origines  du  culte  .  .  .  (1933),  p.  196,  and  Les  passions  des  martyrs 
.   .   .  pp.  228  and  230. 

ST    PUBLIUS,  Abbot        (c.  a.d.  380) 

St  Publius  is  honoured  principally  by  the  Greeks.  He  was  the  son  of  a  senator 
in  Zeugma  upon  the  Euphrates,  and  sold  his  estate  and  goods  for  the  benefit  of 
the  poor.  Though  he  lived  at  first  as  a  hermit,  he  afterwards  became  the  ruler  of 
a  numerous  community.  He  allowed  his  monks  no  other  food  than  vegetables 
and  very  coarse  bread  ;  they  drank  nothing  but  water,  and  he  forbade  cheese, 
grapes,  vinegar  and  even  oil,  except  from  Easter  to  Whitsuntide.  To  remind 
himself  of  the  need  of  a  continual  advance  in  fervour,  he  added  every  day  something 
to  his  exercises  of  penance  and  devotion.  He  was  also  remarkably  earnest  in 
avoiding  sloth,  being  sensible  of  the  inestimable  value  of  time.  Theodoret  tells 
us  that  the  holy  abbot  founded  two  congregations,  the  one  of  Greeks,  the  other  of 
Syrians,  each  using  their  own  tongue  in  the  divine  offices  and  Holy  Mysteries. 
St  Publius  seems  to  have  died  about  the  year  380. 

We  know  little  or  nothing  of  St  Publius  beyond  what  is  recorded  of  him  by  Theodoret 
in  his  book  Philotheus.  See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  25  ;  and  Delehaye,  Synaxarium 
Ecclesiae  Constantinopolitanae,  pp.  423-424. 

ST    APOLLO,  Abbot        (c.  a.d.  395) 

After  passing  many  years  in  a  hermitage,  Apollo,  who  was  then  close  upon  eighty 
years  old,  formed  and  governed  a  community  of  many  monks  near  Hermopolis. 
They  all  wore  the  same  coarse  white  habit,  all  received  holy  communion  every  day, 
and  the  venerable  abbot  made  them  also  a  daily  exhortation  for  the  profit  of  their 
souls.  In  these  he  insisted  often  on  the  evils  of  melancholy  and  sadness,  saying 
that  cheerfulness  of  heart  is  necessary  amidst  our  tears  of  penance  as  being  the 
fruit  of  charity,  and  requisite  to  maintain  the  spirit  of  fervour.  He  himself  was 
known  to  strangers  by  the  joy  of  his  countenance.  He  made  it  his  constant 
petition  to  God  that  he  might  know  himself  and  be  preserved  from  the  subtle 
illusions  of  pride.  It  is  said  that  on  one  occasion,  when  the  devil  quitted  a  possessed 
person  at  his  command,  the  evil  spirit  cried  out  that  he  was  not  able  to  withstand 
his  humility.  Many  astonishing  miracles  are  recorded  of  him,  of  which  perhaps 
the  most  remarkable  was  a  continuous  multiplication  of  bread,  by  which  in  a  time 
of  famine  not  only  his  own  brethren  but  the  whole  surrounding  population  were 
sustained  for  four  months.  The  saint  received  a  visit  from  St  Petronius,  afterwards 
bishop  of  Bologna,  in  393,  but  this,  it  would  seem,  must  have  been  at  the  very 
end  of  his  life,  when  he  was  over  ninety  years  old. 

For  our  knowledge  of  St  Apollo  we  are  mainly  indebted  to  a  long  section  of  the  Historia 
monachorum,  which  was  formerly  regarded  as  forming  part  of  the  Lausiac  History  of  Palladius, 
but  which  is  now  recognized  as  a  separate  work,  probably  written  in  Greek  by  the  Archdeacon 
Timotheus  of  Alexandria.  An  English  translation  from  the  ancient  Syriac  version  has  been 
published  by  Sir  E.  A.  Wallis  Budge  in  the  work  entitled  The  Book  of  Paradise  of  Palladius 
(1904),  vol.  i,  pp.  520-538.  The  Greek  text  had  been  edited  by  Preuschen  in  his  Palladius 
und  Rufinus  (1897).  See  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  25  ;  and  P.  Cheneau,  Les 
Saints  d'Egypte  (1923),  vol.  i,  pp.  218-225. 


January  25]  THE    LIVES    OF    THE    SAINTS 

ST  PRAEJECTUS,  or  PRIX,  Bishop  of  Clermont,  Martyr      (a.d.  676) 

The  episcopal  see  of  Auvergne  in  the  early  days  was  honoured  with  many  holy 
bishops,  of  whom  the  Christian  poet,  St  Sidonius  Apollinaris,  was  one  of  the  most 
famous.  Later  on  the  title  of  bishops  of  Auvergne  was  changed  into  that  of 
Clermont,  from  the  city  of  this  name.  St  Praejectus  (called  in  France  variously 
Priest,  Prest,  Preils  and  Prix)  was  a  native  of  Auvergne,  trained  up  in  the  service 
of  the  Church  under  the  care  of  St  Genesius,  Bishop  of  Auvergne,  well  skilled  in 
plainsong,  in  Holy  Scripture  and  church  history.  About  the  year  666  he  was  called 
by  the  voice  of  the  people,  seconded 'by  Childeric  II,  King  of  Austrasia,  to  the 
episcopal  dignity,  upon  the  death  of  Felix,  Bishop  of  Auvergne.  Partly  by  his 
own  ample  patrimony,  and  partly  through  the  liberality  of  Genesius,  Count  of 
Auvergne,  he  was  enabled  to  found  several  monasteries,  churches  and  hospitals  ; 
so  that  distressed  persons  in  his  extensive  diocese  were  provided  for,  and  a  spirit 
of  religious  fervour  reigned.  This  was  the  fruit  of  the  unwearied  zeal,  assiduous 
exhortations  and  admirable  example  of  the  holy  prelate,  whose  learning,  eloquence 
and  piety  are  greatly  extolled  by  his  contemporary  biographer.  Praejectus  restored 
to  health  St  Amarin,  the  abbot  of  a  monastery  in  the  Vosges,  who  was  afterwafds 
his  companion  in  martyrdom. 

As  the  result  of  an  alleged  outrage  by  Hector,  the  patricius  of  Marseilles — an 
incident  very  differently  recounted  by  writers  of  different  sympathies — Hector, 
after  a  visit  to  court,  was  arrested  and  executed  by  Childeric's  orders.  One 
Agritius,  imputing  his  death  to  the  complaints  carried  to  the  king  by  St  Praejectus, 
thought  to  avenge  him  by  organizing  a  conspiracy  against  him.  With  twenty 
armed  men  he  met  the  bishop  as  he  returned  from  court  at  Volvic,  two  leagues 
from  Clermont,  and  first  slew  the  abbot  St  Amarin,  whom  the  assassins  mistook 
for  the  bishop.  St  Praejectus,  perceiving  their  design,  courageously  stepped 
forward,  and  was  stabbed  by  a  Saxon  named  Radbert.  The  saint,  receiving  this 
wound,  said,  "  Lord,  lay  not  this  sin  to  their  charge,  for  they  know  not  what  they 
do  ".  Another  of  the  assassins  clove  his  head  with  a  sword,  and  scattered  his 
brains.  This  happened  in  676,  on  January  25.  The  veneration  which  the 
Gallican  churches  paid  to  the  memory  of  this  martyr  began  from  the  time  of  his 
death,  and  many  miracles  immediately  afterwards  were  recorded  at  his  tomb. 

The  text  of  the  Life  of  St  Praejectus  has  in  modern  times  been  edited  and  carefully 
annotated  by  B.  Krusch  in  MGH.,  Scriptores  Merov.,  vol.  v,  pp.  212-248.  Krusch  is  of 
opinion  that,  though  the  author  does  not  seem  to  have  known  the  saint  personally,  he  was 
a  contemporary,  and  probably  a  monk  of  Volvic  in  Puy-de-D6me.  It  is  one  of  the  most 
trustworthy  and  interesting  of  Merovingian  hagiographical  documents.  The  greater  part 
of  the  relics  of  St  Praejectus  were  afterwards  translated  to  the  abbey  of  Flavigny  in  Burgundy. 
See  also  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  25  ;  and  Duchesne,  Fastes  iSpiscopaux,  vol.  ii,  pp.  37-38. 

ST    POPPO,  Abbot        (a.d.  1048) 

St  Poppo  was  born  in  Flanders  in  978,  and  was  brought  up  by  a  most  virtuous 
mother,  who  died  a  nun  at  Verdun.  In  his  youth  he  served  for  some  time  in  the 
army  ;  but  even  in  the  world  he  found  meditation  and  prayer  to  be  sweeter  than 
all  the  delights  of  the  senses,  and  he  renounced  his  profession  and  the  marriage 
which  had  been  arranged  for  him.  He  had  previously  visited  the  holy  places  at 
Jerusalem  and  brought  away  many  relics,  with  which  he  enriched  the  church  of 
our  Lady  at  Deynze.     He  also  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome,  and  some  time  after 


ST    POLYCARP  [January  26 

took  the  monastic  habit  at  St  Thierry's,  near  Rheims.  Richard,  Abbot  of  Saint- 
Vanne,  one  of  the  great  monastic  reformers  of  the  age,  met  Poppo  about  the  year 
1008,  and  found  in  him  a  man  singularly  well  fitted  to  assist  him  in  this  work.  Not 
without  great  difficulty  he  managed  to  get  Poppo  transferred  to  his  own  monastery, 
and  then  used  him  to  restore  observance  in  several  abbeys,  Saint-Vaast  at  Arras, 
Beaulieu,  and  others.  St  Poppo,  who  gradually  became  independent  of  Richard 
of  Saint- Vanne,  seems,  on  being  appointed  abbot  of  Stavelot,  to  have  acted  as  a 
sort  of  abbot  general  to  a  whole  group  of  monasteries  in  Lotharingia.  In  these  he 
was  revered  and  preserved  admirable  discipline.  He  was  much  esteemed  by  the 
emperor,  St  Henry  II,  and  he  seems  in  many  political  matters  to  have  given  him 
prudent  counsel.  He  died  at  Marchiennes  on  January  25  in  1048,  being  seventy 
years  of  age.  St  Poppo  received  the  last  anointing  at  the  hands  of  Everhelm, 
Abbot  of  Hautmont,  who  afterwards  wrote  his  life,  or,  more  correctly,  revised 
the  longer  biography  composed  by  the  monk  Onulf. 

A  critical  edition  of  the  life  which  we  owe  to  Onulf  and  Abbot  Everhelm  is  to  be  found 
in  the  folio  series  of  MGIL,  Scriptores,  vol.  xi,  pp.  291-316.  See  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum 
for  January  25  ;  Cauchie  in  the  Biographie  Nationale,  vol.  xviii,  pp.  43  seq.  ;  and  a 
sketch  by  M.  Souplet,  St  Poppon  de  Deynse  (1948). 


ST    POLYCARP,  Bishop  of  Smyrna,  Martyr        (a.d.  155  ?) 

ST  POLYCARP  was  one  of  the  most  famous  of  the  little  group  of  early 
bishops  known  as  "  the  Apostolic  Fathers  ",  who,  being  the  immediate 
disciples  of  the  apostles,  received  instruction  directly  from  them,  as  it  were 
from  the  fountain  head.  Polycarp  was  a  disciple  of  St  John  the  Evangelist,  and 
was  respected  by  the  faithful  to  the  point  of  profound  veneration.  He  trained 
many  holy  disciples,  among  whom  were  St  Irenaeus  and  Papias.  When  Florinus, 
who  had  often  visited  St  Polycarp,  had  broached  certain  heresies,  St  Irenaeus 
wrote  to  him  :  "  These  things  were  not  taught  you  by  the  bishops  who  preceded 
us.  I  could  tell  you  the  place  where  the  blessed  Polycarp  sat  to  preach  the  word 
of  God.  It  is  yet  present  to  my  mind  with  what  gravity  he  everywhere  came  in 
and  went  out  ;  what  was  the  sanctity  of  his  deportment,  the  majesty  of  his  counten- 
ance, and  of  his  whole  exterior  ;  and  what  were  his  holy  exhortations  to  the  people. 
I  seem  to  hear  him  now  relate  how  he  conversed  with  John  and  many  others  who  had 
seen  Jesus  Christ,  the  words  he  had  heard  from  their  mouths.  I  can  protest  before 
God  that  if  this  holy  bishop  had  heard  of  any  error  like  yours,  he  would  have 
immediately  stopped  his  ears  and  cried  out,  according  to  his  custom,  '  Good  God  ! 
that  I  should  be  reserved  to  these  times  to  hear  such  things  !  '  That  very  instant 
he  would  have  fled  out  of  the  place  in  which  he  had  heard  such  doctrine. "  We 
are  told  that  St  Polycarp  met  at  Rome  the  heretic  Marcion  in  the  streets,  who, 
resenting  the  fact  that  the  bishop  did  not  take  that  notice  of  him  which  he  expected, 
said,  "  Do  not  you  know  me  ?  "  "  Yes  ",  answered  the  saint,  "  I  know  you,  the 
first-born  of  Satan."  He  had  learned  this  abhorrence  of  those  who  adulterate 
divine  truth  from  his  master  St  John,  who  fled  from  the  baths  at  the  sight  of 

St  Polycarp  kissed  the  chains  of  St  Ignatius  when  he  passed  by  Smyrna  on  the 
road  to  his  martyrdom,  and  Ignatius  in  turn  recommended  to  him  the  care  of  his 


January  26]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

distant  church  of  Antioch,  supplementing  this  charge  later  on  by  a  request  that 
he  would  write  in  his  name  to  those  churches  of  Asia  to  which  he  had  not  leisure 
to  write  himself.  Polycarp  addressed  a  letter  to  the  Philippians  shortly  after, 
which  is  highly  commended  by  St  Irenaeus,  St  Jerome,  Eusebius,  Photius  and 
others,  and  is  still  extant.  This  letter,  which  in  St  Jerome's  time  was  publicly  read 
in  the  Asiatic  churches,  is  justly  admired  both  for  the  excellent  instructions  it 
contains  and  for  the  perspicuity  of  the  style.  Polycarp  undertook  a  journey  to 
Rome  to  confer  with  Pope  St  Anicetus  about  certain  points,  especially  about  the 
time  of  keeping  Easter,  for  the  Asiatic  churches  differed  from  others  in  this  matter. 
Anicetas  could  not  persuade  Polycarp,  nor  Polycarp  Anicetus,  and  so  it  was  agreed 
that  both  might  follow  their  custom  without  breaking  the  bonds  of  charity.  St 
Anicetus,  to  testify  his  respect,  asked  him  to  celebrate  the  Eucharist  in  his  own 
papal  church.  We  find  no  further  particulars  concerning  Polycarp  recorded  before 
his  martyrdom. 

In  the  sixth  year  of  Marcus  Aurelius  (according  to  Eusebius)  a  violent  perse- 
cution broke  out  in  Asia  in  which  the  faithful  gave  heroic  proof  of  their  courage. 
Germanicus,  who  had  been  brought  to  Smyrna  with  eleven  or  twelve  other  Chris- 
tians, signalized  himself  above  the  rest,  and  animated  the  most  timorous  to  suffer. 
The  proconsul  in  the  amphitheatre  appealed  to  him  compassionately  to  have  some 
regard  for  his  youth  when  life  had  so  much  to  offer,  but  he  provoked  the  beasts 
to  devour  him,  the  sooner  to  quit  this  wicked  world.  One  Quintus,  a  Phrygian, 
quailed  at  the  sight  of  the  beast  let  loose  upon  him,  and  consented  to  sacrifice. 
The  authors  of  this  letter  justly  condemn  the  presumption  of  those  who  offered 
themselves  to  suffer  (as  Quintus  had  done),  and  say  that  the  martyrdom  of  Polycarp 
was  conformable  to  the  gospel,  because  he  did  not  expose  himself  but  waited  till 
the  persecutors  laid  hands  on  him,  as  Christ  our  Lord  taught  us  by  His  own  example. 
The  splendid  courage  of  Germanicus  and  his  companions  only  whetted  the 
spectators'  appetite  for  blood.  A  cry  was  raised  :  "  Away  with  the  atheists  ! 
Look  for  Polycarp  1  "  The  holy  man,  though  fearless,  had  been  prevailed  upon 
by  his  friends  to  conceal  himself  in  a  neighbouring  village  during  the  storm. 
Three  days  before  his  martyrdom  he  in  a  vision  saw  his  pillow  on  fire,  from  which 
he  understood,  and  foretold  to  his  companions,  that  he  should  be  burnt  alive. 
When  the  persecutors  came  in  search  of  him  he  changed  his  retreat,  but  was 
betrayed  by  a  slave,  who  was  threatened  with  the  rack  unless  he  disclosed  his 

When  the  chief  of  police,  Herod,  sent  horsemen  by  night  to  surround  his 
lodging,  Polycarp  was  above  stairs  in  bed,  but  refused  to  make  his  escape,  saying, 
"  God's  will  be  done  ".  He  went  down,  met  them  at  the  door,  ordered  them 
supper,  and  desired  only  some  time  for  prayer  before  he  went  with  them.  This 
granted,  he  began  his  prayer  standing,  which  he  continued  for  two  hours,  recom- 
mending to  God  his  own  flock  and  the  whole  Church  with  such  intense  devotion 
that  some  of  those  who  had  come  to  seize  him  repented  of  their  errand.  They 
set  him  on  an  ass,  and  were  conducting  him  towards  the  city,  when  he  was  met  on 
the  road  by  Herod  and  Herod's  father,  Nicetas,  who  took  him  into  their  chariot 
and  endeavoured  to  persuade  him  to  some  show  of  compliance.  "  What  harm  ", 
they  urged,  "  is  there  in  saying  Lord  Caesar,  or  even  in  offering  incense,  to  escape 
death  ?  "  The  word  Lord,  however,  was  not  as  innocent  as  it  sounded,  and 
implied  a  recognition  of  the  divinity  of  the  emperor.  The  bishop  at  first  was  silent, 
but  being  pressed,  he  gave  them  resolute  answer,  "  I  am  resolved  not  to  do  what 


ST    POLYCARP  [January  26 

you  counsel  me  ".  At  these  words  they  thrust  him  out  of  the  chariot  with  such 
violence  that  his  leg  was  bruised  by  the  fall. 

The  holy  man  went  forward  cheerfully  to  the  place  where  the  people  were 
assembled.  Upon  his  entering  it  a  voice  from  Heaven  was  heard  by  many,  "  Be 
strong,  Polycarp,  and  play  the  man  ".  He  was  led  to  the  tribunal  of  the  proconsul, 
who  exhorted  him  to  have  regard  for  his  age,  to  swear  by  the  genius  of  Caesar,  and 
to  say,  "  Away  with  the  atheists  ",  meaning  the  Christians.  The  saint,  turning 
towards  the  crowd  of  ungodly  people  in  the  stadium,  said,  with  a  stern  countenance, 
"  Away  with  the  atheists  !  "  The  proconsul  repeated,  "  Swear  by  the  genius  of 
Caesar,  and  I  will  discharge  you  ;  revile  Christ  ".  Polycarp  replied,  "  Fourscore 
and  six  years  have  I  served  Him  and  He  hath  done  me  no  wrong.  How  then  can 
I  blaspheme  my  King  and  my  Saviour  ?  If  you  require  of  me  to  swear  by  the 
genius  of  Caesar,  as  you  call  it,  hear  my  free  confession  :  I  am  a  Christian  ;  and 
if  you  desire  to  learn  the  doctrines  of  Christianity,  appoint  a  time  and  hear  me." 
The  proconsul  said,  "  Persuade  the  people  ".  The  martyr  replied,  "  I  address 
myself  to  you  ;  for  we  are  taught  to  give  due  honour  to  princes,  so  far  as  is  consistent 
with  religion.  But  before  these  people  I  cannot  justify  myself."  Indeed,  rage 
rendered  them  incapable  of  hearing  him. 

The  proconsul  threatened  :  "  I  have  wild  beasts  ".  "  Call  for  them  ",  replied 
the  saint,  "  for  we  are  unalterably  resolved  not  to  change  from  good  to  evil.  It 
is  only  right  to  pass  from  evil  to  good."  The  proconsul  said,  "  If  you  despise  the 
beasts,  I  will  cause  you  to  be  consumed  by  fire  ".  Polycarp  answered,  "  You 
threaten  me  with  a  fire  which  burneth  for  a  season,  and  after  a  little  while  is 
quenched  ;  but  you  are  ignorant  of  the  judgement  to  come  and  of  the  fire  of  ever- 
lasting punishment  which  is  prepared  for  the  wicked.  Why  do  you  delay  ?  Bring 
against  me  what  you  please."  Whilst  he  said  this  and  many  other  things,  he 
appeared  in  a  transport  of  joy  and  confidence,  and  his  countenance  shone  with  a 
certain  heavenly  grace,  insomuch  that  the  proconsul  himself  was  struck  with 
admiration.  However,  he  ordered  a  crier  to  announce  three  times  in  the 
middle  of  the  stadium,  "  Polycarp  hath  confessed  himself  a  Christian  ". 
At  this  the  whole  multitude  gave  a  great  shout,  "  This  is  the  teacher  of 
Asia,  the  father  of  the  Christians,  the  destroyer  of  our  gods,  who  teaches  the 
people  not  to  sacrifice  or  to  worship  !  "  They  appealed  to  Philip  the  governor  to 
let  a  lion  loose  upon  Polycarp.  He  told  them  that  it  was  not  in  his  power,  because 
he  had  brought  the  sports  to  a  close.  Then  they  all,  heathen  and  Jews,  clamoured 
that  he  should  be  burnt  alive. 

Their  demand  was  no  sooner  granted  than  everyone  ran  with  all  speed  to  fetch 
wood  from  the  bath-furnaces  and  workshops.  The  pile  being  ready,  Polycarp 
put  off  his  clothes  and  made  to  remove  his  shoes  ;  he  had  not  done  this  before, 
because  the  faithful  already  sought  the  privilege  of  touching  his  flesh.  The 
executioners  would  have  nailed  him  to  the  stake,  but  he  said,  "  Suffer  me  to  be  as 
I  am.  He  who  gives  me  grace  to  endure  the  fire  will  enable  me  to  remain  at  the 
pile  unmoved."  They  therefore  contented  themselves  with  tying  his  hands 
behind  his  back,  and  looking  up  towards  Heaven,  he  prayed  and  said,  "  O  Almighty 
Lord  God,  Father  of  thy  beloved  and  blessed  Son  Jesus  Christ,  through  whom 
we  have  received  the  knowledge  of  thee,  God  of  angels  and  powers  and  of  all 
creation,  and  of  the  whole  family  of  the  righteous  who  live  in  thy  presence  !  I  bless 
thee  for  having  been  pleased  to  bring  me  to  this  hour,  that  I  may  receive  a  portion 
among  thy  martyrs  and  partake  of  the  cup  of  thy  Christ,  unto  resurrection  to  eternal 


January  26]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

life,  both  of  soul  and  body,  in  the  immortality  of  the  Holy  Spirit.  Amongst  whom 
grant  me  to  be  received  this  day  as  a  pleasing  sacrifice,  such  as  thou  thyself  hast 
prepared,  O  true  and  faithful  God.  Wherefore  for  all  things  I  praise,  bless  and 
glorify  thee,  through  the  eternal  high  priest  Jesus  Christ,  thy  beloved  Son,  with 
whom  to  thee  and  the  Holy  Ghost  be  glory  now  and  for  ever.  Amen."  He  had 
scarce  said  Amen  when  fire  was  set  to  the  pile.  But  behold  a  wonder,  say  the 
authors  of  this  letter,  seen  by  us  who  were  preserved  to  attest  it  to  others.  The 
flames,  forming  themselves  like  the  sails  of  a  ship  swelled  with  the  wind,  gently 
encircled  the  body  of  the  martyr,  which  stood  in  the  middle,  resembling  not 
burning  flesh  but  bread  that  is  being  baked  or  precious  metal  refined.  And  there 
was  a  fragrance  like  the  smell  of  incense.  The  order  was  given  that  Polycarp 
should  be  pierced  with  a  spear,  which  was  done  :  and  a  dove  came  forth,  and  such 
quantity  of  blood  as  to  quench  the  fire. 

Nicetas  advised  the  proconsul  not  to  give  up  the  body  to  the  Christians,  lest, 
said  he,  abandoning  the  crucified  man,  they  should  worship  Polycarp.  The  Jews 
suggested  this,  "  not  knowing  ",  say  the  authors  of  the  letter,  "  that  we  can  never 
forsake  Christ,  nor  worship  any  other.  For  Him  we  worship  as  the  Son  of  God, 
but  we  love  the  martyrs  as  His  disciples  and  imitators,  for  the  great  love  they  bore 
their  King  and  Master."  The  centurion,  seeing  the  contest  raised  by  the  Jews, 
placed  the  body  in  the  middle  and  burnt  it  to  ashes.  "  We  afterward  took  up 
the  bones  ",  say  they,  "  more  precious  than  the  richest  jewels  of  gold,  and  laid  them 
decently  in  a  place  at  which  may  God  grant  us  to  assemble  with  joy  to  celebrate 
the  birthday  of  the  martyr."  Thus  wrote  these  disciples  and  eye-witnesses.  It 
was  at  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  February  23  in  155  or  166  or  some  other 
year  that  St  Polycarp  received  his  crown. 

An  immense  literature,  of  which  we  cannot  attempt  to  take  account  here,  has  grown  up 
in  connection  with  the  history  of  St  Polycarp.  The  principal  points  round  which  discussion 
has  centred  are  :  (1)  the  authenticity  of  the  letter  written  in  the  name  of  the  church  of 
Smyrna  describing  his  martyrdom  ;  (2)  the  authenticity  of  the  letter  addressed  to  him  by 
St  Ignatius  of  Antioch  ;  (3)  the  authenticity  of  Polycarp 's  letter  to  the  Philippians  ;  (4)  the 
trustworthiness  of  the  information  concerning  him  and  his  relations  with  the  apostle  St  John 
supplied  by  St  Irenaeus  and  other  early  writers  ;  (5)  the  date  of  his  martyrdom  ;  (6)  the 
value  and  bearing  of  the  Life  of  Polycarp  attributed  to  Pionius.  With  regard  to  the  first 
four  points,  it  may  be  said  that  the  verdict  of  the  best  authorities  upon  Christian  origins  is 
now  practically  unanimous  in  favour  of  the  orthodox  tradition.  The  conclusions  so  patiently 
worked  out  by  Bishop  Lightfoot  and  Funk  have  in  the  end  been  accepted  with  hardly  a 
dissentient  voice.  The  documents  named  may  therefore  be  regarded  as  among  the  most 
precious  memorials  preserved  to  us  which  shed  light  upon  the  early  developments  of  the  life 
of  the  Church.  For  English  readers  they  are  accessible  in  the  invaluable  work  of  Lightfoot, 
The  Apostolic  Fathers,  Ignatius  and  Polycarp,  3  vols.  ;  or  in  the  one  volume  abridgement 
edited  by  J.  R.  Harmer  (also  with  full  translation),  The  Apostolic  Fathers  (1891).  As  regards 
the  date  of  the  martyrdom,  earlier  writers,  in  accordance  with  an  entry  in  the  Chronicle  of 
Eusebius,  took  it  for  granted  that  Polycarp  suffered  in  166  ;  but  discussions  have  led  almost 
all  recent  critics  to  decide  for  155  or  156.  See,  however,  J.  Chapman,  who  in  the  Revue 
Benedictine,  vol.  xix,  pp.  145  seq.,  gives  reasons  for  still  adhering  to  166  ;  and  H.  Gregoire 
in  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  Ixix  (195 1),  pp.  1-38,  where  he  argues  at  length  for  177.  As 
for  point  (6),  the  Life  by  Pionius,  which  describes  Polycarp  as  in  his  boyhood  a  slave  ransomed 
by  a  compassionate  lady,  there  is  now  an  equally  general  agreement  among  scholars  that  this 
narrative  is  a  pure  work  of  fiction,  though  it  may  possibly  be  as  old  as  the  last  decade  of  the 
fourth  century.  An  attempt  has  been  made  by  P.  Corssen  and  E.  Schwartz  to  demonstrate 
that  the  Life  of  Polycarp  is  a  genuine  work  of  the  martyr  St  Pionius,  who  suffered  in  180  or 
250  ;  but  this  contention  has  been  convincingly  refuted  by  Fr  Delehaye  in  his  Les  passions 
des  martyrs  et  les  genres  litteraires  (1921),  pp.   n-59.      There  is  an  excellent  article  on  St 


ST    PAULA  [January  26 

Polycarp  by  H.  T.  Andrews  in  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  nth  edition.  A  handy  text 
and  translation  of  the  martyrdom  is  Kirsopp  Lake's  in  the  Loeb  Classical  Library,  The 
Apostolic  Fathers,  vol.  ii  ;  and  there  is  a  translation  only  in  the  Ancient  Christian  Writers 
series,  vol.  vi.  On  the  date  see  further  H.  I.  Marrou  in  Analecta  BoJlandiana,  vol.  Ixxi 
(1953),  PP-  5-20. 

ST    PAULA,  Widow        (a.d.  404) 

This  illustrious  pattern  of  widows  surpassed  all  other  Roman  matrons  in  riches, 
birth  and  endowments  of  mind.  She  was  born  on  May  5  in  347.  The  blood  of 
the  Scipios,  the  Gracchi  and  Paulus  Aemilius  ran  in  her  veins  through  her  mother 
Blesilla.  Her  father  claimed  to  trace  his  pedigree  back  to  Agamemnon,  and  her 
husband  Toxotius  his  to  Aeneas.  By  him  she  had  a  son,  also  called  Toxotius,  and 
four  daughters,  Blesilla,  Paulina,  Eustochium  and  Rufina.  She  shone  as  a  pattern 
of  virtue  in  the  married  state,  and  both  she  and  her  husband  edified  Rome  by  their 
good  example  ;  but  her  virtue  was  not  without  its  alloy,  a  certain  degree  of  love  of 
the  world  being  almost  inseparable  from  a  position  such  as  hers.  She  did  not  at 
first  discern  the  secret  attachments  of  her  heart,  but  her  eyes  were  opened  by  the 
death  of  her  husband,  when  she  was  thirty-two  years  of  age.  Her  grief  was 
immoderate  till  such  time  as  she  was  encouraged  to  devote  herself  totally  to  God 
by  her  friend  St  Marcella,  a  widow  who  then  edified  Rome  by  her  penitential  life. 
Paula  thenceforward  lived  in  a  most  austere  way.  Her  food  was  simple,  she  drank 
no  wine  ;  she  slept  on  the  floor  with  no  bedding  but  sackcloth  ;  she  renounced 
all  social  life  and  amusements  ;  and  everything  it  was  in  her  power  to  dispose  of 
she  gave  away  to  the  poor.  She  avoided  every  distraction  which  interrupted  her 
good  works  ;  but  she  gave  hospitality  to  St  Epiphanius  of  Salamis  and  to  Paulinus 
of  Antioch  when  they  came  to  Rome  ;  and  through  them  she  came  to  know  St 
Jerome,  with  whom  she  was  closely  associated  in  the  service  of  God  during  his 
stay  in  Rome  under  Pope  St  Damasus. 

Paula's  eldest  daughter,  St  Blesilla,  dying  suddenly,  her  mother  felt  this 
bereavement  intensely  ;  and  St  Jerome,  who  had  just  returned  to  Bethlehem, 
wrote  to  comfort  her,  and  also  to  reprove  her  for  what  he  regarded  as  an  excess  of 
mourning  for  one  who  had  gone  to  her  heavenly  reward.  The  second  daughter, 
Paulina,  was  married  to  St  Pammachius,  and  died  seven  years  before  her  mother. 
St  Eustochium,  the  third,  was  Paula's  inseparable  companion.  Rufina  died  in 
youth.  The  more  progress  St  Paula  made  in  the  relish  of  heavenly  things,  the 
more  insupportable  to  her  became  the  tumultuous  life  of  the  city.  She  sighed 
after  the  desert,  longed  to  live  in  a  hermitage  where  her  heart  would  have  no  other 
occupation  than  the  thought  of  God.  She  determined  to  leave  Rome,  ready  to 
leave  home,  family  and  friends  ;  never  did  mother  love  her  children  more  tenderly, 
yet  the  tears  of  the  child  Toxotius  and  of  the  older  Rufina  could  not  hold  her  back. 
She  sailed  from  Italy  with  Eustochium  in  385,  and  after  visiting  St  Epiphanius  in 
Cyprus,  met  St  Jerome  and  others  at  Antioch.  The  party  made  a  pilgrimage  to 
all  the  holy  places  of  Palestine  and  on  to  Egypt  to  visit  the  monks  and  anchorets 
there  ;  a  year  later  they  arrived  in  Bethlehem,  and  St  Paula  and  St  Eustochium 
settled  there  under  the  direction  of  St  Jerome. 

Here  the  two  women  lived  in  a  cottage  until  they  were  able  to  build  a  hospice, 
a  monastery  for  men  and  a  three-fold  convent  for  women.  This  last  properly 
made  but  one  house,  for  all  assembled  in  the  same  chapel  day  and  night  for  divine 
service  together,  and  on  Sundays  in  the  church  which  stood  hard  by.      Their  food 


January  26]  THE    LIVES   OF   THE    SAINTS 

was  coarse  and  scanty,  their  fasts  frequent  and  severe.  All  the  sisters  worked  with 
their  hands,  and  made  clothes  for  themselves  and  others.  All  wore  a  similar 
modest  habit,  and  used  no  linen.  No  man  was  ever  suffered  to  set  foot  within 
their  doors.  Paula  governed  with  a  charity  full  of  discretion,  encouraging  them 
by  her  own  example  and  instruction,  being  always  among  the  first  at  every  duty, 
taking  part,  like  Eustochium,  in  all  the  work  of  the  house.  If  anyone  showed 
herself  talkative  or  passionate,  she  was  separated  from  the  rest,  ordered  to  walk 
the  last  in  order,  to  pray  outside  the  door,  and  for  some  time  to  eat  alone.  Paula 
extended  her  love  of  poverty  to  her  buildings  and  churches,  ordering  them  all  to 
be  built  low,  and  without  anything  costly  or  magnificent.  She  said  that  money 
is  better  expended  upon  the  poor,  who  are  the  living  members  of  Christ. 

According  to  Palladius,  St  Paula  had  the  care  of  St  Jerome  and — as  might  be 
expected — found  it  no  easy  responsibility.  But  she  was  also  of  considerable  help 
to  him  in  his  biblical  and  other  work,  for  she  had  got  Greek  from  her  father  and 
now  learned  enough  Hebrew  at  any  rate  to  be  able  to  sing  the  psalms  in  their 
original  tongue.  She  too  profited  sufficiently  by  the  teaching  of  her  master  to  be 
able  to  take  an  intelligent  interest  in  the  unhappy  dispute  with  Bishop  John  of 
Jerusalem  over  Origenism  ;  but  her  last  years  were  overcast  by  this  and  other 
troubles  such  as  the  grave  financial  stringency  that  her  generosity  had  brought 
upon  her.  Paula's  son  Toxotius  married  Laeta,  the  daughter  of  a  pagan  priest, 
but  herself  a  Christian.  Both  were  faithful  imitators  of  the  holy  life  of  our  saint. 
Their  daughter,  Paula  the  younger,  was  sent  to  Bethlehem,  to  be  under  the  care 
of  her  grandmother,  whom  she  afterwards  succeeded  in  the  government  of  her 
religious  house.  For  the  education  of  this  child  St  Jerome  sent  to  Laeta  some 
excellent  instructions,  which  parents  can  never  read  too  often.  God  called  St 
Paula  to  Himself  after  a  life  of  fifty-six  years.  In  her  last  illness  she  repeated 
almost  without  intermission  certain  verses  of  the  psalms  which  express  an  ardent 
desire  of  the  heavenly  Jerusalem  and  of  being  with  God.  When  she  was  no  longer 
able  to  speak,  she  made  the  sign  of  the  cross  on  her  lips,  and  died  in  peace  on 
January  26,  404. 

Practically  all  that  we  know  of  St  Paula  is  derived  from  the  letters  of  St  Jerome,  more 
particularly  from  letter  108,  which  might  be  described  as  a  biography  ;  it  is  printed  in  Migne, 
P.L.,  vol.  xxii,  cc.  878-906,  and  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  26.  See  also  the  charming 
monograph  by  F.  Lagrange,  Histaire  de  Ste  Paule,  which  has  gone  through  many  editions 
since  1868  ;   and  R.  Geniei,  Ste  Paule  (191 7). 

ST   CONAN,  Bishop        (Seventh  Century  ?) 

There  are  a  good  many  place-names  which  seem  to  bear  witness  to  the  existence 
of  a  Celtic  saint  named  Conan  or  Conon,  but  there  is  no  real  evidence  of  cultus, 
and  the  statements  which  have  been  made  about  him  are  by  no  means  consistent 
with  each  other.  In  certain  breviary  lessons  of  late  date  it  is  said  that  the  hermit 
St  Fiacre,  born  in  Scotland  or  Ireland,  was  in  his  boyhood  committed  to  the  care 
of  St  Conan,  and  learnt  from  him  those  virtues  which  afterwards  made  the  name 
of  Fiacre  famous.  St  Conan,  we  are  told,  passed  from  Scotland  to  the  Isle  of 
Man,  and  completed  the  work,  begun  by  St  Patrick  or  some  of  his  disciples,  of 
planting  Christianity  in  that  place.  He  is  also  commonly  called  bishop  of  Sodor, 
but  the  very  name  is  an  anachronism,  for  there  is  no  doubt  that  Sodor  is  a  corrup- 
tion of  the  Norse  term  Suthr-eyar  (Southern  Islands),  which  was  used  by  the 
Vikings  for  the  islands  off  the  west  coast  of  Great  Britain  in  opposition  to  the 


ST    ALBERIC  [January  26 

Shetland  and  Orkney  groups,  which  were  northern  islands.  But  the  Viking  raids 
did  not  begin  before  the  close  of  the  eighth  century,  and  the  name  Sodor  as  the 
designation  of  an  episcopal  see  cannot  have  been  introduced  until  much  later  than 
that.  It  is  quite  possible,  however,  that  Conan  may  have  received  episcopal 
consecration,  and  may  have  laboured  in  Man  and  the  Hebrides. 

See  KSS.,  pp.  307-308  ;    LIS.,  vol.  i,  p.  447  ;    Olaf  Kolsrud,  "  The  Celtic  Bishops  in 
the  Isle  of  Man  "  in  the  Zeitschrift  f.  Celtische  Philologie,  vol.  ix  (191 3),  pp.  357-379. 

ST    ALBERIC,   Abbot  of   Citeaux,   Co-Founder  of  the    Cistercian 
Order        (a.d.  1109) 

The  experiences  of  St  Alberic  in  his  efforts  to  find  a  religious  home  in  accord  with 
his  aspirations  after  high  perfection  throw  rather  a  lurid  light  upon  the  untamed 
temper  of  the  recruits  who  formed  the  raw  material  of  monastic  life  in  the  eleventh 
century.  We  know  nothing  of  his  boyhood,  but  we  hear  of  him  first  as  one  of  a 
group  of  seven  hermits  who  were  trying  to  serve  God  in  the  forest  of  Collan,  not 
far  from  Chatillon-sur-Seine.  There  was  a  certain  Abbot  Robert,  a  man  of  good 
family,  who  in  spite  of  a  previous  failure  with  a  community  of  unruly  monks  was 
in  high  repute  for  virtue.  Him  the  hermits  with  some  difficulty  obtained  for  a 
superior,  and  in  1075  they  moved  not  far  off  to  Molesmes,  where  they  built  a 
monastery,  with  Robert  for  abbot  and  Alberic  for  prior.  Benefactions  flowed  in 
upon  them,  their  numbers  grew,  but  religious  fervour  decayed.  In  time  a  turbulent 
majority  set  monastic  discipline  at  defiance.  Robert  lost  heart  and  withdrew 
elsewhere.  Alberic  struggled  on  to  maintain  order,  but  things  came  to  such  a 
pass  that  the  monks  beat  and  imprisoned  their  prior,  and  eventually,  if  we  may 
trust  our  rather  confused  authorities,  Alberic  and  Stephen  Harding,  the  Englishman, 
could  stand  it  no  longer,  and  also  quitted  Molesmes.  Probably,  when  the  news 
of  these  scandals  leaked  out,  the  alms  of  the  faithful  began  to  dry  up  and  the  pinch 
made  itself  felt.  In  any  case,  amendment  was  promised,  so  that  Robert  and 
Alberic  and  Stephen  were  prevailed  upon  to  return  ;  but  the  old  troubles  and 
relaxed  observance  soon  reappeared,  and  Alberic  seems  to  have  been  the  leading 
spirit  in  persuading  a  group  of  the  more  fervent  to  establish  elsewhere  a  new 
community  living  under  a  stricter  rule. 

In  the  year  1098  twenty-one  monks  took  up  their  abode  in  the  wilderness  of 
Citeaux,  some  little  distance  to  the  south  of  Dijon  and  more  than  seventy  miles 
from  Molesmes.  These  were  the  first  beginnings  of  the  great  Cistercian  Order. 
Robert,  Alberic  and  Stephen  were  elected  respectively  abbot,  prior  and  sub-prior, 
but  shortly  afterwards  St  Robert  returned  to  the  community  he  had  quitted. 
Thus  Alberic  became  abbot  in  his  place,  and  it  is  to  him  that  some  of  the  more 
distinctive  features  of  the  Cistercian  reform  must  probably  be  ascribed  ;  this  way 
of  life  aimed  at  a  restoration  of  primitive  Benedictine  observance,  but  with  many 
added  austerities.  One  of  its  external  features  was  the  adoption  for  the  choir 
monks  of  a  white  habit  (with  a  black  scapular  and  hood),  a  change  said  to  have  been 
made  in  consequence  of  a  vision  of  our  Lady  which  was  vouchsafed  to  St  Alberic. 
A  more  notable  change  was  the  recognition  of  a  special  class  of  fratres  conversi,  or 
lay  brothers,  to  whom  the  more  laborious  work,  and  particularly  the  field  work  in 
the  distant  granges,  was  entrusted  ;  but  manual  work  was  normal  for  all  the  monks, 
their  choir  observances  were  much  shortened  and  simplified,  and  more  time  was 
available  for  private  prayer. 


January  26]  THE    LIVES    OF    THE    SAINTS 

Alberic's  rule  as  abbot  was  not  very  prolonged,  and  much  of  that  which  was  most 
characteristic  in  the  final  organization  at  Citeaux  may  not  improbably  be  traced  to 
his  successor,  St  Stephen.  It  is  Stephen  also  who,  in  an  address  delivered  after 
the  death  of  Alberic  (January  26,  1109),  has  left  us  almost  the  only  personal  note 
we  possess  concerning  him.  "  All  of  us  ",  he  said,  "  have  alike  a  share  in  this 
great  loss,  and  I  am  but  a  poor  comforter,  who  myself  need  comfort.  Ye  have  lost 
a  venerable  father  and  ruler  of  your  souls  ;  I  have  lost,  not  only  a  father  and  ruler, 
but  a  friend,  a  fellow  soldier  and  a  chief  warrior  in  the  battles  of  the  Lord,  whom 
our  venerable  Father  Robert,  from  the  very  cradle  of  our  monastic  institute,  had 
brought  up  in  one  and  the  same  convent,  in  admirable  learning  and  piety.  .  .  .  We 
have  amongst  us  this  dear  body  and  singular  pledge  of  our  beloved  father,  and  he 
himself  has  carried  us  all  away  with  him  in  his  mind  with  an  affectionate  love.  .  .  . 
The  warrior  has  attained  his  reward,  the  runner  has  grasped  his  prize,  the  victor 
has  won  his  crown  ;  he  who  has  taken  possession  prays  for  a  palm  for  us.  .  .  .  Let 
us  not  mourn  for  the  soldier  who  is  at  rest  ;  let  us  mourn  for  ourselves  who  are 
placed  in  the  front  of  the  battle,  and  let  us  turn  our  sad  and  dejected  speeches  into 
prayers,  begging  our  father  who  is  in  triumph  not  to  suffer  the  roaring  lion  and 
savage  enemy  to  triumph  over  us." 

See  Acta  Sanctorum,  January  26  ;  J.  B.  Dalgairns,  Life  of  St  Stephen  Harding,  and  other 
references  given  herein  under  St  Stephen  on  April  17. 

ST    EYSTEIN,  Archbishop  of  Nidaros        (a.d.  1188) 

In  the  year  1152  an  English  cardinal,  Nicholas  Breakspeare  (afterwards  to  be  pope 
as  Adrian  IV),  visited  Norway  as  legate  of  the  Holy  See,  and  gave  a  new  organiza- 
tion to  the  Church  in  that  country,  consisting  of  a  metropolitan  see  at  Nidaros 
(Trondhjem)  with  ten  bishoprics.*  Five  years  later  the  second  archbishop  of 
Nidaros  was  appointed,  in  the  person  of  Eystein  Erlandsson,  chaplain  to  King 
Inge,  an  appointment  which  violated  the  regulations  for  canonical  appointments 
laid  down  by  Cardinal  Breakspeare.  But  it  proved  to  be  the  life  work  of  the  new 
archbishop  to  maintain  the  Church's  right  of  conducting  its  affairs  without  inter- 
ference by  "  the  rich  and  great  ",  and  finally  to  bring  the  Norwegian  church  into 
the  general  pattern  of  the  west  European  Christendom  of  that  day.  After  his 
appointment  Eystein  made  his  way  to  Rome,  but  it  is  not  known  exactly  when  or 
where  he  was  consecrated  bishop  by  Pope  Alexander  III  and  received  the  pallium. 
In  any  case  he  did  not  get  back  home  till  late  in  1161,  and  then  he  came  as  papal 
legate  a  latere.  One  of  his  first  interests  was  to  finish  the  enlargement  of  the 
cathedral,  Christ  Church,  of  Nidaros,  and  some  of  his  building  still  remains.  In 
the  account  which  he  wrote  of  St  Olaf,  St  Eystein  relates  his  remarkably  speedy 
recovery  from  an  accident  sustained  by  him  when  a  scaffolding  on  this  building 
collapsed  :    he  attributes  it  to  Olaf's  intercession. 

After  the  death  of  King  Haakon  II,  Jarl  Erling  Skakke  wanted  to  get  his  own 
eight-year-old  son  Magnus  recognized  as  king  of  Norway.  And  in  1164,  probably 
in  return  for  concessions  touching  ecclesiastical  revenue,  Archbishop  Eystein 
anointed  and  crowned  the  child  at  Bergen,  the  first  royal  coronation  in  Norwegian 

*  Among  them  was  Suderoyene,  i.e.  the  western  isles  of  Scotland  and  Man,  which 
remained  suffragan  to  Trondhjem  till  the  fourteenth  century  :  the  name  survives  in  the 
"  Sodor  and  Man  "  diocese  of  the  Anglican  Church  to-day.  Other  sees  were  in  the  northern 
islands,  Greenland  and  Iceland. 


ST    EYSTEIN  [January  26 

history.  Relations  between  the  archbishop  and  the  king's  father  continued  to  be 
close,  and  St  Eystein  was  able  to  get  accepted  a  code  of  laws  some  of  which  were  of 
great  importance  for  the  discipline  and  good  order  of  the  Church.  But  one 
matter  which  he  does  not  seem  to  have  tackled,  at  any  rate  directly,  was  clerical 
celibacy,  which  was  not  observed  in  the  Scandinavian  churches  at  that  time  (cf 
the  contemporary  St  Thorlac  in  Iceland).  It  was  perhaps  for  this  reason  that  St 
Eystein  founded  communities  of  Augustinian  canons  regular,  to  set  an  example  to 
the  parochial  clergy. 

Most  of  St  Eystein's  activities  as  they  have  come  down  to  us  are  matters  of  the 
general  history  of  his  country  rather  than  his  own  life,  and  were  always  directed 
towards  the  free  action  of  the  spiritual  power  among  a  unified  people.  This 
brought  him  into  collision  with  Magnus's  rival  for  the  throne,  Sverre,  and  in  1181 
the  archbishop  fled  to  England;  from  whence  he  is  said  to  have  excommunicated 
Sverre.  Jocelyn  of  Brakelond,  the  chronicler  of  the  abbey  of  St  Edmundsbury  in 
Suffolk,  writes  :  "  While  the  abbacy  was  vacant  the  archbishop  of  Norway, 
Augustine  [the  name  of  which  Eystein  is  the  Scandinavian  form  ;  cf  the  English 
'  Austin  '],  dwelt  with  us  in  the  abbot's  lodgings,  and  by  command  of  the  king 
received  ten  shillings  every  day  from  the  revenues  of  the  abbot.  He  assisted  us 
greatly  to  gain  freedom  of  election.  ..."  It  was  on  this  occasion  that  the  famous 
Samson  was  elected  abbot.  It  is  significant  that  St  Eystein  had  a  strong  devotion 
for  St  Thomas  Becket,  which  later  became  common  in  the  Norwegian  church, 
and  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  he  visited  his  shrine  at  Canterbury  ;  and 
it  seems  that  it  was  in  England  that  he  wrote  The  Passion  and  Miracles  of  the 
Blessed  Olaf 

Eystein  returned  to  Norway  in  1 183,  and  he  was  in  his  ship  in  Bergen  harbour 
when  Sverre  attacked  Magnus's  ships  there  and  forced  the  king  to  flee  to  Denmark. 
In  the  following  year  Magnus  lost  his  life  in  a  renewal  of  the  struggle,  and  it  may 
be  assumed  that  the  archbishop  was  reconciled  with  King  Sverre.  Certainly  when 
Eystein  was  on  his  death-bed  four  years  later  Sverre  visited  him,  and  Sverre's  Saga 
says,  "  They  were  then  altogether  reconciled  and  each  forgave  the  other  those 
things  which  had  been  between  them." 

St  Eystein  died  on  January  26,  1188,  and  in  1229  a  synod  at  Nidaros  declared 
his  sanctity.  This  decree  has  never  been  confirmed  at  Rome,  although  the  pre- 
liminary investigations  have  been  begun  several  times  but  have  always  petered  out 
for  various  reasons.  Matthew  of  Westminster  in  the  thirteenth  century  refers  to 
him  as  a  man  whose  holiness  was  attested  by  outstanding  and  authentic  miracles. 
As  has  been  said,  St  Eystein's  work  was  to  break  the  hold  of  a  semi-barbarous 
nobility  over  the  Church  in  Norway  and  to  set  it  more  free  to  work  peacefully  for 
her  children.  This  meant  that  his  own  life  was  one  of  devoted  conflict,  in  which 
he  learned  by  experience  that,  in  the  words  of  his  friend  Theodoric,  It  is  one 
thing  to  control  the  rashness  of  the  wicked  by  means  of  earthly  force  and  the 
sword,  but  quite  another  to  lead  souls  gently  with  the  tenderness  and  care  of  a 

The  sources  for  the  life  of  St  Eystein  have  mostly  to  be  extracted  from  documents  of  the 
general  history  of  Norway,  such  as  Sverre's  Saga.  What  is  known  of  him  is  fitted  into  a 
more  detailed  account  of  the  historical  background  by  Mrs  Sigrid  Undset  in  her  Saga  of 
Saints  (1934).  The  manuscript  of  Eystein's  Passio  et  miracula  beati  Olavi  was  found  in 
England  and  edited  by  F.  Metcalfe  (1881).  This  manuscript  once  belonged  to  Fountains 


January  26]  THE    LIVES    OF    THE    SAINTS 

ST    MARGARET    OF    HUNGARY,  Virgin        (ad.  1270) 

Very  great  interest  attaches  to  the  life  of  St  Margaret  of  Hungary,  because  by  rare 
good  fortune  we  possess  in  her  case  a  complete  copy  of  the  depositions  of  the 
witnesses  who  gave  evidence  in  the  process  of  beatification  begun  less  than  seven 
years  after  her  death.  No  doubt  the  fact  that  she  was  the  daughter  of  Bela  IV, 
King  of  Hungary,  a  champion  of  Christendom  at  a  time  when  central  Europe  was 
menaced  with  utter  destruction  by  the  inroads  of  the  Tatars,  has  emphasized  the 
details  of  her  extraordinary  life  of  self-crucifixion.  The  Dominican  Order,  too, 
which  was  much  befriended  by  Bela  and  his  consort  Queen  Mary  Lascaris,  was 
necessarily  interested  in  the  cause  of  one  of  its  earliest  and  most  eminent  daughters. 
But  no  one  can  read  the  astounding  record  of  Margaret's  asceticism  and  charity  as 
recounted  by  some  fifty  witnesses  who  were  her  everyday  companions  without 
realizing  that  even  if  she  had  been  the  child  of  a  beggar,  such  courage  as  hers — one 
is  almost  tempted  to  call  it  the  fanaticism  of  her  warfare  against  the  world  and  the 
flesh — could  not  but  have  a  spiritualizing  influence  upon  all  who  came  in  contact 
with  her.  Bela  IV  has  been  styled  "  the  last  man  of  genius  whom  the  Arpads 
produced  ",  but  there  were  qualities  in  his  daughter  which,  if  determination  counts 
for  anything  in  human  affairs,  showed  that  the  stock  was  not  yet  effete. 

Margaret  had  been  born  at  an  hour  when  the  fortunes  of  Hungary  were  at  a 
low  ebb,  and  we  are  told  that  her  parents  had  promised  to  dedicate  the  babe  entirely 
to  God  if  victory  should  wait  upon  their  arms.  The  boon  was  in  substance  granted, 
and  the  child  at  age  of  three  was  committed  to  the  charge  of  the  community  of 
Dominican  nuns  at  Veszprem.  Somewhat  later,  Bela  and  his  queen  built  a  convent 
for  their  daughter  on  an  island  in  the  Danube  near  Buda,  and  there,  when  she  was 
twelve  years  old,  she  made  her  profession  in  the  hands  of  Bd  Humbert  of  Romans. 
Horrifying  as  are  the  details  of  the  young  sister's  thirst  for  penance  and  of  her 
determination  to  conquer  all  natural  repugnances,  they  are  supported  by  such  a 
mass  of  concurrent  testimony  that  it  is  impossible  to  question  the  truth  of  what  we 
read.  That  she  was  exceptionally  favoured  in  the  matter  of  good  looks  seems  to 
be  proved  by  the  determination  of  Ottokar,  King  of  Bohemia,  to  seek  her  hand 
even  after  he  had  seen  her  in  her  religious  dress.  No  doubt  a  dispensation  could 
easily  have  been  obtained  for  such  a  marriage,  and  Bela  for  political  reasons  was 
inclined  to  favour  it.  But  Margaret  declared  that  she  would  cut  off  her  nose  and 
lips  rather  than  consent  to  leave  the  cloister,  and  no  one  who  reads  the  account 
which  her  sisters  gave  of  her  resolution  in  other  matters  can  doubt  that  she  would 
have  been  as  good  as  her  word. 

Although  the  majority  of  the  inmates  of  this  Danubian  convent  were  the  daugh- 
ters of  noble  families,  Princess  Margaret  seems  to  have  been  conscious  of  a  tendency 
to  treat  her  with  special  consideration.  Her  protest  took  the  form  of  an  almost 
extravagant  choice  of  all  that  was  menial,  repulsive,  exhausting  and  insanitary. 
Her  charity  and  tenderness  in  rendering  the  most  nauseating  services  to  the  sick 
were  marvellous,  but  many  of  the  details  are  such  as  cannot  be  set  out  before  the 
fastidious  modern  reader.  She  had  an  intense  sympathy  for  the  squalid  lives  of 
the  poor,  but  she  carried  it  so  far  that,  like  another  St  Benedict  Joseph  Labre,  she 
chose  to  imitate  them  in  her  personal  habits,  and  her  fellow  nuns  confessed  that 
there  were  times  when  they  shrank  from  coming  into  too  intimate  contact  with  the 
noble  princess,  their  sister  in  religion.  One  gets  the  impression  that  Margaret's 
love  of  God  and  desire  of  self-immolation  were  associated  with  a  certain  element 


ST   MARGARET   OF   HUNGARY  [January  26 

of  wilfulness.  She  would  have  been  better,  or  at  least  she  would  assuredly  have 
lived  longer,  if  she  had  had  a  strong-minded  superior  or  confessor  to  take  her 
resolutely  in  hand  ;  but  it  was  perhaps  inevitable  that  the  daughter  of  the  royal 
founders  to  whom  the  convent  owed  everything  should  almost  always  have  been 
able  to  get  her  own  way. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  are  many  delightful  human  touches  in  the  account  her 
sisters  gave  of  her.  The  sacristan  tells  how  Margaret  would  stroke  her  hand  and 
coax  her  to  leave  the  door  of  the  choir  open  after  Compline,  that  she  might  spend  the 
night  before  the  Blessed  Sacrament  when  she  ought  to  have  been  sleeping.  She 
was  confident  in  the  power  of  prayer  to  effect  what  she  desired,  and  she  carried  this 
almost  to  the  point  of  a  certain  imperiousness  in  the  requests  she  made  to  the 
Almighty.  Several  of  the  nuns  recall  an  incident  which  happened  at  Veszprem 
when  she  was  only  ten  years  old.  Two  Dominican  friars  came  there  on  a  short 
visit,  and  Margaret  begged  them  to  prolong  their  stay.  They  replied  that  it  was 
necessary  that  they  should  return  at  once  ;  to  which  she  responded,  "  I  shall  ask 
God  that  it  may  rain  so  hard  that  you  cannot  get  away  ".  Although  they  protested 
that  no  amount  of  rain  would  detain  them,  she  went  to  the  chapel,  and  such  a 
downpour  occurred  that  they  were  unable,  after  all,  to  leave  Veszprem  as  they  had 
intended.  This  recalls  the  well-known  story  of  St  Scholastica  and  St  Benedict, 
and  there  is  in  any  case  no  need  to  invoke  a  supernatural  intervention  ;  but  there 
are  so  many  such  incidents  vouched  for  by  the  sisters  in  their  evidence  on  oath  that 
it  is  difficult  to  stretch  coincidence  so  far  as  to  explain  them  all.  Though  we  hear 
of  ecstasies  and  of  a  great  number  of  miracles,  there  is  a  certain  moderation  in  the 
depositions  which  inspires  confidence  in  the  good  faith  of  the  witnesses.  An 
incident  which  is  mentioned  by  nearly  all  is  the  saving,  at  St  Margaret's  prayer, 
of  a  maid-servant  who  had  fallen  down  a  well.  Amongst  the  other  depositions 
we  have  that  of  the  maid,  Agnes,  herself.  Asked  in  general  what  she  knew  of 
Margaret,  she  was  content  to  say  that  "  she  was  good  and  holy  and  edifying  in  her 
conduct,  and  showed  greater  humility  than  we  serving-maids  ".  As  to  the  accident, 
we  learn  from  her  that  the  evening  was  so  dark  that  "  if  anyone  had  slapped  her  face 
she  could  not  have  seen  who  did  it  ",  and  that  the  orifice  of  the  well  was  quite  open 
and  without  a  rail,  and  that  after  falling  she  sank  to  the  bottom  three  times,  but  at 
last  managed  to  clutch  the  wall  of  the  well  until  they  lowered  a  rope  and  pulled 
her  out. 

There  can  be  little  room  for  doubt  that  Margaret  shortened  her  life  by  her 
austerities.  At  the  end  of  every  Lent  she  was  in  a  pitiable  state  from  fasting, 
deprivation  of  sleep  and  neglect  of  her  person.*  She  put  the  crown  on  her  indis- 
cretions on  Maundy  Thursday  by  washing  the  feet  (this  probably  she  claimed  as  a 
sort  of  privilege  which  belonged  to  her  as  the  daughter  of  the  royal  founders)  not 
only  of  all  the  choir  nuns,  seventy  in  number,  but  of  all  the  servants  as  well.  She 
wiped  their  feet,  the  nuns  tell  us,  with  the  veil  which  she  wore  on  her  head.  In 
spite  of  this  fatigue  and  of  the  fact  that  at  this  season  she  took  neither  food  nor  sleep, 
she  complained  to  some  of  the  sisters  in  her  confidence  that  "  Good  Friday  was  the 
shortest  day  of  the  year  ".      She  had  no  time  for  all  the  prayers  she  wanted  to  say 

*  This  neglect  of  cleanliness  was  traditionally  part  of  the  penitential  discipline,  and  was 
symbolized  by  the  ashes  received  on  Ash  Wednesday.  The  old  English  name  for  Maundy 
Thursday  was  "  Sheer  Thursday  ",  when  the  penitents  obtained  absolution,  trimmed  their 
hair  and  beards,  and  washed  in  preparation  for  Easter.  It  was  also  sometimes  called 
capitilaviurrl  (head-washing). 


January  27]  THE    LIVES    OF    THE    SAINTS 

and  for  all  the  acts  of  penance  she  wanted  to  perform.  St  Margaret  seems  to  have 
died  on  January  18,  1270,  at  the  age  of  twenty-eight  ;  the  process  of  beatification 
referred  to  above  was  never  finished,  but  the  cultus  was  approved  in  1789  and  she 
was  canonized  in  1943. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  28  ;  but  more  especially  G.  Fraknoi,  Monumenta 
Romana  Episcopatus  Vesprimiensis,  vol.  i,  pp.  163-383,  where  the  depositions  of  the  Svitnesses 
are  printed  in  full.  Cf.  also  M.  C.  de  Ganay,  Les  Bienheureuses  Dominicaines,  pp.  69-89  ; 
and  Margaret,  Princess  of  Hungary  (1945),  by  "  S.  M.  C." 


ST    JOHN    CHRYSOSTOM,  Archbishop  of  Constantinople  and 
Doctor  of  the  Church        (a.d.  407) 

THIS  incomparable  teacher,  on  account  of  the  fluency  and  sweetness  of  his 
eloquence,  obtained  after  his  death  the  surname  of  Chrysostom,  or  Golden 
Mouth.  But  his  piety  and  his  undaunted  courage  are  titles  far  more 
glorious,  by  which  he  may  claim  to  be  ranked  among  the  greatest  pastors  of  the 
Church.  He  was  born  about  the  year  347  at  Antioch  in  Syria,  the  only  son  of 
Secundus,  commander  of  the  imperial  troops.  His  mother,  Anthusa,  left  a  widow 
at  twenty,  divided  her  time  between  the  care  of  her  family  and  her  exercises  of 
devotion.  Her  example  made  such  an  impression  on  our  saint's  master,  a  cele- 
brated pagan  sophist,  that  he  could  not  forbear  crying  out,  "  What  wonderful 
women  are  found  among  the  Christians  !  "  Anthusa  provided  for  her  son  the 
ablest  masters  which  the  empire  at  that  time  afforded.  Eloquence  was  esteemed 
the  highest  accomplishment,  and  John  studied  that  art  under  Libanius,  the  most 
famous  orator  of  the  age  ;  and  such  was  his  proficiency  that  even  in  his  youth  he 
excelled  his  masters.  Libanius  being  asked  on  his  deathbed  who  ought  to  succeed 
him  in  his  school,  "  John  ",  said  he,  "  would  have  been  my  choice,  had  not  the 
Christians  stolen  him  from  us." 

According  to  a  common  custom  of  those  days  young  John  was  not  baptized 
till  he  was  over  twenty  years  old,  being  at  the  time  a  law  student.  Soon  after, 
together  with  his  friends  Basil,  Theodore  (afterwards  bishop  of  Mopsuestia)  and 
others,  he  attended  a  sort  of  school  for  monks,  where  they  studied  under  Diodorus 
of  Tarsus  ;  and  in  374  he  joined  one  of  the  loosely-knit  communities  of  hermits 
among  the  mountains  south  of  Antioch.  He  afterwards  wrote  a  vivid  account  of 
their  austerities  and  trials.  He  passed  four  years  under  the  direction  of  a  veteran 
Syrian  monk,  and  afterwards  two  years  in  a  cave  as  a  solitary.  The  dampness  of 
this  abode  brought  on  a  dangerous  illness,  and  for  the  recovery  of  his  health  he 
was  obliged  to  return  into  the  city  in  381.  He  was  ordained  deacon  by  St  Meletius 
that  very  year,  and  received  the  priesthood  from  Bishop  Flavian  in  386,  who  at  the 
same  time  constituted  him  his  preacher,  John  being  then  about  forty.  He  dis- 
charged the  duties  of  the  office  for  twelve  years,  supporting  during  that  time  a 
heavy  load  of  responsibility  as  the  aged  bishop's  deputy.  The  instruction  and  care 
of  the  poor  he  regarded  as  the  first  obligation  of  all,  and  he  never  ceased  in  his 
sermons  to  recommend  their  cause  and  to  impress  on  the  people  the  duty  of 
almsgiving.  Antioch,  he  supposes,  contained  at  that  time  one  hundred  thousand 
Christian  souls  and  as  many  pagans  ;  these  he  fed  with  the  word  of  God,  preaching 
several  days  in  the  week,  and  frequently  several  times  on  the  same  day. 


ST    JOHN    CHRYSOSTOM  [January  27 

The  Emperor  Theodosius  I,  finding  himself  obliged  to  levy  a  new  tax  on  his 
subjects  because  of  his  war  with  Magnus  Maximus,  the  Antiochenes  rioted  and 
vented  their  discontent  on  the  emperor's  statue,  and  those  of  his  father,  sons  and 
late  consort,  breaking  them  to  pieces.  The  magistrates  were  helpless.  But  as 
soon  as  the  fury  was  over  and  they  began  to  reflect  on  the  probable  consequences 
of  their  outburst,  the  people  were  seized  with  terror  and  their  fears  were  heightened 
by  the  arrival  of  two  officers  from  Constantinople  to  carry  out  the  emperor's  orders 
for  punishment.  In  spite  of  his  age,  Bishop  Flavian  set  out  in  the  worst  weather 
of  the  year  to  implore  the  imperial  clemency  for  his  flock,  and  Theodosius  was 
touched  by  his  appeal  :  an  amnesty  was  accorded  to  the  delinquent  citizens  of 
Antioch.  Meanwhile  St  John  had  been  delivering  perhaps  the  most  memorable 
series  of  sermons  which  marked  his  oratorical  career,  the  famous  twenty-one 
homilies  "  On  the  Statutes  ".  They  manifest  in  a  wonderful  way  the  sympathy 
between  the  preacher  and  his  audience,  and  also  his  own  consciousness  of  the  power 
which  he  wielded  for  good.  There  can  be  no  question  that  the  Lent  of  387,  during 
which  these  discourses  were  delivered,  marked  a  turning-point  in  Chrysostom's 
career,  and  that  from  that  time  forward  his  oratory  became,  even  politically,  one 
of  the  great  forces  by  which  the  Eastern  empire  was  swayed.  After  the  storm  he 
continued  his  labours  with  unabated  energy,  but  before  very  long  God  was  pleased 
to  call  him  to  glorify  His  name  upon  a  new  stage,  where  He  prepared  for  his  virtue 
other  trials  and  other  crowns. 

Nectarius,  Archbishop  of  Constantinople,  dying  in  397,  the  Emperor  Arcadius, 
at  the  suggestion  of  Eutropius,  his  chamberlain,  resolved  to  procure  the  election 
of  John  to  the  see  of  that  city.  He  therefore  despatched  an  order  to  the  count  of 
the  East,  enjoining  him  to  send  John  to  Constantinople,  but  to  do  so  without  making 
the  news  public,  lest  his  intended  removal  should  cause  a  sedition.  The  count 
repaired  to  Antioch,  and  desiring  the  saint  to  accompany  him  out  of  the  city  to  the 
tombs  of  the  martyrs,  he  there  delivered  him  to  an  officer  who,  taking  him  into  his 
chariot,  conveyed  him  with  all  possible  speed  to  the  imperial  city.  Theophilus, 
Archbishop  of  Alexandria,  a  man  of  proud  and  turbulent  spirit,  had  come  thither 
to  recommend  a  nominee  of  his  own  for  the  vacancy  ;  but  he  had  to  desist  from 
his  intrigues,  and  John  was  consecrated  by  him  on  February  26  in  398. 

When  regulating  his  domestic  concerns,  the  saint  cut  down  the  expenses  which 
his  predecessors  had  considered  necessary  to  maintain  their  dignity,  and  these 
sums  he  applied  to  the  relief  of  the  poor  and  supported  many  hospitals.  His  own 
household  being  settled  in  good  order,  the  next  thing  he  took  in  hand  was  the 
reformation  of  his  clergy.  This  he  forwarded  by  zealous  exhortations  and  by 
disciplinary  enactments,  which,  while  very  necessary,  seem  in  their  severity  to  have 
been  lacking  in  tact.  But  to  give  these  his  endeavours  their  due  force,  he  lived 
himself  as  an  exact  model  of  what  he  inculcated  on  others.  The  immodesty  of 
women  in  their  dress  in  that  gay  capital  aroused  him  to  indignation,  and  he  showed 
how  false  and  absurd  was  their  excuse  in  saying  that  they  meant  no  harm.  Thus 
by  his  zeal  and  eloquence  St  John  tamed  many  sinners,  converting,  moreover,  many 
idolaters  and  heretics.  His  mildness  towards  sinners  was  censured  by  the  Nova- 
tians  ;  for  he  invited  them  to  repentance  with  the  compassion  of  a  most  tender 
father,  and  was  accustomed  to  cry  out,  "  If  you  have  fallen  a  second  time,  or  even 
a  thousand  times  into  sin,  come  to  me,  and  you  shall  be  healed  ".  But  he  was  firm 
and  severe  in  maintaining  discipline,  and  to  impenitent  sinners  he  was  inflexible. 
One  Good  Friday  many  Christians  went  to  the  races,  and  on   Holy   Saturday 


January  27]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

crowded  to  the  games  in  the  stadium.  The  good  bishop  was  pierced  to  the  quick, 
and  on  Easter  Sunday  he  preached  an  impassioned  sermon,  "  Against  the  Games 
and  Shows  of  the  Theatre  and  Circus  ".  Indignation  made  him  not  so  much  as 
mention  the  paschal  solemnity,  and  his  exordium  was  a  most  moving  appeal.  A 
large  number  of  ChrysostonVs  sermons  still  exist,  and  they  amply  support  the  view 
of  many  that  he  was  the  greatest  preacher  who  ever  lived.  But  it  must  be  admitted 
that  his  language  was  at  times,  especially  in  his  later  years,  excessively  violent  and 
provocative.  As  has  been  observed,  he  "  sometimes  almost  shrieks  at  his  delin- 
quent empresses  "  ;  and  one  has  a  painful  feeling  that  his  invective  in  face  of 
undoubted  provocation  from  many  Jews  must  have  been  partly  responsible  for  the 
frequent  bloody  collisions  between  them  and  Christians  in  Antioch.  Not  all 
Chrysostom's  opponents  were  blameworthy  men  :  there  were  undoubtedly  good 
and  earnest  Christians  amongst  those  who  disagreed  with  him — he  who  became 
St  Cyril  of  Alexandria  among  them. 

Another  good  work  which  absorbed  a  large  share  of  the  archbishop's  activities 
was  the  founding  of  new  and  fervent  communities  of  devout  women.  Among  the 
holy  widows  who  placed  themselves  under  the  direction  of  this  great  master  of 
saints,  the  most  illustrious,  perhaps,  was  the  truly  noble  St  Olympias.  Neither  was 
his  pastoral  care  confined  to  his  own  flock  ;  he  extended  it  to  remote  countries. 
He  sent  a  bishop  to  instruct  the  wandering  Scythians  ;  another,  an  admirable  man, 
to  the  Goths.  Palestine,  Persia  and  many  other  distant  provinces  felt  the  beneficent 
influence  of  his  zeal.  He  was  himself  remarkable  for  an  eminent  spirit  of  prayer, 
and  he  was  particularly  earnest  in  inculcating  this  duty.  He  even  exhorted  the 
laity  to  rise  for  the  midnight  office  together  with  the  clergy.  "  Many  artisans  ", 
said  he,  "  get  up  at  night  to  labour,  and  soldiers  keep  vigil  as  sentries  ;  cannot  you 
do  as  much  to  praise  God  ?  "  Great  also  was  the  tenderness  with  which  he  dis- 
coursed on  the  divine  love  which  is  displayed  in  the  holy  Eucharist,  and  exhorted 
the  faithful  to  the  frequent  use  of  that  heavenly  sacrament.  The  public  concerns 
of  the  state  often  claimed  a  share  in  the  interest  and  intervention  of  St  Chrysostom, 
as  when  the  chamberlain  and  ex-slave  Eutropius  fell  from  power  in  399,  on  which 
occasion  he  preached  a  famous  sermon  while  the  hated  Eutropius  cowered  in 
sanctuary  beneath  the  altar  in  full  view  of  the  congregation.  The  bishop  entreated 
the  people  to  forgive  a  culprit  whom  the  emperor,  the  chief  person  injured,  was 
desirous  to  forgive  ;  he  asked  them  how  they  could  beg  of  God  the  forgiveness  of 
their  own  sins  if  they  did  not  forgive  one  who  stood  in  need  of  mercy  and  time  for 

It  remained  for  St  Chrysostom  to  glorify  God  by  his  sufferings,  as  he  had 
already  done  by  his  labours,  and,  if  we  contemplate  the  mystery  of  the  Cross  with 
the  eyes  of  faith,  we  shall  find  him  greater  in  the  persecutions  he  sustained  than 
in  all  the  other  occurrences  of  his  life.  His  principal  ecclesiastical  adversary 
was  Archbishop  Theophilus  of  Alexandria,  already  mentioned,  who  had  several 
grievances  against  his  brother  of  Constantinople.  A  no  less  dangerous  enemy 
was  the  empress  Eudoxia.  John  was  accused  of  referring  to  her  as  "  Jezebel  ", 
and  when  he  had  preached  a  sermon  against  the  profligacy  and  vanity  of  so  many 
women  it  was  represented  by  some  as  an  attack  levelled  at  the  empress.  Knowing 
the  sense  of  grievance  entertained  by  Theophilus,  Eudoxia,  to  be  revenged  for  the 
supposed  affront  to  herself,  conspired  with  him  to  bring  about  Chrysostom's 
deposition.  Theophilus  landed  at  Constantinople  in  June  403,  with  several 
Egyptian  bishops  ;   he  refused  to  see  or  lodge  with  John  ;   and  got  together  a  cabal 


ST   JOHN    CHRYSOSTOM  [January  27 

of  thirty-six  bishops  in  a  house  at  Chalcedon  called  The  Oak.  The  main  articles 
in  the  impeachment  were  :  that  John  had  deposed  a  deacon  for  beating  a  servant ; 
that  he  had  called  several  of  his  clergy  reprobates  ;  had  deposed  bishops  outside 
his  own  province  ;  had  sold  things  belonging  to  the  church  ;  that  nobody  knew 
what  became  of  his  revenues  ;  that  he  ate  alone  ;  and  that  he  gave  holy  communion 
to  persons  who  were  not  fasting — all  which  accusations  were  either  false  or  frivolous. 
John  held  a  legal  council  of  forty  bishops  in  the  city  at  the  same  time,  and  refused 
to  appear  before  that  at  The  Oak.  So  the  cabal  proceeded  to  a  sentence  of 
deposition  against  him,  which  they  sent  to  the  Emperor  Arcadius,  accusing  him 
at  the  same  time  of  treason,  apparently  in  having  called  the  empress  "  Jezebel  ". 
Thereupon  the  emperor  issued  an  order  for  his  banishment. 

For  three  days  Constantinople  was  in  an  uproar,  and  Chrysostom  delivered  a 
vigorous  manifesto  from  his  pulpit.  "  Violent  storms  encompass  me  on  all  sides  : 
yet  I  am  without  fear,  because  I  stand  upon  a  rock.  Though  the  sea  roar  and  the 
waves  rise  high,  they  cannot  overwhelm  the  ship  of  Jesus  Christ.  I  fear  not  death, 
which  is  my  gain  ;  nor  banishment,  for  the  whole  earth  is  the  Lord's  ;  nor  the 
loss  of  goods,  for  I  came  naked  into  the  world,  and  I  can  carry  nothing  out  of  it." 
He  declared  that  he  was  ready  to  lay  down  his  life  for  his  flock,  and  that  if  he  suffered 
now,  it  was  only  because  he  had  neglected  nothing  that  would  help  towards  the 
salvation  of  their  souls.  Then  he  surrendered  himself,  unknown  to  the  people, 
and  an  official  conducted  him  to  Praenetum  in  Bithynia.  But  his  first  exile  was 
short.  The  city  was  slightly  shaken  by  an  earthquake.  This  terrified  the  super- 
stitious Eudoxia,  and  she  implored  Arcadius  to  recall  John  ;  she  got  leave  to  send 
a  letter  the  same  day,  asking  him  to  return  and  protesting  her  own  innocence  of 
his  banishment.  All  the  city  went  out  to  meet  him,  and  the  Bosphorus  blazed 
with  torches.      Theophilus  and  his  party  fled  by  night. 

But  the  fair  weather  did  not  last  long.  A  silver  statue  of  the  empress  having 
been  erected  before  the  great  church  of  the  Holy  Wisdom,  the  dedication  of  it  was 
celebrated  with  public  games  which,  besides  disturbing  the  liturgy,  were  an  occasion 
of  disorder,  impropriety  and  superstition.  St  Chrysostom  had  often  preached 
against  licentious  shows,  and  the  very  place  rendered  these  the  more  inexcusable. 
And  so,  fearing  lest  his  silence  should  be  construed  as  an  approbation  of  the  abuse, 
he  with  his  usual  freedom  and  courage  spoke  loudly  against  it.  The  vanity  of  the 
Empress  Eudoxia  made  her  take  the  affront  to  herself,  and  his  enemies  were  invited 
back.  Theophilus  dared  not  come,  but  he  sent  three  deputies.  This  second  cabal 
appealed  to  certain  canons  of  an  Arian  council  of  Antioch,  made  to  exclude  St 
Athanasius,  by  which  it  was  ordained  that  no  bishop  who  had  been  deposed  by  a 
synod  should  return  to  his  see  till  he  was  restored  by  another  synod.  Arcadius 
sent  John  an  order  to  withdraw.  He  refused  to  forsake  a  church  committed  to 
him  by  God  unless  forcibly  compelled  to  leave  it.  The  emperor  sent  troops  to 
drive  the  people  out  of  the  churches  on  Holy  Saturday,  and  they  were  polluted  with 
blood  and  all  manner  of  outrages.  The  saint  wrote  to  Pope  St  Innocent  I,  begging 
him  to  invalidate  all  that  had  been  done,  for  the  miscarriage  of  justice  had 
been  notorious.  He  also  wrote  to  beg  the  concurrence  of  other  bishops  of  the 
West.  The  pope  wrote  to  Theophilus  exhorting  him  to  appear  before  a  council, 
where  sentence  should  be  given  according  to  the  canons  of  Nicaea.  He  also 
addressed  letters  to  Chrysostom,  to  his  flock  and  several  of  his  friends,  in  the  hope 
of  redressing  these  evils  by  a  new  council,  as  did  also  the  Western  emperor, 
Honorius.      But  Arcadius  and  Eudoxia  found  means  to  prevent  any  such  assembly, 


January  27]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

the  mere  prospect  of  which  filled  Theophilus  and  other  ringleaders  of  his  faction 
with  alarm. 

Chrysostom  was  suffered  to  remain  at  Constantinople  two  months  after  Easter. 
On  Thursday  in  Whit-week  the  emperor  sent  an  order  for  his  banishment.  The 
holy  man  bade  adieu  to  the  faithful  bishops,  and  took  his  leave  of  St  Olympias  and 
the  other  deaconesses,  who  were  overwhelmed  with  grief.  He  then  left  the  church 
by  stealth  to  prevent  a  sedition,  and  was  conducted  into  Bithynia,  arriving  at 
Nicaea  on  June  20,  404.  After  his  departure  a  fire  broke  out  and  burnt  down  the 
great  church  and  the  senate  house.  The  cause  of  the  conflagration  was  unknown, 
and  many  of  the  saint's  supporters  were  put  to  the  torture  on  this  account,  but  no 
discovery  was  ever  made.  The  Emperor  Arcadius  chose  Cucusus,  a  little  place  in 
the  Taurus  mountains  of  Armenia,  for  St  John's  exile.  He  set  out  from  Nicaea 
in  July,  and  suffered  very  great  hardships  from  the  heat,  fatigue  and  the  brutality 
of  his  guards.  After  a  seventy  days'  journey  he  arrived  at  Cucusus,  where  the  good 
bishop  of  the  place  vied  with  his  people  in  showing  him  every  mark  of  kindness 
and  respect.  Some  of  the  letters  which  Chrysostom  addressed  from  exile  to  St 
Olympias  and  others  have  survived,  and  it  was  to  her  that  he  wrote  his  treatise  on 
the  theme  "  That  no  one  can  hurt  him  who  does  not  hurt  himself  ". 

Meanwhile  Pope  Innocent  and  the  Emperor  Honorius  sent  five  bishops  to 
Constantinople  to  arrange  for  a  council,  requiring  that  in  the  meantime  Chrysostom 
should  be  restored  to  his  see.  But  the  deputies  were  cast  into  prison  in  Thrace, 
for  the  party  of  Theophilus  (Eudoxia  had  died  in  childbed  in  October)  saw  that 
if  a  council  were  held  they  would  inevitably  be  condemned.  They  also  got  an 
order  from  Arcadius  that  John  should  be  taken  farther  away,  to  Pityus  at  the 
eastern  end  of  the  Black  Sea,  and  two  officers  were  sent  to  convey  him  thither. 
One  of  these  was  not  altogether  destitute  of  humanity,  but  the  other  was  a  ruffian 
who  would  not  give  his  prisoner  so  much  as  a  civil  word.  They  often  travelled  in 
scorching  heat,  from  which  the  now  aged  Chrysostom  suffered  intensely  ;  and  in 
the  wettest  weather  they  forced  him  out  of  doors  and  on  his  way.  When  they 
reached  Comana  in  Cappadocia  he  was  very  ill,  yet  he  was  hurried  a  further  five 
or  six  miles  to  the  chapel  of  St  Basiliscus.  During  the  night  there  this  martyr 
seemed  to  appear  to  John  and  said  to  him,  "  Courage,  brother  !  To-morrow  we 
shall  be  together."  The  next  day,  exhausted  and  ill,  John  begged  that  he  might 
stay  there  a  little  longer.  No  attention  was  paid  ;  but  when  they  had  gone  four 
miles,  seeing  that  he  seemed  to  be  dying,  they  brought  him  back  to  the  chapel. 
There  the  clergy  changed  his  clothes,  putting  white  garments  on  him,  and  he 
received  the  Holy  Mysteries.  A  few  hours  later  St  John  Chrysostom  uttered  his 
last  words,  "  Glory  be  to  God  for  all  things  ",  and  gave  up  his  soul  to  God.  It 
was  Holy  Cross  day,  September  14,  407. 

St  John's  body  was  taken  back  to  Constantinople  in  the  year  438,  the  Emperor 
Theodosius  II  and  his  sister  St  Pulcheria  accompanying  the  archbishop  St  Proclus 
in  the  procession,  begging  forgiveness  of  the  sins  of  their  parents  who  had  so 
blindly  persecuted  the  servant  of  God.  It  was  laid  in  the  church  of  the  Apostles 
on  January  27,  on  which  day  Chrysostom  is  honoured  in  the  West,  but  in  the  East 
his  festival  is  observed  principally  on  November  13,  but  also  on  other  dates.  In 
the  Byzantine  church  he  is  the  third  of  the  Three  Holy  Hierarchs  and  Universal 
Teachers,  the  other  two  being  St  Basil  and  St  Gregory  Nazianzen,  to  whom  the 
Western  church  adds  St  Athanasius  to  make  the  four  great  Greek  doctors  ;  and 
in  1909  St  Pius  X  declared  him  to  be  the  heavenly  patron  of  preachers  of  the  word 


ST   MARIUS,    OR   MAY  [January  27 

of  God.  He  is  commemorated  in  the  Byzantine,  Syrian,  Chaldean  and  Maronite 
eucharistic  liturgies,  in  the  great  intercession  or  elsewhere. 

Our  principal  sources  for  the  story  of  St  John's  life  are  the  Dialogue  of  Palladius  (whom 
Abbot  Cuthbert  Butler,  with  the  assent  of  nearly  all  recent  scholars,  considers  to  be  identical 
with  the  author  of  the  Lausiac  History),  the  autobiographical  details  which  may  be  gleaned 
from  the  homilies  and  letters  of  the  saint  himself,  the  ecclesiastical  histories  of  Socrates  and 
Sozomen,  and  the  panegyric  attributed  to  a  certain  Martyrius.  The  literature  of  the  subject 
is,  of  course,  vast.  No  better  general  account  can  be  recommended,  especially  in  view  of 
its  admirable  setting  in  a  background  which  does  justice  to  the  circumstances  of  the  times, 
than  that  provided  by  Mgr  Duchesne  in  his  Histoire  ancienne  de  VEglise  (English  trans.), 
vols,  ii  and  iii  ;  but  the  definitive  biography  is  by  Dom  C.  Baur,  Der  hi.  Johannes  Chrysostomus 
und  seine  Zeit  (2  vols.,  1 929-1 930).  An  English  translation  of  the  Dialogue  of  Palladius  was 
published  in  1921,  and  the  Greek  text,  ed.  P.  R.  Coleman-Norton,  in  1928.  In  English  at 
the  general  level  mention  may  be  made  of  lives  by  W.  R.  W.  Stephens  (1883)  and  D.  Attwater 
(I939)>  and  Dr  A.  Fortescue's  lively  sketch  in  The  Greek  Fathers  (1908).  A  good  intro- 
duction to  the  works  is  (Greek)  Selections  from  St  John  Chrysostom  (1940),  ed.  Cardinal 
D'Alton.  See  also  Puech,  St  John  Chrysostom  (English  trans.)  in  the  series  "  Les  Saints  "  ; 
the  volume  of  essays  brought  out  at  Rome  in  1908,  under  the  title  XpvooorofUKd,  in  honour 
of  the  fifteenth  centenary  ;  the  article  by  Canon  E.  Venables  in  DCB.,  vol.  i,  pp.  518-535  ; 
and  that  by  G.  Bardy  in  DTC,  vol  viii,  cc.  660  seq.,  where  a  full  bibliography  will  be  found. 

ST   JULIAN,  Bishop  of  Le  Mans        (Date  Unknown) 

In  Alban  Butler's  time  a  relic  was  preserved  at  the  cathedral  of  Le  Mans  which 
was  believed  to  be  the  head  of  St  Julian.  He  was  certainly  also  honoured  in 
England,  for  his  name  occurs  on  this  day  in  the  calendar  of  the  Eadwine  Psalter 
of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  (before  1 170),  and  his  feast  was  kept  throughout  the 
southern  dioceses  of  England  where  the  Sarum  use  was  followed.  How  many  of 
the  six  ancient  churches  in  this  country  which  were  dedicated  to  St  Julian  can  be 
referred  to  the  bishop  of  Le  Mans  is  quite  uncertain,, for  undoubtedly  some  of  them 
were  built  in  honour  of  the  more  or  less  mythical  saint  known  as  Julian  the  Hos- 
pitaller (February  12).  We  know  absolutely  nothing  which  is  certain  about  St 
Julian's  life.  The  lessons  in  the  Sarum  breviary  describe  him  as  a  noble  Roman 
who  became  the  first  bishop  of  Le  Mans  and  the  apostle  of  that  part  of  France,  and 
they  also  attribute  to  him  some  stupendous  miracles.  We  can  only  say  that  there 
is  evidence  in  the  seventh  century  of  a  chapel  called  basilica  Sti  Juliani  episcopi, 
and  that  in  the  catalogues  of  the  bishops  of  Le  Mans,  St  Julian  always  heads  the 
list.  A  quite  extravagant  later  legend  described  him  as  one  of  the  seventy-two 
disciples  of  our  Lord,  and  as  identical  with  Simon  the  Leper.  It  is  probable  that 
the  introduction  of  the  cultus  of  St  Julian  into  England  was  due  to  the  fact  that 
King  Henry  II,  who  was  born  at  Le  Mans,  is  said  to  have  been  baptized  in  the 
church  of  St  Julian  there  and  may  have  preserved  some  personal  devotion  to  the 

See  Duchesne,  Fastes  fipiscopaux,  vol.  ii,  pp.  309,  323,  331  ;  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for 
January  27  ;  Arnold- Forster,  Studies  in  Church  Dedications,  vol.  i,  pp.  435-436  ;  and 
especially  A.  Ledru,  Les  premiers  temps  de  VEglise  du  Mans  (191 3). 

ST    MARIUS,  or  MAY,  Abbot        (c.  a.d.  555) 

We  have  no  very  certain  information  concerning  St  Marius,  who  in  the  Roman 
Martyrology  appears  as  Maurus,  while  Bobacum  is  given  as  the  name  of  the 
monastery  which  he  governed.      Both  these  designations  seem  to  be  erroneous. 


January  27]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

There  was  an  abbey  of  Bodon  in  the  ancient  diocese  of  Sisteron  (Departement  de 
la  Drome),  and  St  Marius  is  named  as  its  founder  and  first  abbot.  We  are  told 
that  he  was  born  at  Orleans  ;  that  he  became  a  monk  and  made  a  pilgrimage  to 
the  tomb  of  St  Denis  near  Paris,  where  he  was  miraculously  cured  of  an  illness  ; 
and  that  every  year  he  used  to  spend  the  forty  days  of  Lent  as  a  recluse  in  the  forest. 
In  one  of  these  retreats  he  foresaw  in  a  vision  the  desolation  which  the  inroads  of 
the  barbarians  would  soon  cause  in  Italy,  and  also  the  destruction  of  his  own 
monastery.      But  the  evidence  for  all  this  is  quite  unreliable. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorwn  for  January  27  ;  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  xxiv,  pp.  96  seq.  ; 
and  Isnard  in  Bulletin  Soc.  Archeol.  Drome,  vols,  i  and  ii  (1866-68). 

ST    VITALIAN,  Pope        (a.d.  672) 

Pope  Vitalian  is  said  to  have  been  a  native  of  Segni  in  Campania,  but  we  hear 
nothing  of  him  before  he  was  elected  to  the  papacy  in  657,  nor  have  we  any  know- 
ledge of  his  life  apart  from  his  public  acts.  His  pontificate  was  somewhat  troubled 
by  the  strong  monothelite  leanings  of  two  successive  patriarchs  of  Constantinople 
and  of  the  Emperor  Constans  II  and  his  successor.  A  more  consoling  picture  is 
offered  by  the  pope's  relations  with  the  Church  in  England,  as  they  may  be  read 
in  the  pages  of  Bede.  It  was  in  his  time  that  St  Benedict  Biscop  paid  his  first  visit 
to  Rome  and  that  the  differences  between  the  Anglo-Saxon  and  Celtic  bishops 
regarding  the  keeping  of  Easter  and  other  points  of  controversy  were  settled  at  the 
Council  of  Streaneshalch  (Whitby).  It  was  also  Pope  St  Vitalian  who  sent 
to  England  St  Theodore  of  Tarsus  as  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  the  African 
monk  St  Adrian,  who  became  abbot  of  St  Augustine's.  The  influence  of  both 
was  very  great  in  training  the  Anglo-Saxon  clergy  and  in  drawing  closer  the 
bonds  between  England  and  the  Holy  See.  St  Vitalian  died  in  672,  and  was 
buried  in  St  Peter's. 

Our  principal  sources  are  the  Liber  Pontijicalis  (ed.  Duchesne),  vol.  i,  pp.  343  seq.  ;  Bede's 
Ecclesiastical  History  ;  and  the  pope's  letters,  though  some  of  those  attributed  to  him  are 
spurious.      See  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  27,  and  DCB.,  vol.  iv,  pp.  1161-1163. 

BD     JOHN     OF     WARNETON,     Bishop    of    Therouanne        (a.d. 

We  possess  a  contemporary  biography  of  this  John  which  was  written  by  his 
archdeacon,  John  de  Collemedi.  A  pious  and  clever  child,  he  had  attracted 
attention  in  early  years  and  had  been  fortunate  enough  to  number  amongst  his 
teachers  Lambert  of  Utrecht  and  St  Ivo  of  Chartres.  After  completing  his  studies 
he  returned  to  his  own  province,  and  shortly  afterwards  retired  to  the  monastery 
of  Mont-Saint-Eloi,  near  Arras.  Here  the  bishop  of  Arras  became  acquainted 
with  him  and,  in  spite  of  his  reluctance,  persuaded  him  to  act  as  archdeacon  in  his 
diocese  ;  this  was  a  stepping-stone  to  promotion  to  the  see  of  Therouanne.  It 
needed  an  exercise  of  papal  authority  to  constrain  John  to  undertake  the  charge. 
As  bishop  he  was  held  in  the  highest  esteem  ;  the  Holy  See  confided  to  him  many 
important  missions,  more  particularly  in  the  matter  of  the  reform  of  monastic 
discipline,  and  he  was  consulted  by  such  prelates  as  his  old  master,  St  Ivo.  Al- 
though firm  in  maintaining  ecclesiastical  discipline,  he  was  pre-eminently  gentle 
and  kindly  by  nature  :    when  an  attempt  was  made  to  assassinate  him,  Bd  John 


ST   PETER   NOLASCO  [January  28 

refused  to  take  any  action  against  the  perpetrators  of  the  outrage.      His  death 
occurred  on  January  27,  1130. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  27  ;    the  Biographie  nationale,  vol.  x,  pp.  422-423  ; 
and  Destombes,  Vies  des  saints  des  dioceses  de  Cambrai  et  d*  Arras,  vol.  i,  pp.  1 13-125. 


•  ST    PETER   NOLASCO,  Founder  of  the  Order  of  Our  Lady 
of  Ransom        (a.d.  1258) 

PETER,  of  the  noble  family  of  Nolasco  in  Languedoc,  was  born  about  the 
year  1189.  At  the  age  of  fifteen  he  lost  his  father,  who  left  him  heir  to  a 
great  estate  ;  and  he  remained  at  home  under  the  tutelage  of  a  mother  who 
encouraged  all  his  good  aspirations.  Being  solicited  to  marry,  he  set  himself  first 
to  ponder  seriously  the  vanity  of  earthly  things  ;  and  rising  one  night  full  of  those 
thoughts,  he  prostrated  himself  in  prayer  which  continued  till  morning,  consecrating 
himself  to  God  in  the  state  of  celibacy  and  dedicating  his  whole  patrimony  to  His 
service.  Some  authors  affirm  that  Peter  took  part  in  the  campaign  of  Simon  de 
Montfort  against  the  Albigenses.  The  count  vanquished  them,  and  in  the  battle 
of  Muret  defeated  and  killed  Peter,  King  of  Aragon,  and  took  his  son  James  prisoner, 
a  child  of  six  years  old.  The  conqueror  is  further  said  to  have  given  him  Peter 
Nolasco,  then  twenty-five  years  old,  for  a  tutor,  ?.nd  to  have  sent  them  both  together 
into  Spain.  But  it  is  now  generally  admitted  that  there  is  no  adequate  evidence 
for  connecting  St  Peter  with  the  Albigensian  campaign  or  with  the  education  of  the 
future  King  James. 

The  Moors  at  that  time  were  masters  of  a  great  part  of  Spain,  and  numbers  of 
Christians  who  had  been  made  slaves  groaned  under  their  tyranny  both  there  and 
in  Africa.  Compassion  for  the  poor  had  always  been  the  distinguishing  virtue  of 
Peter.  The  pitiful  spectacle  of  these  unfortunates,  and  the  consideration  of  the 
dangers  to  which  their  faith  and  virtue  stood  exposed  under  their  Mohammedan 
masters,  touched  his  heart,  and  he  soon  spent  his  estate  in  redeeming  as  many  as 
he  could.  Whenever  he  saw  any  slaves,  he  used  to  say,  "  Behold  eternal  treasures 
which  never  fail  ".  By  his  fervent  appeals  he  moved  others  to  contribute  large 
alms  towards  this  charity,  and  at  last  formed  the  project  of  instituting  a  religious 
order  to  maintain  a  constant  supply  of  men  and  means  whereby  to  carry  on  so 
charitable  an  undertaking.  This  design  encountered  many  difficulties  ;  but  it  is 
said  that  our  Lady  appeared  to  St  Peter,  to  the  king  of  Aragon  and  to  St  Raymund 
of  Penafort  in  distinct  visions  on  the  same  night,  and  encouraged  them  to  carry 
the  scheme  into  effect  under  the  assurance  of  her  patronage  and  protection.  St 
Raymund  was  the  spiritual  director  both  of  St  Peter  and  of  King  James,  and  a 
zealous  promoter  of  this  work.  The  king  declared  himself  the  protector  of  the 
order,  and  assigned  them  quarters  in  his  own  palace  by  way  of  a  commencement. 
On  August  10,  1223  the  king  and  St  Raymund  conducted  St  Peter  to  the  church, 
and  presented  him  to  Berengarius,  Bishop  of  Barcelona,  who  received  his  three 
religious  vows,  to  which  the  saint  added  a  fourth,  to  devote  his  whole  substance 
and  his  very  liberty,  if  necessary,  to  the  work  of  ransoming  slaves.  The  like  vow 
was  exacted  of  all  his  followers.      St  Raymund  preached  on  the  occasion,  and 

*  For  the  commemoration  of  St  Agnes  on  this  day,  see  under  that  saint  on  January  21. 


January  28]  THE    LIVES   OF   THE    SAINTS 

declared  that  it  had  pleased  Almighty  God  to  reveal  His  will  to  King  James,  to 
Peter  Nolasco  and  to  himself,  enjoining  the  institution  of  an  order  for  the  ransom 
of  the  faithful  detained  in  bondage  among  the  infidels.*  This  was  received  by  the 
people  with  acclamation.  St  Peter  received  the  new  habit  from  St  Raymund,  who 
established  him  first  master  general  of  the  order,  and  drew  up  for  it  rules  and 
constitutions.  Two  other  gentlemen  were  professed  at  the  same  time  with  St 
Peter.  When  Raymund  went  to  Rome,  he  obtained  from  Pope  Gregory  IX  in 
1235  the  confirmation  of  the  foundation  and  its  rule. 

King  James  having  conquered  the  kingdom  of  Valencia,  founded  in  it  several 
houses  of  the  order,  one  of  which  was  in  the  city  of  Valencia  itself.  The  town 
had  been  taken  by  the  aid  of  Peter  Nolasco's  prayers,  when  the  soldiers  had  des- 
paired of  success,  and  it  was  in  fact  to  the  prayers  of  the  saint  that  the  king  attributed 
the  great  victories  which  he  obtained  over  the  infidels,  and  the  entire  conquest  of 
Valencia  and  Murcia.  St  Peter,  touching  the  main  work  of  the  order,  ordained 
that  two  members  should  always  be  sent  together  amongst  the  infidels,  to  treat 
about  the  ransom  of  captives,  and  they  are  hence  called  ransomers.  One  of  the 
two  employed  at  the  outset  in  this  way  was  the  saint  himself,  and  Valencia  was  the 
first  place  which  was  blessed  with  his  labours  ;  the  second  was  Granada.  He  not 
only  comforted  and  ransomed  a  great  number,  but  by  his  charity  and  example 
was  the  instrument  of  inducing  many  Mohammedans  to  embrace  the  faith  of 
Christ.  He  made  several  other  journeys  to  those  regions  of  the  coast  of  Spain 
which  were  held  by  the  Moors,  besides  a  voyage  to  Algiers,  where  he  underwent 
imprisonment.  But  the  most  terrifying  dangers  could  never  make  him  desist 
from  his  endeavours  for  the  conversion  of  the  infidels,  burning  as  he  was  with  a 
desire  of  martyrdom. 

St  Peter  resigned  the  offices  of  ransomer  and  master  general  some  years  before 
his  death,  which  took  place  on  Christmas  day  1256.  In  his  last  moments  he 
exhorted  his  religious  to  perseverance,  and  concluded  with  those  words  of  the 
psalmist :  "  The  Lord  hath  sent  redemption  to  His  people  ;  He  hath  commanded 
His  covenant  for  ever  ".  He  then  recommended  his  soul  to  God,  appealing  to  the 
charity  which  brought  Jesus  Christ  from  Heaven  to  redeem  us  from  the  captivity 
of  the  Devil,  and  so  died,  being  in  the  sixty-seventh  year  of  his  age.  His  relics 
were  honoured  by  many  miracles,  and  he  was  canonized  in  1628. 

Alban  Butler's  account  of  St  Peter  Nolasco,  summarized  above  without  sub- 
stantial change,  represents  the  version  of  his  story  which  is  traditional  in  the 
Mercedarian  Order.  But  it  must  be  confessed  that  hardly  any  detail  in  this 
narrative  has  escaped  trenchant  criticism,  and  that,  to  say  the  least,  the  facts 
connected  with  the  foundation  of  the  order  are  wrapped  in  hopeless  uncertainty. 
Great  disagreement  exists,  even  in  Mercedarian  sources,  regarding  the  date  of  the 
ceremonial  foundation  in  the  presence  of  Bishop  Berengarius.  By  some  this  event 
is  assigned  to  12 18  ;  by  others,  as  above,  to  1223  ;  by  others  again  to  1228  ;  and 
by  Father  Vacas  Galindo,  o.p.,  in  his  San  Raimundo  de  Penafort  (1919),  to  1234. 
As  pointed  out  above  under  January  23,  a  rather  heated  controversy  arose  between 
the  Dominicans  and  the  Mercedarians,  the  former  attributing  a  predominant 
influence  in  the  creation  of  this  work  for  the  redemption  of  captives  to  the  great 
Dominican,  St  Raymund  of  Penafort  -,    the  latter  contending  that  he  was  merely 

*  Members  of  the  Order  of  Our  Lady  of  Ransom  are  commonly  called  Mercedarians  : 
Spanish  merced  =  ransom.  They  now  engage  in  general  apostolic  and  charitable  work, 
though  the  vow  to  ransom  captives  is  still  taken  at  profession. 


ST    JOHN    OF    REOMAY  [January  28 

the  confidant  of  St  Peter  and  that  at  the  time  of  the  foundation  he  was  not  yet  a 
Dominican  but  a  canon  of  Barcelona.  One  extremely  suspicious  feature  in  the 
Mercedarian  case  cannot  easily  be  explained  away.  At  the  beginning  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  when  the  cause  of  the  canonization  of  St  Peter  Nolasco  was 
being  pressed  at  Rome,  there  was  discovered  most  opportunely  behind  a  brick  wall 
in  the  Mercedarian  house  at  Barcelona  an  iron  casket  full  of  documents,  hitherto 
quite  unknown,  which  purported  to  establish  upon  irrefragable  evidence  just  the 
points  on  which  the  promoters  of  the  cause  were  most  anxious  to  insist.  The  most 
famous  of  these,  known  as  the  documento  de  los  sellos  (the  deed  with  the  seals)  was 
a  notarial  act  drafted  in  1260 — so  at  least  the  document  itself  affirmed — with  the 
express  object  of  being  submitted  to  the  Holy  See  in  vindication  of  St  Peter's 
claims  to  sanctity.  Now  this  deed,  which  contains  an  account  of  the  apparition 
of  our  Lady  to  Peter  himself,  to  King  James  and  to  Senor  Raimundo  de  Penafort 
(and  which  states  that  a  swarm  of  bees  built  a  honeycomb  in  Peter's  hand  when 
he  was  an  infant  in  the  cradle),  after  being  cited  for  nearly  three  centuries  as  the 
most  authentic  memorial  of  the  saint's  history  is  now  admitted  to  be  a  forgery.  It 
is  Father  Gazulla  himself,  the  Mercedarian  champion  (in  a  paper  read  before  the 
Literary  Academy  of  Barcelona,  A I  Mar  gen  de  una  Refutation,  1921)  who  has  shown 
that  Pedro  Bages,  the  notary  whose  name  appears  as  drafting  the  document  of  the 
seals  in  1260,  had  died  before  February  4,  1259.  When  this  primary  instrument 
is  thus  proved  to  be  spurious,  what  possible  value  can  attach  to  the  rest  of  the 
contents  of  the  suspicious  iron  casket  ?  It  would  serve  no  good  purpose  to  pursue 
the  matter  further. 

See  the  book  of  Fr  Vacas  Galindo,  o.p.,  referred  to  above  ;  Fr  P.  N.  Perez  Merc,  San 
Pedro  Nolasco  (1915)  ;  M.  Even,  Une  page  de  Vhistoire  de  la  charite  (1018)  ;  Analecia  Bol- 
landiana,  vol.  xxxix  (1921),  pp.  209  seq.,  and  vol.  xl  (1922),  pp.  442  seq.  ;  and  two  articles 
by  Fr  Kneller,  s.j.,  in  Stimmen  aus  Maria  Laach,  vol.  li  (1896),  at  pp.  272  and  357.  Fr 
F.  D.  Gazulla  has  produced  several  volumes  on  the  Mercedarian  side,  notably  a  Refutacion 
of  Fr  Galindo 's  book  in  1920,  and  in  1934  La  Orden  de  N.S.  de  la  Merced.  :  Estudios  histdrico- 
criticos,  1218-1317  ;   on  this  last  cf.  Analecta  Bollandiana,  vol.  lv  (1937),  pp.  412-415. 

ST    JOHN    OF   REOMAY,  Abbot        (c.  a.d.  544) 

Although  we  have  a  good  early  biography  of  Abbot  John,  the  story  it  tells  is  a 
very  simple  one.  He  was  a  native  of  the  diocese  of  Langres,  and  took  the  monastic 
habit  at  Lerins.  Later  on  he  was  recalled  into  his  own  country  by  the  bishop  to 
found  the  abbey  from  which  he  received  his  surname,  but  which  was  afterwards 
called  Moutier- Saint- Jean.  He  governed  it  for  many  years  with  a  great  reputation 
of  sanctity,  and  was  rendered  famous  by  miracles.  It  is  recorded  of  him  that  he 
refused  to  converse  with  his  own  mother  when  she  came  to  the  abbey  to  visit  him. 
He  showed  himself  to  her,  however,  at  a  distance,  sent  her  a  message  to  encourage 
her  to  aim  at  a  high  standard  of  virtue,  and  warned  her  that  she  would  not  behold 
him  again  until  they  met  in  Heaven.  He  went  to  God  about  the  year  544,  when 
more  than  a  hundred  years  old,  and  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  the  monastic  state 
in  France. 

The  biography  of  St  John  of  Reomay  has  been  edited  by  B.  Krusch  in  MGH.,  Serif  tores 
Merov.y  vol.  iii,  pp.  502-517.  As  Krusch  has  shown  in  his  article  "  Zwei  Heiligenleben  des 
Jonas  von  Susa  ",  in  the  Mittheilungen  of  the  Austrian  Historical  Society,  vol.  xiv,  pp. 
385  seq.,  the  texts  previously  edited  have  no  value.  The  author  of  the  vita  was  Jonas  of 
Susa,  and  not  a  contempoiary. 


January  28]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

ST    PAULINUS,  Patriarch  of  Aquileia        (a.d.  804) 

One  of  the  most  illustrious  and  holy  prelates  of  the  eighth  and  ninth  centuries  was 
this  Paulinus  of  Aquileia,  who  seems  to  have  been  born  about  the  year  726  in  a 
country  farm  not  far  from  Friuli.  His  family  had  no  other  revenue  than  what  they 
made  by  their  farm,  and  he  spent  part  of  his  youth  tilling  the  soil.  Yet  he  found 
leisure  for  studies,  and  in  process  of  time  became  so  famous  as  a  grammarian  and 
professor  that  Charlemagne  wrote  to  him,  addressing  him  as  Master  of  Grammar 
and  Very  Venerable.  This  epithet  seems  to  imply  that  he  was  then  a  priest.  The 
same  monarch,  in  recognition  of  his  merit,  bestowed  on  him  an  estate  in  his  own 
country.  It  seems  to  have  been  about  the  year  776  that  Paulinus  was  promoted, 
against  his  will,  to  the  patriarchate  of  Aquileia,*  and  from  the  zeal,  piety  and  talents 
of  St  Paulinus  this  church  derived  its  greatest  lustre.  Charlemagne  required  him 
to  attend  all  the  great  councils  which  were  held  in  his  time,  however  remote  the 
place  of  assembly,  and  he  convened  a  synod  himself  at  Friuli  in  791  or  796  against 
the  errors  which  were  then  being  propagated  against  the  mystery  of  the  Incarnation. 

The  more  serious  of  these  false  teachings  took  the  form  of  what  is  known  as 
the  Adoptionist  heresy.  Felix,  Bishop  of  Urgel  in  Catalonia,  professed  to  prove 
that  Christ,  as  man,  is  not  the  natural  but  only  the  adoptive  Son  of  God.  St 
Paulinus  set  to  work  to  confute  him  in  a  work  which  he  transmitted  to  Charlemagne. 
He  was  not  less  concerned  in  the  conversion  of  the  heathen  than  in  the  suppression 
of  error,  and  was  instrumental  in  preaching  the  gospel  to  those  idolaters  in  Carinthia 
and  Styria  who  as  yet  remained  in  their  superstitions.  At  the  same  time  the 
conquest  of  the  Avars  by  Pepin  opened  a  new  field  for  the  bishop's  zeal,  and  many 
of  them  received  the  faith  through  missionaries  sent  by  St  Paulinus  and  the  bishops 
of  Salzburg.  Paulinus  strongly  opposed  the  baptism  of  barbarians  before  they 
had  received  prQper  instruction  and  the  attempt — so  common  in  those  days — to 
force  Christianity  upon  them  by  violence. 

When  the  duke  of  Friuli  was  appointed  governor  over  the  Hunnish  tribes 
which  he  had  lately  conquered,  St  Paulinus  wrote  for  his  use  an  excellent  "  Ex- 
hortation ",  in  which  he  urges  him  to  aspire  after  Christian  perfection,  and  lays 
down  rules  on  the  practice  of  penance,  on  the  remedies  against  different  vices, 
especially  pride,  on  an  earnest  desire  to  please  God  in  all  our  actions,  on  prayer 
and  its  essential  dispositions,  on  holy  communion,  on  shunning  bad  company,  and 
on  other  matters.  He  closes  the  book  with  a  most  useful  prayer,  and  in  the 
beginning  promises  to  pray  for  the  salvation  of  the  good  duke.  By  his  fervent 
supplications  he  never  ceased  to  draw  down  the  blessings  of  the  divine  mercy  on 
the  souls  committed  to  his  charge.  Alcuin  earnestly  besought  him,  whenever  he 
offered  the  spotless  Victim  at  the  altar,  to  implore  the  divine  mercy  on  his  behalf. 
St  Paulinus  closed  a  holy  life  by  a  happy  death  on  January  11,  804. 

The  works  of  St  Paulinus  have  been  edited  by  J.  F.  Madrisi,  and  will  be  found  in  Migne, 
PI,.,  vol.  xcix,  cc.  17-130  ;  see  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  u  ;  C.  Giannoni, 
Paulijius  II,  Patriarch  von  Aquileia  (1896)  ;   and  DCB.,  vol.  iv,  pp.  246-248. 

BD    CHARLEMAGNE        (a.d.  814) 

The  life  of  Charlemagne  (born  in  742  ;  king  of  the  Franks,  768  ;  first  Holy  Roman 

emperor,  800  ;    died,  814)  belongs  to  general  history,  and  his  is  a  somewhat 

*  For  this  title,  see  herein  a  footnote  under  St  Laurence  Giustiniani  on  September  5. 

ST    AMADEU   OF   LAUSANNE  [January  28 

surprising  name  to  find  in  any  book  of  saints.  There  does  not  appear  to 
have  been  any  noticeable  cultus  of  him  till  1166,  when  it  began  to  develop 
under  the  rather  sinister  auspices  of  Frederick  Barbarossa  ;  and  an  antipope, 
Guy  of  Crema  ("  Paschal  III  "),  appears  to  have  equivalently  sanctioned  it. 
It  is  interesting  to  note  that  St  Joan  of  Arc  associated  "  St  Charlemagne  "  with 
the  devotion  she  paid  to  St  Louis  of  France,  and  that  in  1475  the  observance 
of  a  feast  in  his  honour  was  made  obligatory  throughout  that  country.  Prosper 
Lambertini,  later  Pope  Benedict  XIV,  discusses  the  question  at  some  length 
in  his  great  work  on  beatification  and  canonization,  and  he  concludes  that 
the  title  Blessed  may  not  improperly  be  allowed  to  so  great  a  defender  of  the 
Church  and  the  papacy.  To-day,  however,  the  cultus  of  Charlemagne  is  con- 
fined to  the  keeping  of  a  feast  in  his  honour  in  Aachen  and  two  Swiss 

The  main  source  of  our  more  personal  knowledge  of  Charlemagne  is  the  biography 
wiitten  by  h  s  contemporary  and  friend  Einhard,  the  best  edition  being  that  of  G.  Waitz  in 
MGH.,  Scriptores,  vol.  ii,  and  separately.  See  also  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  28,  and 
especially  the  long  discussion  of  various  controverted  matters  in  DAC,  vol.  iii,  with  full 
bibliographical  references.  Cf.  also  the  remarks  of  E.  Amann  on  Charlemagne's  character' 
in  Fliche  and  Martin,  Histoire  de  rft^Iise,  vol.  vi,  p.  200,  and  R.  Folz,  Etudes  sur  le  culte 
liturgique  de  Charlemagne  .    .    .  (1951). 

ST    AMADEUS,  Bishop  of  Lausanne        (a.d.  1159) 

This  Amadeus  was  of  the  royal  house  of  Franconia  and  born  at  the  casiie  of  Chatte 
in  Dauphine  in  11 10.  When  he  was  eight  years  old  his  father,  Amadeus  of  Cler- 
mont, Lord  of  Hauterive,  took  the  religious  habit  at  the  Cistercian  abbey  of 
Bonnevaux.  Young  Amadeus  went  to  Bonnevaux  to  be  educated  there,  but  after 
a  time  he  and  his  father  migrated  to  Cluny.  Amadeus  senior  returned  to  the  more 
austere  Cistercian  house,  while  Amadeus  junior  went  for  a  short  time  into  the 
household  of  the  Emperor  Henry  V.  He  then  received  the  Cistercian  habit  at 
Clairvaux,  where  he  lived  for  fourteen  years.  In  1139  the  abbot  of  Hautecombe 
in  Savoy  retired  and  St  Bernard  appointed  Amadeus  in  his  place  ;  the  monastery 
had  adopted  the  reform  only  four  years  before  and  its  temporal  affairs  were  in  a 
bad  way.  St  Amadeus  encouraged  the  community  to  bear  these  extra  hardships 
cheerfully,  and  by  careful  administration  got  the  monastery  out  of  its  difficulties. 
In  1 144  he  accepted,  by  order  of  Pope  Lucius  II,  the  see  of  Lausanne,  where  he 
was  at  once  involved  in  struggles  with  the  nobles  of  the  diocese  and  a  vain  effort 
to  induce  the  Emperor  Conrad  to  go  to  the  help  of  the  pope  against  Pierleone. 
When  Amadeus  III,  Duke  of  Savoy,  went  on  the  Second  Crusade,  St  Amadeus 
was  appointed  as  a  sort  of  co-regent  with  his  son  Humbert ;  and  four  years  before 
his  death  he  was  made  chancellor  of  Burgundy  by  Frederick  Barbarossa.  Nicholas, 
the  secretary  of  St  Bernard,  speaks  highly  of  the  virtues  of  this  active  bishop,  and 
his  age-long  cultus  was  approved  in  191  o.  A  number  of  sermons  of  St  Amadeus 
are  extant. 

There  seems  to  be  no  early  life  of  Amadeus,  but  an  account  of  him  has  been  compiled 
from  various  sources  in  such  works  as  the  Gallia  Christiana,  vol.  xv,  pp.  346-348,  and 
Manrique,    Annates    Cistercienses,   under  the   year   11 58.  A  more  modern  survey  of  his 

career  will  be  found  in  the  Cister denser -Ghronik,  vol.  xi  (1891),  pp.  50  seq.  and  vol.  xxiii 
(191 1 ),  pp.  297  seq.  and  see  A.  Dimier,  Aniedee  de  Lausanne  (1949)  in  the  series  "  Figures 
monastiques  ". 


January  28]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

BD    JAMES    THE    ALMSGIVER        (ad.  1304) 

There  is,  or  at  any  rate  once  was,  a  curious  contest  between  the  Friars  Minor  and 
the  Servites  regarding  the  religious  status  of  the  servant  of  God  who  is  known  as 
James  the  Almsgiver.  The  Servites  keep  his  feast  every  year  on  this  day  in  virtue 
of  a  rescript  of  Pope  Pius  IX,  and  he  is  described  in  their  martyrology  asa  "  con- 
fessor of  the  Third  Order  of  the  Servants  of  Blessed  Mary  the  Virgin,  whose 
memory  remaineth  for  a  blessing  among  his  fellow-citizens  ".  On  the  other  hand, 
the  Third  Order  of  the  Franciscans  also  claims  him  as  a  recruit,  although  his  name 
does  not  occur  in  the  general  martyrology  of  the  Friars  Minor.  Mazzara  in  his 
Leggendario  Francescano  (1676)  indignantly  rejects  the  claim  of  the  Servites  to 
number  Bd  James  among  the  adherents  of  their  own  religious  family. 

The  essential  features  of  the  story  as  told  by  either  party  are  the  same.  James 
was  the  son  of  well-to-do  parents  at  the  small  town  of  Citta  delle  Pieve,  not  far 
from  Chiusi  in  Lombardy,  and  studied  for  the  law.  Hearing  a  sermon  on  the 
words,  "  He  that  doth  not  renounce  all  that  he  possesseth  cannot  be  My  disciple  ", 
he  determined  to  become  a  priest,  and  thereafter  led  a  most  ascetic  life.  Not  far 
from  Citta  delle  Pieve  he  discovered  a  hospital  with  a  chapel  which  had  been  allowed 
to  fall  into  ruin.  He  restored  the  buildings,  furnished  it  as  well  as  he  could,  and 
then  devoted  himself  to  receiving  and  tending  all  the  sick  and  afflicted  for  whom 
he  could  find  room.  He  also,  we  are  told,  used  his  legal  knowledge  in  gratuitously 
helping  and  advising  those  who  were  oppressed,  and  in  these  ways  became  much 
beloved  by  the  poor  throughout  the  whole  country. 

It  happened,  however,  that  on  inquiring  into  the  past  history  of  his  hospice, 
James  discovered  that  its  revenues  had  been  scandalously  appropriated  for  their 
own  emolument  by  former  occupants  of  the  see  of  Chiusi.  He  respectfully  repre- 
sented the  matter  to  the  actual  bishop,  laying  the  documents  before  him,  but  could 
obtain  no  redress.  Then  he  felt  it  his  duty  to  take  proceedings  in  both  the 
ecclesiastical  and  civil  courts,  and  the  case  in  the  end  was  given  in  his  favour.  The 
bishop  dissembled  his  resentment,  and  invited  James  to  dine  with  him,  having 
previously  hired  a  band  of  ruffians  to  waylay  and  assassinate  him  on  his  return. 
The  conscientious  student  of  Italian  (and  other)  history  has  often  regretfully  to 
confess  that  the  social  and  ecclesiastical  life  of  the  "  ages  of  faith  "  was  not  always 
so  ideal  as  certain  apologists  are  inclined  to  represent  it.  The  plot  was  carried  out 
successfully,  and  for  a  time  no  trace  of  the  murdered  man  was  discovered.  But 
some  shepherds  passing  through  the  forest  were  astonished  to  come  upon  a  pear-tree 
and  other  neighbouring  shrubs  in  full  blossom,  though  it  was  still  winter.  Whilst 
they  stood  wondering  and  somewhat  alarmed  at  the  portent,  they  heard,  we 
are  told,  a  voice  which  said  to  them,  "  Have  no  fear  ;  I  am  James,  the  priest,  who 
have  been  murdered  for  defending  the  rights  of  the  Church  and  of  the  poor  ". 
It  would  certainly  be  rash  to  guarantee  the  truth  of  this  and  other  supernatural 
incidents  which  are  said  to  have  attended  the  discovery  of  the  body  and  its  inter- 
ment in  the  chapel  of  the  hospice.  But  we  are  told  that  174  years  later  the 
remains  were  found  still  incorrupt  when  a  second  translation  took  place.  The 
date  given  for  the  murder — Mazzara  calls  it  the  martyrdom — of  Bd  James  is 
January  15,  1304. 

See  Mazzara,  Legaendario  Francescano  (1676),  \ol.  i,  pp.  95-98  ;  and  Spoeri,  Lebembilder 
aus  dem  Servitenorden  (1892),  p.  605. 


ST    PETER   THOMAS  [January  28 

BD    ANTONY    OF   AMANDOLA        (ad.  1350) 

Bd  Antony  seems  to  have  been  born  not  far  from  Ascoli  Piceno,  about  the  year 
1260.  He  joined  the  Augustinians  in  1306,  the  year  that  St  Nicholas  of  Tolentino 
went  to  his  reward,  and  he  is  said  to  have  tried  to  copy  the  example  of  that  great 
luminary  of  the  order  during  the  whole  of  his  religious  life.  He  is  especially 
commended  for  his  patience  and  for  his  charity  towards  the  poor,  and  a  great 
number  of  miracles  are  reported  to  have  been  wrought  at  his  intercession.  He 
died  in  1350,  and  is  said  to  have  been  ninety  years  old.  His  body  lies  at  Amandola, 
and  his  feast  is  kept  not  only  by  the  Augustinian  friars  but  at  Ancona  and  throughout 
the  neighbouring  district. 

See  J.  E.  Stadler,  Heilhen  Lexikon  (1861). 

ST    PETER  THOMAS,  Titular  Patriarch  of  Constantinople 
(a.d.  1366) 

The  career  of  St  Peter  Thomas  presents  us  with  a  curious  combination  of  a  religious 
vocation  and  a  life  spent  in  diplomacy.  Born  in  1305,  of  humble  parentage,  at  the 
hamlet  of  Salles  in  the  south-west  of  France,  he  at  an  early  age  came  into  contact 
with  the  Carmelites,  and  his  abilities  led  them  gladly  to  admit  him  into  their 
noviceship  at  Condom  ;  in  1342  he  was  made  procurator  general  of  the  order. 
This  appointment  led  to  his  taking  up  his  abode  in  Avignon,  then  the  residence  of 
the  popes,  and  also  indicated  that  in  spite  of  high  spiritual  ideals  he  was  known  to 
be  pre-eminently  a  man  of  affairs.  His  remarkable  eloquence  became  known, 
and  he  was  asked  to  deliver  the  funeral  oration  of  Clement  VI.  It  may  be  said 
that  from  that  time  forth,  although  he  always  retained  the  simplicity  of  a  friar,  his 
life  was  entirely  spent  in  difficult  negotiations  as  the  representative  of  the  Holy  See. 
To  describe  the  political  complications  in  which  he  was  called  upon  to  intervene 
would  take  much  space.  It  must  suffice  to  say  that  he  was  sent  as  papal  legate  to 
negotiate  with  Genoa,  Milan  and  Venice  ;  in  1354  he  was  consecrated  bishop  and 
represented  the  pope  at  Milan  when  the  Emperor  Charles  IV  was  crowned  king  of 
Italy.  Thence  he  proceeded  to  Serbia,  and  afterwards  wras  charged  with  a  mission 
to  smooth  the  difficulties  between  Venice  and  Hungary  ;  going  on  to  Constantinople 
he  was  instructed  to  make  another  effort  to  reconcile  the  Byzantine  church  with 
the  West. 

What  is  most  surprising  in  our  days  is  that  Innocent  VI  and  Urban  V  seem  to 
have  placed  Peter  Thomas  virtually  in  command  of  expeditions  which  were  dis- 
tinctly military  in  character.  He  was  sent  to  Constantinople  in  1359  with  a  large 
contingent  of  troops  and  contributions  in  money,  himself  holding  the  title  of 
"  Universal  Legate  to  the  Eastern  Church  "  ;  and  when  in  1365  an  expeditionary 
force  wras  sent  to  make  an  attack  on  infidel  Alexandria,  again  the  legate  had  virtual 
direction  of  the  enterprise.  The  expedition  ended  disastrously.  In  the  assault 
the  legate  was  more  than  once  wounded  with  arrows,  and  when  he  died  a  holy  death 
at  Cyprus  three  months  later  (January  6,  1366)  it  was  stated  that  these  wounds  had 
caused,  or  at  least  accelerated,  the  end,  and  he  was  hailed  as  a  martyr. 

It  is  probable  that  among  the  reasons  which  led  to  the  many  diplomatic  missions 
of  St  Peter  Thomas  we  must  reckon  the  economy  thus  effected  for  the  papal 
exchequer  at  a  time  when  it  was  very  much  depleted,  for  he  dispensed  with  all 
unnecessary  pomp  and  state.      So  far  as  he  was  himself  concerned  he  travelled  in 


January  28]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

the  poorest  way,  and  he  was  willing  to  face  the  great  hardships  which  such  expedi- 
tions then  entailed  even  upon  the  most  illustrious.  We  must  also  not  forget  that 
though  his  biographers  write  in  a  tone  of  rather  indiscriminating  panegyric,  they 
are  nevertheless  agreed  in  proclaiming  his  own  desire  to  evangelize  the  poor,  his 
spirit  of  prayer,  and  the  confidence  which  his  holiness  inspired  in  others.  There 
are  not  many  human  touches  to  be  found  in  our  principal  source,  the  biography  of 
Mezieres,  but  it  is  a  tribute  to  the  impression  which  the  bishop  made  on  his 
contemporaries  that  Philip  de  Mezieres,  who  was  himself  a  devoted  Christian  and 
a  statesman  of  eminence,  should  speak  of  his  friend  in  terms  of  such  unstinted 
praise.  A  decree  issued  by  the  Holy  See  in  1608  authorized  the  celebration  of 
St  Peter's  feast  among  the  Carmelites  as  that  of  a  bishop  and  martyr,  but  he  has 
never  been  formally  canonized. 

See  the  Acta  Sanctorum  for  January  29  ;  Fr  Daniel,  Vita  S.  Petri  Thomae  (1666)  ;  Parraud, 
Vie  de  St  Pierre  Thomas  (1895) ;   B.  J.  Smet,  Life  .  .  .  by  P.  de  Mezieres  (1954). 

BD    MARY    OF    PISA,  Widow        (ad.  143 1) 

The  history  of  Bd  Mary  Mancini  is  a  standing  illustration  of  the  principle  that 
holiness  depends  very  little  upon  external  circumstances.  There  is,  in  fact,  no 
condition  of  life  which  the  interior  spirit  may  not  sanctify.  Here  we  have  a  servant 
of  God  who  was  twice  married  and  many  times  a  mother,  who  then  lived  for  several 
years  in  the  world  as  a  widow,  joined  a  relaxed  religious  house,  reformed  it,  and 
finally  founded  a  community  of  exceptionally  strict  observance,  in  which  she  died 
at  an  advanced  age  in  the  fragrance  of  sanctity. 

The  Mancini  were  a  distinguished  family  in  Pisa  at  a  time  when  terrible  things 
were  occurring  owing  to  the  political  factions  prevalent  in  the  Italian  cities.  We 
are  told  that  Catherine  (Mary  was  the  name  she  afterwards  took  in  religion)  at  the 
age  of  five  and  a  half  had  an  extraordinary  experience.  In  an  ecstasy  or  vision  she 
witnessed  the  torture  on  the  rack  of  Peter  Gambacorta,  who  had  been  accused  of 
conspiracy  and  was  sentenced  by  his  enemies  to  be  hanged.  The  legend  goes  on  to 
say  that  the  child  prayed  so  hard  in  her  horror  at  what  she  witnessed  that  the  rope 
broke  with  which  Peter  was  being  hanged,  and  that  his  judges  then  commuted  the 
death  penalty.  After  this  our  Lady  appeared  to  her  and  bade  her  say  the  Lord's 
Prayer  and  the  Angelical  Salutation  for  him  seven  times  every  day,  because  she 
would  eventually  be  supported  by  his  bounty.  Catherine  was  married  at  the  age 
of  twelve,  and  had  two  children.  Her  first  husband  died  when  she  was  sixteen, 
and,  yielding  to  family  influence,  she  married  again.  This  union  lasted  eight  years, 
and  she  bore  her  husband  five  children,  nursing  him  also  most  devotedly  for  a  year 
before  his  death  ;   her  children  seem  to  have  all  died  young. 

Great  pressure  was  used  to  induce  Catherine  to  marry  a  third  time,  but  she 
was  resolute  in  her  refusal,  and  she  gave  herself  up  completely  to  works  of  piety 
and  charity.  She  converted  her  house  into  a  hospital,  and  we  are  told  strange 
stories  of  her  drinking  the  wine  with  which  she  washed  men's  sores,  on  one  occasion 
experiencing  such  intense  sweetness  and  consolation  in  this  conquest  of  her  natural 
repugnance  that  she  was  convinced  that  the  mysterious  stranger  whom  she  had 
been  tending  was  no  other  than  our  Saviour  Himself.  During  this  period  she  was 
under  the  direction  of  the  Dominicans  and  joined  their  third  order.  It  was 
probably  through  them  that  she  was  brought  into  relation  with  St  Catherine  of 
Siena,  and  we  still  possess  a  letter  of  that  great  saint  which  was  addressed  to  "  Monna 


BD   JULIAN   MAUNOIR  [January  28 

Catarina  e  Monna  Orsola  ed  altre  donne  di  Pisa  ".  She  had  ecstasies  sometimes 
even  in  the  streets,  and  on  one  occasion,  when  thus  taken  by  surprise,  was  knocked 
down  by  a  mule.  Eventually  she  entered  the  relaxed  Dominican  convent  of  Santa 
Croce,  mainly  with  the  object  of  bringing  it  back  to  stricter  observance.  We  are 
told  that  she  effected  a  great  reform,  but  Sister  Mary,  as  she  was  now,  aspired 
after  a  life  of  greater  austerity.  Accordingly,  with  Bd  Clare  Gambacorta,  she  left 
Santa  Croce  to  found  a  new  community  in  a  convent  built  for  them  by  Clare's 
father,  the  same  Peter  Gambacorta  for  whom  Mary  had  daily  prayed.  The  nevv 
foundation  was  greatly  blessed,  and  became  a  model,  the  fame  of  which  spread 
throughout  Italy.  Here  Bd  Mary  Mancini  died  on  December  22,  1431.  Her 
cultus  was  approved  in  1855. 

See  M.  C  de  Ganay,  Les  Bienheureuses  Dominicaines  (191 3),  pp.  237-250  ;   and  Procter, 
Dominican  Saints,  pp.  342-345. 

BD    JULIAN   MAUNOIR        (ad.  1683) 

It  cannot  be  said  that  the  Christianity  of  seventeenth-century  France  is  unknown 
among  English-speaking  Catholics,  but  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  its  domestic 
missionary  work  is  the  aspect  of  which  we  have  heard  least.  Monsieur  Olier  in 
Paris,  Monsieur  Vincent  all  over  the  place — yes.  But  St  John  Eudes  in  Normandy, 
St  Peter  Fourier  in  Lorraine,  the  Oratorian  Father  John  Lejeune  in  the  Limousin, 
Languedoc  and  Provence,  St  John  Francis  Regis  in  the  Velay  and  Vivarais,  of  these 
we  know  little  enough,  and  of  the  missions  in  Brittany  perhaps  nothing  at  all.  Yet 
these  last,  in  Henri  Bremond's  opinion,  were  the  most  successful  of  any,  and 
certainly  the  most  "  picturesque  ".  They  are  associated  in  the  first  place  with 
the  names  of  Dom  Michael  Le  Nobletz  and  of  Father  Julian  Maunoir  who,  born  in 
the  diocese  of  Rennes  in  1606,  became  a  Jesuit  in  1625,  and  was  beatified  in  195 1. 

No  doubt  the  godlessness  and  barbarity  of  the  Bretons,  and  the  negligence  of 
their  clergy,  at  this  time  have  been  exaggerated,  just  as  the  woeful  state  of  the 
Cornish  before  Wesley  and  the  Welsh  before  Howel  Harris  and  Griffith  Jones  and 
Daniel  Rowlands  has  been  exaggerated.  But  certainly  they  were  a  very  super- 
stitious, rough  and  turbulent  people,  and  at  the  same  time  as  ready  to  respond  to  a 
religious  call  as  their  kinsmen  across  the  Channel.  The  country  of  the  readily 
used  fish-knife  and  of  "  wreckers  "  (a  phenomenon  which  certainly  in  England  and 
probably  in  Brittany  needs  more  critical  examination  than  it  commonly  gets)  was 
also  the  country  of  Armelle  Nicolas  and  of  those  baroque  calvaries  and  statues  in 
Basse-Bretagne.  Mystics  prepared  the  way  for  missioners.  And  it  was  Father 
Bernard,  s.j.,  and  Dom  Le  Nobletz  who  directed  the  attention  of  Julian  Maunoir 
to  this  field  and  urged  him  to  learn  the  Breton  language,  which  he  mastered  in  a 
surprisingly  short  time. 

The  comparison  of  Catholic  Brittany  with  Protestant  Wales  and  Cornwall  is 
not  gratuitous  or  far-fetched.  In  writing  of  the  Breton  missions  Bremond  uses 
the  English  word  "  revival  "  and  refers  to  Bunyan  and  the  Pilgrim's  Progress  ;  and 
what  he  says  lends  point  to  the  title,  "  A  John  Wesley  of  Armorican  Cornwall  ", 
given  to  his  pamphlet  on  Maunoir  by  the  Anglican  historian  of  the  Cornish 
saints,  the  late  Canon  Gilbert  Doble.  To  read  Sejourne's  biography  of  Father 
Maunoir  and  then  to  turn  to  John  Wesley's  Journal  is  an  instructive  and 
thought-provoking  exercise,  or  for  that  matter  to  compare  the  detailed  journal 
that  Maunoir  kept  too. 


January  28]  THE    LIVES    OF   THE    SAINTS 

When  Father  Maunoir  ("  Tad  Maner  "  in  Breton)  began  his  work  in  1640 
there  were  two  missionaries  on  the  job  ;  when  he  died  forty-three  years  later  there 
were  a  thousand.  Later  on,  Renan  complained  that  his  ancestors  had  been 
"  jesuitified  "  and  denationalized  by  a  lot  of  foreign  missioners.  In  fact,  there  was 
a  handful  of  Jesuits,  themselves  mostly  Breton,  and  a  large  majority  of  Breton 
pastoral  clergy,  who  co-operated  with  the  fathers  of  the  Society  and  submitted